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D 2DD7 lEDbflE4 E 

California Stale Library 

Received SL?... 189.3 
Accessions No. . 

Vol. XLV. 



Office, 220 Market St. 

Views About San Francisco. 

Cities and towDS are rich if their environment contains 
the pieturesque and the beautiful. Many large aggrega- 
tions of human habitations are fortunately thus endowed, 
and the metropolis of the Pacific coast is rich in its ad- 
jacent rural scenery, broken, romantic and diverse, and in 
its forms of water from babbling brook to beach-pounding 
billows. All these charms of the nearer distance delight 
our people, and they 
are so accessible that 
hardly a tenement 
child but cherishes 
recollections of ram- 
bles among them. 

The work of the de- 
votees of the camera 
unquestionably i n - 
spires to a search for 
the natural by its de- 
lightful presentment 
of it. It also enables 
the publisher to give 
to distant readers ma- 
terial for better con- 
ceptions of the coun- 
try. The views iu the 
composite engraving 
on this page are among 
the most charming we 
have ever had for the 
ornamentation of our 
pages. They were 
caught by members of 
the California Camera 
Club, and for the pres- 
ent arrangement of 
them we are indebted 
to the Pacific Mutual, 
a bright insurance 
journal of this city. 

The views are well 
selected to show the 
diversity in the nat- 
ural scenery surround- 
ing San Francisco. In 
none of them is any 
intimation that a great 
city is a few miles dis- 
tant, and in that is 
the charm of recourse 
to them. A short ride 
by rail or boat and a 
short walk beyond 
brings one as " far 
from the madding 
crowd," so far as the 
senses can determine, 
as though he had 

crossed a State. The artists who furnish us this enter- 
tainment should be mentioned. The first picture, the ar- 
rival of the six-horse stage, is by Dr. M. F. Gabbs. The 
second, the yacht race, is by E. L. Gifiord. The third, 
the mountain brook, and the fourth, the country road, are 
by H. B. Hosmer. 

Squatters and land-jumpers are rushing in large num- 
bers to occupy the great tract in southern California by 
recent decision of the United States Supreme Court for- 
feited from the Southern Pacific Railroad Company to the 
Government. Most of these vagrant immigrants will have 
their pains for nothing. Those who honestly bought the 
land from the railroad company and occupied it will have 
a preemptive right of purchase from the Government 
against these incomers and all others. Uncle Sam always 

The Southern Pacific Railway Company announces an 
important reduction on transcontinental rates on several 
California products. On and after January 5th the rates 
on beans, canned goods, wine and borax will be 50 cents 
per 100 pounds for carload lots from this city to New 
York and 75 cents for the same commodities from all in- 
terior points to Chicago. The price hitherto has been $1 
on all the commodities named, except beans, on which the 
rate was $1.10. The concession is very material and is 

certain to have direct 
effect on the several 
. articles. The action 

was totally unexpected 
except as to beans, 
prices on the latter 
having already ad- 
vanced in anticipation 
of the reduction. Vine- 
yardists will have fur- 
ther reason to think 
that the coming year 
contains better prom- 
ise for them than any 
previous year since 


" When you pass a farm," says a writer, " and see a 
large barn and a small house, you may know the man is 
boss. When you see a fine house and a dilapidated barn 
you may understand that the woman has things her own 
way; and when there is a new house and a good barn, you 
may take it for granted that the woman and man are about 

aims to protect the honest settler, and he generally suc- 
ceeds in doing it. 

The Howland olive-oil mill at Pomona is nearly com- 
pleted, and the manufacture of oil will commence shortly. 
Some of the machinery was imported from Europe, and 
the capacity of the mill is greater than that of the similar 
establishments at Elwood Coopat's ranch and National 

At least six counties in the State are in the throes of 
division agitations. These questions are to be brought be- 
fore the legislature, and the prospects are that a consider- 
able portion of that body's time will be devoted to their 

The Pomona Prog- 
ress publishes a state- 
ment regarding the 
orange crop in south- 
ern California as the 
consensus of opinion 
of fruitgrowers gath- 
ered in every part of 
southern California. 
The Progress estimates 
the total crop of or- 
anges for this season 
in Los Angeles, Or- 
ange. San Bernardino 
and San Diego coun- 
ties at 6500 carloads, 
and puts the value of 
the same at not less 
than $4,000,000. Re- 
ports from ev€ry lo- 
cality in the citrus belt 
are to the effect that 
fruit is in first-das') 
condition and is ripen- 
ing slowly for market. 
Everywhere there is a 
large crop of oranges, 
and in some sections, 
as in Pomona valley, 
San Gabriel and at 
Ontario, so enormous 
a crop has never been 
known, and the trees 
heavy weight of the 

are almost breaking under the 
golden fruit. The bulk of the crop will not be ready 
for consumption before February, and all growers are 
anxious to delay the sale and marketing of their fruit until 
late in the spring, so as to get larger prices. 

Fkuit Union Meeting. — The eighth annual meeting 
of the stockholders of the California Fruit Union, for the 
election of a board of nine trustees for the ensuing year, 
and the transaction of such other business as may come 
before the meeting, will be held on Wednesday, Jan. 18th, 
1893, at 1 p. M., in Assembly Hall of the State Board of 
Horticulture, 220 Sutter St., San Francisco. There should 
be a good attendance. 


f AClFie l^URAb f RESS. 

JHDuary 7, 1893 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 Fivnt St., San FraneUco., Col. 

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of the paper, at special rates. Four insertlous are rated m a mootli^ 

Our latest fortns go to press Wednesday evening. 

Begistered at 8. F. Poet Office as secondKSlass mall matter. 

ANY subscriber sending an iuquirr on any subject to the RoRAi Press, with 
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AI.gBED»HOI.M AN OeneriU Manage r 

San Francisco, January 7, 1893. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.-Opeu Air Rambles in the Vicinity of San Fran- 

EDlfoRiALS.— Views About San Fraoolsco; Miscellaneous, 1. The 
Week- Agricullural Statistics: The Wheat Market a Little Firmer, 2. 
From an Independent Staudroint; What We May Produce, 3. 

CORKF-.HPONDEN'CE.— Prices at the llobart .sale. 4. 

THF, BOTANIST -The Bacteriology of Poison Oak, -S. 

THE HELD.-The Potato Disease; Alfalfa Culture, 5. 

TRACK AND FARM.— Stambuul's Record not (ienuine; Track Win- 

Th'e ^dTOCK^^ARD.— Ure Stock Notes; Experiments in Feeding 
Steers 6 

THE VINEYARD.— Urafting against Phylloxera, 6. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Foreign Tree Pests and Diseases; Blue Gums for 

HORTI(JULTURE. -The Stale Horticultural Society, 7. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Launching Ships; Old Uncle Cyjus; Hints for 
Housekeepers- Rhyme of the Months; The Forest of Sorrovp; The 
Cnre for Low fipirita. 8. Humorous, 9- , ^ ^ ^ ,y. ■, 

YOUNU FOLKS' COLUMN.— With Trumpet and Drum; For the Little 

DOMESTIC^ ECO.Nl'o MY.— Pancakes; Rice Pudding; Rye Breakfast 
Cakes- Buckwheat Cakes; Kisses; Brown Corn Cakes; Nut Filling; 
Chocolate Cake: Turkey Soup. 9. , 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From Worthy Master Davis: San Jose 
(Jranee- Mr. Berwick Enthused; The Secretary's Column, 10. 

AGRICUiiTURAL NOTE-S.-Vi. „ . , , . iri . ■ 

MISCELLANEOUS. How the Lucifer Match was Invented: Electricity 
i>efined: Stamping l^etters; How Sponges are Gathered, 14. Thirty- 
Eight Irrigation Di.><tricts;The Petaluma Poultry Ranch; Fruit Raising 
Pays; Products of 1892. 4. 




Plows and Cultivators— Deere Imnlement Co. 
Nursery Stock— Alexander & Hammon, Biggs. (Jal. 
Flower Seeds- Vaughn's Seed Store, Chicago, 111. 
Fruit Trees-E. C. Clowes, Stockton, Cal. 

Seeds, Trees, Etc.— The Storrs A Harrison Co., Piainesville, O. 
Plants— (J. K. HaiKB & Co., Richmond, Ind. 
Seeds— H. W. Buckbee, Kocklord, 111. 
Seeds— A. R. Amts, Madison. Wis. 
Bulls and Heifers- Heo. A. Wiley, Danville. 
The Exposition Hotel and Guide Furnishing C (.—Chicago, 111. 
Nursery Slock— Roht. P. Eachus. Lakepirt. Cal. 
Fruit Trees— H. C. Graves & Sons, Lee's Summit, Mo. 
Seeds— May & Co , St. Paul, Mian. 
Nursery 8tock-D. W. Lewis. Sanger. 
Fruit Trees— Kinton Stevens, .Santa Barbara. 
Spraying Outfits- Wm. btahl. Qulncy. 111. 
Commihsion Merchants— P. Steinhagen & Co. 
Lands-Chas. E. Lamborn, St. Paul, Minn. 
' See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

There has been a succession of clear, bright day.s and 
nights, with just enough frost in the early morning air to 
make one's extremities tingle, and to give our clima'e its 
claim to bracing properties. In low levels there has been 
some injury to younger growth of tender plants, but noth- 
ing serious is yet reported, and in thermal belts the tender- 
est growths are still untouched by frost. The slight snap 
in the air is a decided advantage to deciduous trees, as it 
keeps them at rest. A few degrees more warmth would 
swell the buds and give us January orchard bloom, very 
pretty to the sight and inspiring to the tourist, but danger- 
ous to tree and owner's pocket. 

The greatest stir in the horticultural line in the city is 
the installation of exhibits at the mid-winter display in 
the Mechanics' Institute Pavilion, which will open next 
week with a grand exposition of Californian productions 
and achievements en route for the Chicago World's Fair. 
It will also be the occasion for the annual citrus fair of 
the upper half of the State. Moat zealous effort is being 
put forth by the managers, and the fruit of the citrus 
family, in amount of display as well as in artistic and 
striking effect, will surpass anything ever gathered to- 
gether in this latitude at least. All visitors to the city 
during the coming five weeks should set apart a day for 
the Mechanics' Pavilion. 

The State Association of Irrigation Districts was called 
to meet on Thursday of this week at Sacramento, too late 
for notice in this week's Rural Pbess. The object is to 
prevent legislation adverse to the interests of irrigators, as 
well as to promote favorable legislation. It is likely that 
the convention will endorse an amendment to the Wright 
act providing that the school fund of the State may be in- 
vested in irrigation district bonds. t,This amendment is 
heartily approved by the Slate Treasurer and other State 

officials, and if it becomes a law will go far toward assist- 
ing in marketing this class of securities. 

Agricnltural Statistics. 

It is really disgraceful that a great producing State like 
California should have no trustworthy statistics of indus- 
trial resources and achievements, except such as are gath- 
ered by private enterprise. California has done even 
worse than this, for it has published year after year a lot 
of numerical rubbish which has had the guise of official 
statistics, but which has had neither general truth nor 
specific accuracy, nor any other decent quality. By statute 
it has long been the duty of county a.'wessors to report to 
the State Board of Equalization full agricultural statistics, 
but there has been no compensation for the work, and al- 
most universally it has been done in a perfunctory man- 
ner. Assessors who had too much conscience to put in a 
lot of figures at random, left the spaces blank, and those 
who really undertook to summarize the results of deputy 
assessors, knew that the returns were only partial, unsat- 
isfactory and misleading. And yet these statistics have 
been paraded by writers and speakers to point arguments 
or appeals without thought or knowledge that they have 
never been worthy of an allusion. We thus denounce 
them in general terms; we know that at times individual 
State officers have given much time and effort to secure 
trustworthy figures, but because of defects in the system, 
they accomplished very little. 

There are probably many reasons why this work should 
not be laid upon assessors as it now is by law. The prime 
defect lies possibly in linking the thought of a full state- 
ment of amounts and values with that other and disagree- 
able thought of a tax which clings to an assessor like its 
perfume to an onion. It is too much to expect that weak 
human nature will allow a man to give a full number of 
his fruit trees or bushels of crop of any kind when he 
knows that the enquirer's main business is to load him 
with as high an assessment as his place will stand. It is 
too much like compelling a convict to read aloud his own 
death warrant — a service which the law itself never exacts 
of a departing member of society. It is human to lie 
when questioned for purposes of assessment. Ever since 
the days of Ananias the practice has prevailed. One 
would think the legislators would have known of this 
great lapse in the moral sense and would never have 
ordered a tax assessor to collect figures which under the 
mo^t favorable conditions are trying to human nature to 

Since the existing provision for State statistics is a fail- 
ure of a quarter of a century's standing, it is certainly 
time it was done away, and some better system provided. 
Of late years the State Boards of Horticulture and Viti- 
culture have made commendable efforts and have secured 
some important statistics. So far as they go these are 
good. The fruitgrowers' convention at San Jose had a 
more ambitious plan under discussion, by which a State 
Bureau of Statistics should be established. Such a Bureau, 
properly officered and equipped, could earn its cost many 
times over; but it is hardly likely that the State will cre- 
ate anymore places of trust and emolument, and certainly 
enough is now paid out for public service. Perhaps some 
change in the direction of effort by existing State officers 
might compass the great need. 

Governor Markham, in his message to the legislature 
now in session at Sacramento, says: 

The statutes provide that the Boards of Supervisors of the 
counties of the State must require county assessors to report 
annually to the surveyor-general a true statement of the agri- 
cultural and industrial pursuits and products of the county, 
and other statistical information. This statute is a dead letter, 
although every State ofHcial and every citizen interested in the 
progress and development of the industries of the State feels 
the importance of having such statistics for his own use and 
for the information of the general public. Instead of (his be- 
ing made a part of the duties of the surveyor-general, I think 
the State Agricultural Society should be required to maintain a 
statistical department, and I recommend that such a law be 

Probably this is the best that can be done. We are 
aware that the general idea of the State Agricultural 
Society is that its ability in the line of figures is jconfined 
to the minute fractions of the speed program, but this is 
not an accurate conception of its qualities. It has a 
strong penchant for fast horses and baloon ascensions, and 
other spectacular affairs which please the multitude, but 
we believe it has a serious side as well, and we are aware 
that the present secretary has a level head for agricultural 
figures and is a good executive officer. If the plan which 
was presented to the last legislature for a State weather 
service and crop-reporting service, at an exceedingly small 
cost, were to be adopted by this legislature, we could 
have much better weather service and figures than have ever 
yet been placed upon the public table. We hope that such 
an end may be reached in some way and without un- 
necessary delay. 

The Wheat Marliet a Little Firmer. 

It is almost an aphorism that the chief cause affecting 
the low price of wheat is the immense supplies on hand in 
the consumer nations. Statistics believed to be reliable 
show that the United Kingdom now has an excess in visible 
supply over 1891 of about 2GO,000 short tons, or 8,840,000 
bushels; xnd that the excess in the United States is about 
1,000,000 tons, or 34 000,000 bushels. It is affirmed that 
France will consume about 2,000,000 short tons less this 
year than last. There are, it is computed, at this time 
perhaps 100,000,000 bushels of wheat in reserve more 
than at the beginning of 1892. 

The condition of the wheat market at this time appears 
to confute the accuracy of statistics of the crop of 1892, 
collected by the United States Government and widely 
circulated and published. It was estimated that the crop 
of 1891 was 613,000,000 bushels, of which a small portion 
only would be carried over into 1892. The disposition of 
this gigantic yield, it was thought, was about as follows: 


Total yield 613,000,000 

Home consumptiou 310,000,000 

Exports :i05,0U0,000 

Seed 55,000,000 

Feed and miscellaneous 30,000,000—600,000,000 


Surplus 13,000,000 

The yield in the United Slates for 1892 was computed 
at about 500,000,000 bushels, or ll.'.,000,000 less than in 
1891. It would appear, therefore, that little trouble 
should have been experienc<>d in disposing of the 
13,000,000 surplus bushels, inasmuch as the consump- 
tion and average exports (600,000,000 bushels) would 
exceed the output (500,000,000 bushels) by 100,000,000 
bushels, provided, of course, they were not less than in 
1891. But France will consume 68,000,000 bushels less 
than in 1891, so that the exports of the United States 
would naturally be less, and the world's market is re- 
stricted in that amount. This leaves still an apparent 
shortage of 32,000,000 bushels (100,000,000 lesi 68,000,000) 
with 13,000,000 bushels carried over from 1891 to supply 
it. On the face of the figures, therefore, there ought to be 
a stronger demand for wheat in 1892 than in 1891. 

It should be borne in mind that the word " shortage " is 
used in the sense that the marketable wheat for foreign con- 
sumption by these figures should appear to be that much less 
than in 1891; and the general assumption is made that the 
deficit of 68,000,000 iu the French consumption of foreign 
wheat means no market there for that amount of Ameri- 
can wheat, which, as a matter of fact, is not the case. 

But what are the facts? The visible supply of 
wheat at this time in the United Kingdom and the 
United States, and in cargoes bound fur Europe, 
exceeds that of 1891 by about 100 000,000 bushels at an 
outside figure. Instead of a relative sh irtage in the 
United States of 32,000,000 bushels, the excess of the vis- 
ible supply in the United States at this time over last year 
is 34,000,000 bushels, or an actual difference between the 
facts and estimates of 66,000,000 bushels. 

Only one conclusion can be arrived at — lomething was 
radically wrong about the estimates of the wheal output 
for 1891 and 1892. 

The exports from the United States for 1892 are said to 
have been about 20,000,000 less than in 1891, and still the 
excess stock in Great Britain is now 8,000,000 bushels 
more than in 1891. Of course other supplier naiions have 
exported h°avily and Great Britain's 1892 yield was larger 
than in 1891, producing a congestion of the market almost 
without precedent. 

These unusual circumstances have all conspired to bring 
about a state of affairs recently confronting to the producer 
a discouraging aspect, and to depress the price of wheat to 
a ridiculous minimum. 

But matters now seem to be at their worst. The mid- 
winter season is generally a severe strain on the grain 
market, which suffers an aftet-holiday reaction, and which 
may be expected to as-nime a more encouraging appearance 
as soon as the customary interest and activity are again 
manifested by dealers and producers. Quotations are 
now nearly two shillings per ton in cargo lots above 
the lowest figure touched in December. Hard frosts 
have been reported in the United Kingdom, and 
they have had an effect upon the natural up- 
ward tendency of January. Continued bad weather 
there means a still further advance in prices. It is not 
safe to say that the tide has at last turned permanently in 
the direction of the producer, but it certainly looks that 

An indication of encouragement on the part of millers 
in England is found in the fact that the Millers' Associa- 
tion at Leeds on Tuesday advanced the price of flour one 
shilling per eighteen stone, on account of small stocks. 

Reports from California are to the effect that thp cus- 
tomary acreage will be sown the coming year as for 1892. 
The acreage then was about 3,240,000 acres. There has 

January 7, 1893. 


been little or no damage from storm and flood. Prom 
present somewhat distant appearances, the yield is likely 
to be at least up to the usual mark, and, what is better, 
higher prices will rule than in the past few months. 

Summed up in a few words, the situation is: The visible 
supplies have exceeded all calculation, and expectation 
has been disappointed in that they have not decreased 
with customary rapidity. But more confidence is now 
felt in the outlook than for some time past. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

The exact measure of the Populist success in the late 
election has at last been determined by a general compila- 
tion of returns. Weaver carried the five States of Col- 
orado (4 electoral votes), Kansas (9 votes), Nevada (3 
votes), Idaho (3 votes), and North Dakota (3 votes); and 
got one of Oregon's four votes, giving him a total of 23 
votes in the Electoral College. In the southern States 
Weaver's vote was as follows: 

Alabama 85,128 

Arkansas 11,831 

Florida 7,000 

Georgia 42,939 

Keniucky 23,503 

Mississippi 10,500 

Missouri 41,183 

North Carolina 45,000 

South Carolina 4,000 

Tennessee 28.000 

Texas 96 830 

Virginia 12,000 

West Virginia (estimated) 4,000 

Total 411,914 

In the West and on the Pacific coast the Weaver vote 
was as f'^Uows: 

Kansas 162,897 

Nebraska 83.780 

Colorado 52,984 

Oregon 32.000 

Minnesota 29,545 

Michigan (estimated) 22,000 

ralifornia 25,226 

South Dakota (estimated) : 25.000 

Indiana : 22,208 

Iowa 20,616 

North Dakota 17,650 

Illinois 20,866 

Washington 19,264 

Ohio 14,84'< 

Idaho io:m 

Montana (estimated) 8,000 

Wyoming 8,80) 

Nevada 8,000 

Wisconsin 9,852 

Total 593,635 

Summarized, the popular vote for Weaver was as 
follows : 

South and south westeru States 411,914 

West and northwestern States 593.635 

Middle States 20,000 

New England States 12,000 

Total 1,037,619 

Allowing that Weaver secured 137,000 votes by fusion — a 
fair estimate — his actual Populist vote will be about 
900,000. Even after making this allowance for fusion, 
the Populist vote stands larger than any vote ever given 
before to a third-party candidate, the nearest approach to 
it being in 1856, when the Native American or Know- 
nothing party polled 800,000 votes for Millard Fillmore. 

Following are the totals of the several parties for 1892, 
compared with the corresponding totals for 1888 : 


Total vote 12,082,008 

Democratic 5,567,990 

Republican 5,176,611 

People's party 1,037,060 

Prohibition 258 347 


it is deemed by the friends of Murphy, who comprise the 
whole of Tammany and some other political elements in 
New York, an unwarranted interference in State affairs 
and is bringing down upon him their severest anathemas. 
Mr. Cleveland is really in an awkward position in the 
matter of the New York senatorship. Naturally, he 
would like to have from his own State some man who 
would be friendly to his plans, and who would on the 
floor of the Senate promote the interests of the executive 
branch of the Government. Of course he can expect 
nothing from Senator Hill ; and if Tammany succeeds in 
electing Murphy or some other man of like character the 
New York delegation in the Senate will have to be 
reckoned among the enemies of the White House during 
the coming administration. In many parts of the country 
there is a disposition to regard Mr. Cleveland's opposition 
to Murphy as out of taste, but we fail to see why the 
President-elect should not have the privilege belonging to 
any other citizen of speaking out his mind concerning an 
aspirant for the Senate from his own State. 

Edward Murphy, the Tammany candidate for Senator 
in New York, is a man of the .John Morrissy stripe; and, 
although possessing an unquestioned political pull, is 
without the first requisite for the office which he seeks. 
His wealth was gained in ihe brewing business and his 
chief fame was acquired as the backer of Paddy Ryan in 
his famous fight with Sullivan. He is celebrated as an 
owner and fighter of bull-dogs and finds his chief amuse- 
ment in the sports of the pit and of the ring. It is not 
unnatural that Mr. Cleveland should be opposed to the 
election of Mr. Murphy, and it is very greatly to his 
credit that he has expressed his disapproval of his candi- 
dacy and hi^ hope that he will not be elected. He is 
quoted as saying : 

The interests of the State and party demand, it seems to me, 
the selection of a Setialor who can not only defend the prin- 
ciples of our party, but who can originate and promote the 
policies that may be presented for consideration in the Senate. 
In order to insure this, the Senator from New York should be 
a man not only experienced in public aEfairs, but who has 
a clear conception of the vital interests with which wo must 
deal daring the next few years. Speaking frankly, it does not 
seem that the selection of Mr. Murphy shows a desire or inten- 
tion of placing in the Senate men of such type. This first use 
of our power would cause much disappointment, not only in 
New York, but iu the country. This the party ought not to 
be called upon to face. 

If this protest against a man notoriously unfit be "execu- 
tive dictation," as the Tammany papers charge, and as 
the Republican papers are only too glad to echo, it is 
certainly a good sort and one that ought to be commoner 
in American affairs. Nevertheless, while Mr. Cleveland's 
opposition may be commendtd by the country at large. 

surance of intelligence or character. The city delegatiou 
will, we fear, be a corrupt and corrupting element through- 
out the session. 

The State Legislature came together on Monday, 
and by the time this paper is in the hands of 
its readers will have settled down to business. It 
is composed of one hundred and twenty mem- 
bers, fifty-seven of whom are Democrats, fifty -two 
Republicans, ten Populists and one Independent or non- 
partisan. Sixty-one votes are required for a majority in 
joint convention; therefore, no party is master of the situ- 
ation. The Democrats lack four votes of being a ma- 
jority, the Republicans lack nine, and the balance of 
power rests with the Populists. It is this situation which 
complicates the senatorial contest and which makes its 
outcome so uncertain. Eight of the Populists have 
signed an agreement pUdging themselves to vote for a 
Populist candidate and not to be drawn off into support 
of either Democratic or Republican aspirants, although it 
is not to be supposed that they will permit the Legis- 
lature to adjourn without choosing a Senator. Their 
policy will be to hold out during the early part of the ses- 
sion, and then to secure, probably by combination with 
the Democrats, the election of a man friendly at least to 
their scheme of reforms. It is said that there is small 
likelihood that any Democrat can secure any share of the 
Republican strength, and it is assumed that no way to 
bring about an election will be found without inducing 
the Populists to come into the combination. The strength 
of their position is evident. They may, if they choose, 
name the Senator from among either the Democratic or 
Republican candidates. 

The Republicans, apparently, have small expectations 
and have practically conceded the election to the Dem- 
ocrats, and among the Democrats the two prominent can- 
didates have been W. W. Foote of Alameda and Stephen 
M. White of Los Angeles. It has been supposed that 
their strength was about equal; and there was great sur- 
prise on Sunday morning when the daily papers contained 
a letter signed by Foote, withdrawing from the contest in 
favor of White, and alleging that he was prompted to do 
so as his candidacy promised to divide the Democratic 
support, and put final Democratic success in doubt. This 
sort of thing is all very pretty, but those who know any- 
thing about practical politics understand perfectly well 
that Mr. Foote'g withdrawal was based not so much upon 
a desire for party harmony as upon certain knowledge that 
he could not be elected. The combination against him 
was too strong and he evidently did not care to waste time 
and money in a losing fight. Various explanations are 
given as to the nature of this alleged " combination," but 
it does not require a great deal of shrewdness to see that 
its chief factor is the Southern Pacific Railroad Co. 

The opportunity of the Populists lies in the fact that 
their assistance is essential to an election. What they 
ought to do is to demand from one or the other of the old 
parties a candidate who will be friendly to the scheme of 
reforms upon which they stand. If they choose 
to do it, they may prevent the election of 
any man who, is in the favor of corporations 
and other capitalistic interests. The danger is, that they 
will lack the backbone to stand by their colors. 

The fight for the speakership of the Assembly was be- 
tween Gould of Merced, Shanahan of Shasta and Matthews 
of Los Angeles. In the Democratic caucus Monday night 
the first ballot stood, Shan'^han 18, Gould 13, Matthews 
11; the second ballot resulted in precisely the same way. 
On the third ballot the Gould and Matthews forces united, 
giving Mr. Gould the election, which undoubtedly will be 
ratified by the Assembly in formal session. It is notable 
that in this contest the vote of the San Francisco mem- 
bers was solid for Shanahan, and it is assumed that in con- 
sequence they will fare badly in the way of committee as- 
signments. The delegation is described as being of the 
usual sort, part saloonkeepers, part political hangers-on, 
with none among, them whose record or bearing gires as- 

Just as we go to press, we learn from a private source 
that a movement is on foot at Sacramento to organize the 
rural membership of the legislature into a caucus for the 
defense and promotion of rural interests. The project is 
for organization on lines similar to the plan discussed in 
last week's Rural. Such a combination is entirely prac- 
tical; and if properly managed, it could easily make the 
country element the dominating power in the legislature. 
It could do this without requiring of any rural representa- 
tive the sacrifice of his party loyalty. We shall watch the 
new movement with interest, and hope that next week we 
shall be able to report that rural interests in the legisla- 
ture are in the strong and safe hands of a body organized for 
their protection. 

What We May Produoe. 

Though we are shipping to distant parts both by ship 
and rail immense weights of produce and receiving there- 
for considerable sums of money, there are still deficiency 
items in local production of articles for home consump- 
tion. Of course these items are almost insignificant in 
comparison with the imports of food supplies which Cali- 
fornia needed in earlier years, and yet the saving of their 
cost, or rather the distribution of it among our own people 
would help out a good many individual incomes. Gover- 
nor Markham wisely makes an allusion to this subject in 
his biennial message which went to the legislature on 
Tuesday of this week, and the statistics he gives are of 
interest. The quantities given are in tons weight of the 
articles mentioned, and they are presented merely as esti- 
mates, not accurate statistics, of imports into the State: 

Live stock 40,000!Potatoes 3,000 

Wool 1,500 Broomcorn 800 

Hides 610 Flour 2.500 

Cured meats 20,000 Other mill products 2,600 

Poultry l,000 8tarcb i,600 

Butter 2,000 Olive oil 150 

( iheese 1,800 Honey 60 

Eggs 3,500 Canned goods 6,000 

Hay 15,000| 

These quantities can be reduced or expanded in several 
ways to bring them within the adequate conception of the 
reader. Perhaps dividing by ten to bring the material into 
carloads will serve most minds best. We have then 4000 
carloads of live stock brought into the State, and this 
would be about equal weight to the whole orange crop of 
California for last year. The weight of imported cured 
meats was about half as great, representing, however, a 
vastly greater live weight of animals. Continue the cal- 
culation as we may it will be all the plainer that we are 
still dependent upon adjacent or distant States for a re- 
spectable part of our food supplies which we could as well 
produce for ourselves. Think of a State in which well-kept 
poultry is as profitable as it is here purchasing from the 
outside 100 carloads of fowls and 350 carloads of stale eggs. 
Other things in the test are almost as interesting in their 

We are not unmindful of the fact, of course, that much 
of this imported food comes from regions of cheaper lands 
than ours, and part, no doubt, from free ranges. Still 
there is good opportunity to overcome even such odds by 
a little closer study of the arts and economies of produc- 
tion. It is quite possible to make a respectable figare in 
turning wastes and by-products into desirable and market- 
able material, just as th<i most successful manufacturers 
do by close figuring and constant personal attention to 

Such calculation is not consonant with California tradi- 
tions, and yet if California continues as she has advanced 
during the last decade, she will become quite a thrifty 
State in the end. Of course, as long as boom products 
command boom prices there will not be serious thought of 
the small arts of production, but the tendency is the other 
way, and our people will ultimately learn how to squeeze 
a nickel so that it will fly into five pieces. We are not 
anxious for such a day, and yet when it comes we shall 
be found with greater accumulations and with a spirit of 
independence and widespread condition of forehandedness 
which will give us greater industrial strength. 

All things come to those who wait, and to those vine- 
yardists who have for several years been traveling in 
gloomy financial vales, it seems that the sun is about to 
appear. Batter prices for their products are assured. If 
the phylloxera were only annihilated, little would be 
wanting to make the average vineyardist a completely 
happy man. 

Writing to the Rural Press relative to the Mediter- 
ranean flour moth, Mr. C. N. Andrews, of Redlands, sug- 
gests that millers experiment with the hydrocyanic gas 
treatment. By building the mills so that the treatment 
could be applied in the evening, say once a month, it 
would certainly destroy all rats, mice, etc., if not the flour 


f ACIFie F^URAb f RES8. 

January 7, 1893. 

Prices at the Hobart Sale. 

The Effect of an Unfortunate Send-off — Mr. 
Tompkins Discusses the Auction System. 

Souther Farm, Dec. 31, I892. 
To THE Editor:— Mr. VV E. Hobart made a large 
fortune io mining and ether ventures; he then followed the 
example of many of the world's rich men and began to 
make a collection of fine trotting stock. He showed good 
judgment both in the selection of his advisers and of his 
horses; and his death was a great loss to the breeding in- 
terests of this country, and in fact to those of the whole 
world. From Senator L. J. Rose, one of the most inter- 
esting figures in American horse history, Mr. Hobart pur- 
chased Stamboui; from Kentucky he purchased Nancy 
Lee, the dam of Nancy Hanks, 2:04; and price rarely 
stood in the way when anything gilt-edged could be ob- 
tained. The horses were brought from all parts of the 
country to the stock farm at San Mateo, where they stayed 
until taken East for sale after Mr. Hobart's death. 

The first part of December, 1892, saw the whole band on 
the cars for New York. Opinions were much divided as to 
the probable result of the sale, and especially on the ques- 
tion of the prices that Stamboui, Nancy Lee, Alma Mater 
and the other best known animals would bring. The re- 
sult is well known (details of the sale were given in last 
week's Rural), and on an average may not be considered 
discouraging; but some of the inequalities of public auction 
sales were so well illustrated that this feature of the sale 
will bear considerable attention. 

Stamboui was the first offering, in accordance with the 
time-honored custom at Mr. Kellogg's sales of playing the 
biggest trump-card first. This would hardly be good 
whist, and in the light of several well-known instances it is 
a doubtful move in a horse sale, and especially when the 
sale takes place on a weak market. In boom times it has 
almost always worked satisfactorily, notably so when Mr. 
Kellogg began the great Rose sale of 1890 with Alcazar; 
but in those days everybody wanted trotters and would bid 
whethei' they had been properly warmed up or not. Those 
happy times are no longer with us, and it is perhaps better 
that things are as they are; unreasoning boom specula- 
tion is invariably disastrous in the lung run. 

When people are bidding and buying cautiously, how- 
ever, they must have time to get into the .spirit of the 
affair, and to this end some of the less desirable stock will 
generally pave the way to a more generous appreciation 
of the true merit of the higher valued part of the consign- 
ment. It was generally expected that Stamboui would 
bring anywhere from $60,000 to $125,000, and when he was 
knocked down, after a very mild competition, to a bid of 
$41,000, it seemed as if the bottom had dropped out in 
dead earnest. Here was one of our greatest trotting 
stallions, a horse that had been before the public for sev- 
eral years, with a record of 2:08, whether entitled to the 
mark of 2:07} or not, training on year after year and 
always sound and courageous, of magnificent conforma- 
tion and grand trotting action, and the sire of nearly a 
dozen in the 2:30 list, while still a young horse — it would 
seem as if he ought to almost touch the high-water mark of 
trotting values. 

In addition to all this, Stamboui is still a racehorse and 
can add large exhibition earnings, in addition to what he 
can earn in the stud. While $41,000 is considerable money 
to have on four legs, judged by the earning capacity of the 
horse the sale was positive murder, in the phrase of a by- 
stander. It proved a wet blanket, under which some mag- 
nificent animals went at a fraction of their value. The two 
fillies by Stamboui from Nancy Lee were positively given 
away, with many others, for the crowd did not get back its 
sand until the first day's sale was over. Then the usual 
result followed. When those who had stood by and lost 
the opportunity of their lives began to realize this, most of 
them evidently felt like kicking themselves. There was a 
slight reaction that same evening, as the Haggin consign- 
ment of yearlings by Albert W. sold fairly well. 

The second day of the Hobart sale opened with a small at- 
tendance compared with that of the first day, but there was 
much more real business in the crowd. While the depres- 
sion of the opening day was still felt, so many were dis- 
gusted with themselves for the lost opportunities of the 
preceding day that bidding was far better, and amounts 
were paid for single animals that would have bought sev- 
eral of equal or even greater merit the day before. Still 
prices were hardly what they should have been, and Mr. 
Henry Pierce of this State, who carried off the prizes of the 
day, received an offer of $17,000 advance on stock for 
which he had paid $38,000. 

Throughout the entire sale there was apparently a great 
lack of discrimination shown. The average was not bad, but 
the ordinary stock frequently sold for several times its 
value compared with the amounts brought by some of the 
greatest. The trouble was that the general tone of the 
market was weak. At the Chicago sale of a few days be- 
fore prices had been horribly low, and the unfortunate sale 
of Stamboui on top of this took all the courage out of the 
attending bidders. It has been said an auction crowd is 
like a flock of sheep — it stumbles in whatever direction the 
force of circumstances drives it; and the Hobart sale is 
strong evidence of the truth of the saying. 

Gilbert Tompkins. 

Mb. D. W. McLeod writes to the Rubal Press from 
Riverside, saying that the "estimate of the Rural Pbess 
that the orange crop in southern California will be 7000 
carloads " is too large by 2000 carloads. The Rural 
Press made no such estimate. It gave currency to a com- 
mon newspaper statement that tho exports would be 7000 
carloads, and added that the figures "were a trifle large, 
perhaps, but anyway the prospects are first class for a sub- 
stantial increase over last season, which wsia considerably 
less than 7000." Our correspondent's letter, which is 
interesting, will appear next week. 

Thirty-Eight Irrigation Districts. 

L. M. Holt, editor of the Rialto Orange Belt, has just 
made an interesting compilation relative to the irrigation 
districts of the State. 

It is found that 38 districts are now in working order 
throughout the State. There have been a number of others 
organized, but varied obstacles have interfered with their 
continued activity. 

Three of the districts are in Colusa county, two in Stan- 
islaus, two wholly in Fresno, three in Fresno and Tulare, 
three wholly in Tulare, one jointly in Kern and Tulare, five 
in Los Angeles, eight in San Diego, seven in San Bernar- 
dino and one each in Orange, Kern, Glenn and Yuba coun- 

The 38 districts contain 2,149,724 acres; 19 districts re- 
port having voted bonds to the extent of $11,834,000. 

There are also 13 other districts that have voted $4,942,- 
000, and these districts have sold no bonds. 

This makes a total of $16,776,000 in bonds voted by 32 
districts. There are six districts in the list that have not 
as yet voted any bonds. 

The sale of bonds for cash amounts to $2,622,000, and 
traded for water rights $2 995,200, a total of $5,627,200 
bonds disposed of out of $11,834000. The other districts 
are evidently not ready to sell their bonds as yet. 

The assessed valuation of 28 districts is $32,992,849 
These 28 districts contain 1,515,594 acres and the assessed 
valuation is a little over $21 per acre. 

The 32 districts that have voted bonds contain 2,831,424 
acres, and the bonded debt is an average of $5.92 to the 

Of the 38 districts, the issue of bonds has been con 
firmed in the courts in 26 districts. 

In 26 districts the report comes that the Wright Irriga- 
tion law is satisfactory to the people. Of course this 
means in a general way, subject to such amendments as 
may be deemed necessary. In one district the report is 
that it is unsatisfactory, in one district the report is doubt 
ful, and the other districts arc not heard from. 

The Petalnma Poultry Ranch. 

Calling attention to an article from the Petaluma Courier, 
in a recent issue of the Rural Press, a correspondent 
writes and states: 

" In this article it was stated that the ranch contains 70 
acres, the profits being between $1400 and $1500 per an- 
num. This would make the profit per acre only a little 
more than $20. Is it not possible that there was a mistake 
made in regard to the number of acres that this ranch con- 
tains ? Perhaps there are that many acres in the place, 
not nearly all, however, being devoted to the chicken busi- 
ness. It seems to me that if 70 acres were devoted ex- 
clusively to the poultry business, the owner's profits would 
be a great deal more than $20 an acre." 

The correspondent's query was referred to Mr. W. A. 
Selkirk, editor of the C^'wr/Vr, and he responds as follows: 
" 1 have only to say that he is correct in his surmise that of Mr. 
Burdick's 70-acre ranch not nearly all is devoted 10 chicken-raising, 
as is intimated in the description of the place and in the closing 
statement that he will increase, the coming year, his stock of hens to 
the extent of 50 per cent. Besides, since receipt of your letter and 
enclosure, I have learned that the past year the plac^ turned off some 
30 tons of hay, several tons of grapes, about 1200 boxes of fruit and 
a satisfactory product from eight cows and heifers. If wholly devoted 
to poultry-raising, and all the space utilized without reference to taste 
and convenience, the business could be easily quadrupled. The ob- 
ject of the article was to illustrate the profit that could tie made from 
an average stock of 600 hens, and the mention of the extent of the 
tract was merely incidental to a description of a charming home 
which was also a source of comfortable income." 

A STRONG effort is to be made at the present session of 
the legislature to secure submission of a cotistitutional 
amendment, under which growing fruit trees may be ex- 
empted from taxation up to a certain age. The argument 
is advanced that growing grain is not subject to taxation, 
and that serious discrimination is thus in effect made 
against fruitgrowers. The proposition has been extensively 
discussed by the interior press, and the sentiment in the 
fruit districts is clearly in its favor. There are, however, 
serious obstacles, legislative and otherwise, in the way to 
a successful conclusion of the agitation. 

The new road law has gone into effect. It is now pro- 
vided that " the boards of supervisors of the several coun- 
ties shall divide their respective counties into suitable road 
districts, and may change the boundaries thereof, and each 
supervisor shall be ex-ofScio road commissioner of the 
several road districts in his supervisor district, and shall 
see that all contracts made with and all orders of the 
board of supervisors pertaining to the roads and bridges 
in his district are properly executed, etc." 

The annual report of the State Board of Horticultnre 
has just been issued. It is a complete and very valuable 
work, containing, among other features, fine topographical 
and geographical maps of California, and accurate and 
exhaustive reviews of the fruit resources and products of 
all the counties. It was compiled by Mr. B. M. Lelong, 
secretary of the Board. Copies will be sent free to all who 
will forward 12 cents for postage to the oflice of the Board, 
220 Sutter St., i?. F. 

Mr. E. C. Wilkes MacDonald, of Aptos, California, 
sends the following remedy for milk fever: 

" Take one pound of fresh yeast and dissolve in two quarts of 
lukewarm milk, and give it to the cow in one dose. This 
simple remedy was given to me by an old Dutch dairyman, and 
has often been applied always with good result. The well- 
known compressed yeast is best, but. if not to be had, fresh 
yeast from a brewery will answer the purpose. Let our dairy- 
men try it and report results. It has saved many a valuable 
cow in Holland to my knowledge, and will do it here." 

The Anaheim beet sugar factory is a certainty, suffi- 
cient stock having been subscribed and funds pledged to 
assure its success. The factory will be the second in 
California and the seventh in the United States. 

Products of 1892. 

The following statistics for 1892 will be of interest and 
value to the producers of Oalif»rnia and the general public: 

„ . Acreage. Bales. 

Calitornia S.900 39 750 

'^"^P^ 5.75° a6,oDO 

Washmgton 8,200 35.SOO 

British Columbia 80 350 

Totals 19,930 

The stock on hand on the Pacific coast on 
15th shows as follows: 



California 13 qoo 

Oregon ;;!;;;!'.!!;!io!soo 

Washmgton 19.500 


. 42,000 

The extent of the 1891 crop and its acreage was as fol- 


California 5,340 

0;eK°." 3.900 

Washington 6,iox 

British Columbia 35 


Totals 15,366 95,286 


The total output for 1891 was 27,500,000 pounds, while 
for the season just closed it was at least 2,500,000 pounds 
greater. The Santa Clara valley produced fully 20,000,000 
pounds, while the other prune-producing sections, such as 
Sonoma, Napa, Tulare, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Bar- 
bara and San Luis Obispo counties, brought the total up to 
30,000,000 pounds. 

The total output of prunes for the State for the past six 
years has been as follows: 


1*87 5,825,000 

'888 8,050,000 

'889 17,000,000 

•890 16,000,000 

'891 27,500,000 

•893 30,000,000 

Total 104,375,000 

The importations for the last five years have been: 


1887 92,032,625 

1888 70 626,027 

ii>89 46.154,825 

'890 58,093,410 

1891 41,012,571 

Total 307,919.458 


The dried fruit output for the past six years has been as 


1887 17,105,000 

1888 24,215,000 

1889 28,690,000 

1890 48,700,000 

1891 63,710,000 

1892 (shipped by rail to date) 64,969,295 


The growth of the raisin industry is shown in the follow- 

Boxes. Pounds. 

873 6,000 120,000 

874 9>ooo 180,000 

87s 222,000 

876 19,000 380,000 

877 32,000 640 000 

878 48,000 960,000 

879 65,000 1,300,000 

880 75,000 1,500,000 

881 90.000 1,800,000 

882 115,000 2,300.000 

883 125,000 2,500.000 

884 175,000 3,5130,000 

885 475,000 9.500,000 

886 703,000 14,060,000 

887 800,000 16.000,000 

888 1,250,000 20,500,000 

889 1,633.900 32,678,000 

890 2,341,463 46,829,260 

891 3,641,590 52,831,800 

892 2,858,100 57 163,000 


Canned goods output has been less, as follows: 
Year. Cafes. 

1888 1,360,400 

1889 1,420,600 

1890 1,495,300 

1891 1,571,200 

1892 971,000 

Total 6,818,500 


According to the crop reports of the Department of 
Agriculture the wheat output of California reached 38,554,- 
000 bushels, which is a full average product and consider- 
ably higher than the 1891 crop, which was 36,595,000 bush- 
els. These reports, as is well known, are of the most con- 
servative character, and it is not reasonable to suppose 
that they can be very far out of the way. 

The barley crop was a fair one, amounting to some 12,- 
333,000 bushels, and prices remained comparatively low. 
During the 12 months ending December ist there were re- 
ceived at San Francisco 2,753,909 centals of barley, while 
the exports by sea amounted to 1,199025 centals. The 
corn and oat crops were of an average amount, though no 
great (luantity of either is raised in California, and they cut 
no appreciable figure in farm economy. 

The Porterville citrus fair closed Saturday night, after 
a very successful exhibition. It is proposed to make these 
events annual hereafter, the attendance and interest in the 
first giving ample assurance that it may readily become a 
permanent institution. 

January 7, 1893. 

f AClFie ^URAb f RESS. 

IIIjhe ]13otanist. 

Tlie Bacteriology of Poison Oak. 

Claremont, Los Angeles Co. 

To THE Editor: — What poison ivy is to the eastern 
States, poison oak is to the Pacific coast. By many the 
two plants are pronounced identical, the name Rhus toxi- 
codendron being assigned to both. 

The California variety attains a grow^th from two feet up- 
ward, not, however, to exceed a good-sized bush. It has a 
compound leaf of three leaflets, which are of a bright green 
color throughout the summer, but which change to beauti- 
ful red in the autumn. The bright colors allure the un- 
suspecting on till a bunch of the leaves is picked for the 
purpose of adorning some table or mantel-piece at home. 

The poison-oak plant prefers as its habiiat mountainous 
districts, especially canyons or the edges of creeks, but by 
no means is it found exclusively in those placew. About 
each plant there seems to be a floating infection, a poison- 
ous atmosphere, which, strange to say, has a variety of 
effects upon different individuals, the extremes being a pain- 
ful inflammation, on the one hand, and but little or no effect 
upon the other; while between, lie all the possible grada- 
tions. The first sensation noticed, on being poisoned, is 
that of itching, which is usually accompanied by redness 
of the skin on the affected parts. The itching increases till 
it becomes almost intolerable, the skin smarts or burns, 
and swelling ensues. 

Shortly, little protuberances appear, which increase in 
size till they break, yielding a transparent, sticky fluid 
called serum. The vesicles (as these protuberances are 
called) become covered with a crust and so endeavor to 
heal. The final stage, accompanying convalescence, is 
characterized by the peeling off of the cuticle on the af- 
fected parts, exposing to view the new, fresh skin under- 

What is the nature of the poison that produces the un- 
pleasant effects mentioned above ? Is it vegetable, mineral 
or bacteriological — that is, produced by the ravages in the 
system, of microbes of disease ? Such questions have con- 
fronted the investigator from time to time; and up to date, 
about the only results arrived at are expressed in some 
newspaper by a half drzen words stating that poison of 
poison oak is due to germs. Doubtless, this is the truth of 
the matter, and it is the object of this article to present to 
the reader some of the evidences which sustain this truth. 

The poison-oak plant is the favorite abiding-place or 
habitat of a microscopic germ which for the present we 
will call the poison-oak germ. There is nothing unusual 
in this, for we find similar phenomena on every hand. 
The white scale prefers citrus trees to feed upon; the po- 
tato bug takes to potato plants; certain plant lice prefer 
rose bushes; others would rather feed upon a different kind 
of bush; and so it goes, there seeming to be a special para- 
site for each plant. In the microscopic world we find the 
terrible bacillus tuberculosis feeding upon the lungs of un- 
fortunate consumptives. 

But we can reason in other ways better than by analogy, 
for if we take a poison-oak leaf and wash it in distilled 
water, we will find floating in the water little spherical 
jelly-like bodies. Bacteriologists term such sphere-like 
germs micrococci to distinguish them from cylindrical 
forms (bacteria) and rod-shaped forms (bacilli). 

We must notice what we can about these micrococci, for 
we shall have occasion to refer to them again. If they are 
real, jive germs, they should grow and multiply in any fluid 
upon which they can feed. Beef broth, which is usually 
used for cultivating and growing microbes of all kinds, has 
been tried, but so far has not succeeded. As they do live 
and thrive upon the juices of the poison oak, let us make a 
decoction of the roots and thus get fresh, wholesome ma- 
terial in which to breed them. 

This decoction is completely sterilized by repeated boil- 
ing, after which it is placed in test tubes to the depth of 
one-half an inch in each test tube. These are set in a 
warm place for a few days, and if any cloudiness appears 
in the clear liquid at the bottom of any tube, it is to be dis- 
carded, as some unknown germ has succeeded in getting 
into it, and is beginning to multiply. 

A tube with clear liquid inside may be used with safety 
as a culture medium for our poison oak micrococcus. To 
avoid cultivating other germs which may be adhering to 
the outside of the leaves or bark, we shall dampen the 
point of a sterilized needle with the sap from a freshly 
made incision underneath the bark. The needle is at once 
transferred to the test tube, the cotton stopper replaced and 
the whole set in a warm place to await developments. 

In a few days cloudiness is noticed, provided our inocu- 
lation was successful, and a drop of the liquid may now be 
examined with a microscope. If but one kind of germ is 
found, we may indeed be thankful, for we have a pure cul- 

Let us examine the myriads of forms before our eyes 
carefully. We see sphere-like forms in every way identical 
with those found in the washings from the leaf. They are 
the progeny of a few forms we introduced when we dropped 
in the needle. 

Now let us turn our attention to something a little differ- 
ent. We will make use of two persons who are susceptible 
to poisoning from the poison oak; that is, who " take it " 
easily. On the wrist of one, we will place a poison oak 
leaf for a second and then immediately bind on a cloth, 
the leaf being of course removed. The cloth prevents any 
rubbing or spreading by rubbing of any infection left by 
the leaf. The symptoms of poisoning at once set in — the 
itching, the smarting and the swelling — but it is noticed 
that the disease, if it may be called such, confines itself to 
the one locality; viz., where the leaf touched the skin. If 
cloth around the wrist has in any way slipped, say from 
right to left, the disease has spread in that direction, and to 
the same extent that the cloth has b^en displaced. 

The second individual allows a leaf to be in contact with I 

his hand for the same time as before, but instead of bind- 
ing the place with cloth, he rubs his other hand over the 
place, then rubs his face and both hands thoroughly. 
Shortly, itching, smarting, swelling, etc., have set in wher- 
ever he has rubbed. The palms of the hands seem to be 
unaffected, however, but where the skin is thinnest, there 
the effects are most noticeable. 

Let us now draw some conclusions from our experiments 
upon the persons. That the poisonous effects are largely 
local is certain; so that, if persons who had touched the 
plant would refrain from rubbing their eyes and face and 
hands, many severe cases of poisoning would be prevented, 
as the affection, which is at first local, would not be spread 
to other parts, and hence increase the area of inflammation. 

The micrococci, on being transferred to the skin, immedi- 
ately penetrate the tissue beneath (unless the cuticle is too 
horny or thick, as in the palms of the hands), when whole- 
sale destruction commences. 

Why is it that some people will be affected by the poison 
oak plant to little or no extent, while others suffer so much ? 
This is hard to answer with certainty. It is quite probable 
that the state of the system as regards degree of acidity 
has something to do with it. Some germs thrive best in 
acid media of certain strength, while others require less 
acid or even no acid, and some thrive best in alkaline solu- 
tions. The blood differs in different individuals, in one 
case being in the right condition to promote the most rapid 
multiplication of the germ, while in another case hindering 
the growth and development of the germ to a considerable 
extent. In many cases, if not all, the disease microbe itself 
makes a condition that causes its own destruction. This 
is by a secretion, or else by the resultant action of the se- 
cretion upon the tissues. 

Often these products (called ptomaines) are exceedingly 
poisonous, but whether harmless or harmful to the human 
species, they become fatal to the microbes that make them 
when a certain strength is reached. For instance, vinegar 
or dilute acetic acid is a ptomaine, and when about 17 per 
cent is present where the germ is at work, the process 
ends, for at this point the germ is killed. 

But nature does cot wait for the self-destruction stage to 
come, for in some cases this would not be reached till after 
the death of the individual person. She has a standing 
army of little cells, which is found in all parts of the body. 
These cells are endued with the power of locomotion and 
also with the power of digesting any foreign particle that 
comes in their way. They are especially on the watch for 
disease germs, as if they knew that these latter constituted 
the deadliest foes of their lord and master — the individual 
himself. When acting as defenders of the body the cells 
are termed phagocytes. 

Now, when disease germs enter the living tissues at any 
place, the phagocytes in the vicinity of that place congre- 
gate and proceed at once to annihilate the intruders. The 
great number of the phagocytes produces a swelling and 
we say inflammation has set in. 

The micrococci of poison oak on being transferred to the 
surface of the skin commence their ravages, and, if the 
conditions are right, will soon be in the delicate tissue be- 
neath Here the phagocytes are encountered and great 
quantities of them pour in from all sides. A miniature 
battle ensues, the germs multiplying as fast as they can 
and tearing down the tissues, and the phagocytes eating 
them up with all possible haste. If the microbes win, the 
person dies; if the phagocytes win, he lives. The phago- 
cytes conquer in poisoning from poison oak, but thousands 
of them are killed. The sticky serum from the vesicles 
formed during the course of the disease contains phago- 
cytes, and we should be able to see the micrococci which 
they have eaten inside of them. Upon examining some 
phagocytes found in the serum we will notice the micro- 
cocci present, and they are like those we saw as coming 
from the surface of the poison oak leaf. 

What a touching sight it would be if we could but see 
our faithful little phagocyte servants fighting for us to their 
own destruction! They are not things, for they eat, move, 
digest, generate cells like themselves, and, when the time 
comes, die, and are carried off by the blood. 

Now let us make one more examination. Take a small 
fragment of the skin which peels off during convalescence. 
Place it in a drop of distilled water and put it under the 
microscope. The skin that has peeled has been the seat of 
action for the spread of the micrococci for a week or so, 
and therefore should be pretty well impregnated with them. 
Surely enough, myriads upon myriads of forms that are no 
diflerent from those we have examined before, now appear 
before the eye. If such fragment of skin should contain so 
many, what countless millions would be found in the flesh 
of one's hand or face. 

We see, then, that we may become the feeding ground, 
so to speak, of the micrococci and furnish to them at our 
own expense, material with which they can propagate 

But are the poisonous effects due to the micrococci di- 
rectly, or are they due to the ptomaines they make ? This 
is a question. The floating infection which exists in the 
neighborhood of poison oak plants or bushes may be the 
volatile ptomaine, but even then some of the germs must 
be present, or so many would not be found on the skin 
during the disease. 

However, it is evident that the micrococci are either di- 
rectly or indirectly the cause of the poisonous effects. 

In the au'umn, when the goes to the roots and the 
leaves turn red from oxidation, the germs seem to lose a 
large part, if not all, of their injurious properties. This of 
course is probably due to the lack of sap upon which to 
feed and a consequent change of state in themselves. 

Remedies too numerous to mention are used by the peo- 
ple of the Pacific coast to diminish the inflammation in a 
case of poisoning. The ideal remedy would be that which 
would destroy the micrococci upon simple contact with 
them, and at the same time be perfectly harmless to the 
flesh. Most of the substances now used are used for the 
purpose of decreasing the inflammation, and one of the 
best of these seems to be the sugar of lead in solution, 
bathed upon the affected parts, but bandied carefully, as 

it is an active poison. While every one east of the Rockies 
is awaiting the remedy which will stop the ravages of the 
cholera, the yellow fever, or the smallpox microbe, let ush& 
on the lookout for something which will destroy the less 
fatal but troublesome micrococcus of the poison oak. 

F. H. Billings. 

HE JHlElsD. 

The Potato Disease. 

Auburn, Cal., Dec. 15, 1892. 
To THE Editor:— The first appearance of this disease 
in the States was in 1844, I was then living in Vermont, 
and that year I planted one piece of land with potatoes the 
first of May. They ripened perfectly not a rotten one 
among them. The first of June I manured and planted 
another piece. The seed was the same. The last of 
A.ugust, reading of ootato rot, I went to the last planted 
piece found them half rotten, and the leaves partly dead 
and rotted. The difference in time of planting, please keep 
in mind, it is very important. 

In 1846 I was in Michigan. Potatoes rc't'ecl ^^me there 
that year. In 1847 I planted potatoes i?A jUne; one-fourth 
of them rotted. One ma- .nere, Alexander Dean, planted 
every year in April, or ^ aoon as the ground would do to 
work. He planted the Nechanic, an early and tender 
variety, and he always had sound potatoes, while his neigh- 
bors' potatoes planted the last of May or June were rotted 
more or less. 

Now the first sign of potato disease is black on the end 
of the leaves and curling up. One man seeing that, cut 
the vines from two of the rows, bent down two rows and 
covered with earth, and left two rows standing. The rows 
left standing rotted; those cut off and those covered with 
earth did not rot, neither did they grow any more. 

Some years later I moved to Illinois. In April I was 
thinking of planting potatoes, and of Mr. Dean's success 
with early planting and always having sound potatoes, and 
I determined to try an experiment. I planted % acre in 
April and % acre the last of May. I did so, and in Sep- 
tember, commencing digging, I found the April planting 
par/ect and sound, but as soon as I crossed the center line 
between the April and May planting one-half the potatoes 
were rotten. I stopped and leaned on my hoe and began 
to think now what is it that makes the difference: the April 
planting is all sound, the May planting half rotten. The 
soil and the seed are the same; certainly there must be 
some cause. Very suddenly it came to my mind: malaria 
in the atmosphere coming from decaying vegetable matter 
in the soil. Now, the leaves are the lungs of the potato 
(and all vegetation the same) and there is a circulation 
through the stems or vines from the leaves to the growing 
tuber in the ground, carrying health and growth or poison 
and decay taken from malaria, produced by decay of 
vegetable matter in the soil. The fungus supposed to be 
the cause of the disease is but the effect, like the toadstool 
on the decaying tree. An early variety of potatoes planted 
early gets ripe or nearly so and circulation through the vine 
stops before the malaria commences to rise from the 
soil caused by wet and heat of the sun. You will see that 
in the trial the man had with six rows, the two cut off and 
the two covered with dirt, the circulation stopped, and di- 
sease stopped also, but the two rows left standing rotted. 

Watch your potatoes and if you see signs of disease on 
the leaves, or if the soil is wet and the sun hot, sow broad- 
cast, quicklime or some other disinfectant. I think an 
early planting an early variety the best remedy; it may be 
late planting of the early Rose would be best here in Cali- 
fornia, so they would grow and ripen late when it is cool, 
and no danger of malaria. 

Some time in the sixties I moved back to Michigan and 
was in business there. One evening I told to a crowd in 
the store my theory of pofSito rot, and that they would 
most always be sure of sound potatoes by planting early 
potatoes in April, or soon as the ground and weather will 
permit. The next August Mr. Ira Eldred came in the 
store and wanted to sell me a load of potatoes. I asked 
him if they were sound. He said "come and see." I 
went to the load and saw 20 bushels fo Nechanics perfectly 
sound. I asked him how he came to have such nice sound 
potatoes. He said he was in the store one evening and 
heard me tell what caused the potato to rot and he thought 
there' was something in it and tried the experiment; planted 
early and got this load of beautiful potatoes. He was satis- 
fied I told the cause of the potato disease. Now they are 
growing and shipping thousands of bushels of potatoes 
from that township in Michigan. The more I think and 
study, the better I am satisfied it is the true cause of the 
potato disease — this malaria produced by decaying soil. 

J. W. Barker. 
We are willing to allow our correspondent to use the 
term malaria just as many doctors are supposed to use it — 
that is to cover a cause the nature of which they do not 
understand. The cause of the potato rot is a fungus 
which is fully described and understood morphologically, 
but just how it operates in all cases is not known. It does 
not thrive, however, except where conditions favor it. By 
planting early or late in some localities the potato is free 
from fungus. That part of the " discovery" of our corre- 
spondent is practically useful. — Editor. 

Alfalfa Culture. 

Mr. Benj. Walton read the following paper on " Alfalfa 
Culture" at the recent Santa Ana Farmers' Institute: 

All land to be sown with alfalfa should be deeply plowed 
and summer fal'o'ved; or, in my locality, be cultivated with 
some crop that will kill all roots and salt grass. The plow- 


f AClFie f^URAb f RESS. 

January 7, 189S. 

ine should be done so as to have the dead furrows form 
drains, as water should never be allowed to stand on the 
ground, especially if the soil is tainted with alkali. In 
stagnant water the main roots will soon rot away and the 
plants suffer for want of moisture on the approach of the 
dry season. All uneven places should be leveled nicely, 
as no one knows how often he may have to go over the 
land wi'h the mower and rake. Two pieces of 2x6, 24 to 
32 feet long with four cross-pieces, the same size, six to 
eight feet long, fastened securely between them and well- 
braced, then drawn endwise, will do a good job, and espe- 
cially will this be necessary where irrigation is practiced. 
Alfalfa may be sown any time during the winter or early 
spring when the ground is damp, and should be sown with- 
out barley or anything else. Sow from 15 to 20 pounds of 
seed to the acre, harrow it in well or pulverize with a disk. 
It should be clipped frequently; the clippings make good 
feed for stock cattle. Later in the season some good cuts 
may be expected for hay, and enough to make up for the 
loss of barley hay. The value of a good stand lasting for 
years is hard to estimate. Barley extracts the moisture, 
shades the ground, dwarfs the plants, and sometimes lodges 
and chokes the alfalfa entirely out, where the stand would 
otherwise have been good. I find it difficult to thicken up 
a poor stand. 

Alfalfa should not be pastured, and especially when the 
land is wet, as it forms a crust for the sun to heat the 
ground, and tramps up the fallen leaves that should be a 
mulch to protect it in dry weather, and alkali rises much 
quicker on land that is tramped. When cut for hay, it 
should be promptly stacked when dry, as no crop suffers so 
much from bleaching and loss of weight if not promptly 
cured. The rate of interest the loss would make I cannot 
tell. If you will allow me to digress, I will say barley cut 
for hay should be immediately stacked so the stubble can 
be raked before the scatterings bleach. You will be sur- 
prised at the amount and value of your lakings and the 
weight and good color of your crop. 

Gophers and the dodder or love vine are the great 
enemies of alfalfa. The former I catch with C. V. wire 
traps. See that the points of your trap are sharp; then 
take a piece of No. 16 baling wire and pass it through the 
springs .•ind around the coil; twist it close around, once will 
be sufficient; then fasten the ends together so as to form a 
ring to stick the flag-stake through. By this device, 
nothing can pull out the trap unless the stake comes with 
it. I use a rod of quarter-inch iron to probe the fresh piles 
of dirt to locate their open holes; then with a half-round 
hand shovel used in weeding onions, I open the hole, set in 
the trap, and cover the hole and trap with litter or alfalfa 
to darken the hole. Touching the dodder pest or love 
vine, I pay but little attention to it, except to mow it close 
and allow it to dry before raking. Never mow when the 
alfalfa is wet; the severed bits of dodder remaining on the 
field again attach themselves to the host and thrive. With 
me it has proved to be an annual. I have sometimes taken 
a sharp scythe, mowed the patches close, and let the sun 
dry it and burn it. Of course, local conditions of soil and 
water require difTerent treatment; hence these meetings and 

Alfalfa-hay should never be left out in stacks during the 
rainy season, as it does not shed the water well, but moulds 
and rots quickly. If baled for market, it should be stored 
in tight barns or warehouses. It bleaches in sheds and 
must be kept well off the ground, as it absorbs moisture 
and spoils more easily than most any other hay crop. 

Stamboal's Record not Gennine. 

The following letter in a San Joaquin county paper 
from one of the judges in the recent performance of 
Stamboul against time at Stockton, November 23d, when 
he was alleged to have broken the world's stallion record 
in 2.07 yi, will be likely to cause a sensation : I desire to 
make a few remarks through the columns of your paper 
relative to the turf scandal that has been going the rounds 
of the press about the record of Stamboul alleged to have 
been made on the Stockton track November 23d. On the 
morning of that day I served as one of the judges with 
Hon. B. F. Langford and W. H. Parker when Stamboul 
made the reported time of 2.oy}4. As I expected there 
would be trouble about the legality of the record, I did not 
sign my name in the judges' book. I might state also that 
Mr. Grant Campbell was one of the regularly appointed 
timers for the event, but no paper, so far as I can learn, 
has published the fact that Mr. Campbell was one of the 
timers. The Stockton Mail stated the other evening that 
all the judges and time-keepers declare that the horse was 
not started until after 10 o'clock. I for one never made 
any such statement for the very good reason that I knew 
the horse was started before 10 o'clock. The Mail also 
stated that several other men in the stand and upon the 
ground held their watches and none of these questioned 
the accuracy of the time-keepers' report. I can state 
positively that there was one gentleman standing directly 
under the wire when the horse started and he timed the 
full mile. Both he and his watch are reliable, and he said 
his time was several seconds more than that reported by 
the time-keepers. There were several others whose time 
did not agree with the official report and they are well- 
known and reliable horsemen. I became tired of reading 
so many false stories in regard to the matter, and as my 
name was mixed up in thr mess in an unenviable way, I 
deemed it best to publish this letter. I have no personal 
interest in either Stamboul or Kremlin, but I simply desire 
that the truth of the whole affair shall come out. I have 
been accused through the papers of having received " hush 
money" but I guess this letter will qneer that yarn. I am 
in possession of facts in connection with this matter which 
I do not desire here to make public, but any time I am 

wanted to make a statement of facts before the Board of 
Review of the National Trotting Association, I will do so 
under oath, and will furnish other witnesses who will bear 
me out in mv statements. Until further notice I can be 
found at Lodi, Cal. Respectfully, 

John S. Kearney. 

Track Winnings for 1892. 

The winning sire list of thoroughbreds shows 12 stallions 
whose get have won over $50,000 and upward during the 
past season. Iroquois, winner of the English Derby and 
St. Leger of 1881, is at the head of the list, with the im- 
ported horse Mr. Pickwick (now dead) second, and the 
native horse Spendthrift third. Rayon a'Or, who headed 
the list in 1889, is now ninth, and St. Blaise, who led in 
1890, is tenth. Old Longfellow, who headed the list last 
year, is fourth this time. The following table shows the 
number of starters by which each horse was represented, 
and the total amount of money won by the get of each: 

Iroquois, 37 $156,350 

*Mr. Pickwick, 27 111,287 

Spendthrilt, 37 108,817 

Longtellow, 48 98,087 

•The 111 Used, 24 9^.793 

Onondaga, 45 90.550 

Eolus, 19 83.470 

+Sir Modred, 34 7S.582 

•Rayon d'Or, 34 71.030 

*St. Blaise, 31 59,992 

Miser, 10 57.490 

•Billet 56.320 

Total $1,061,768 

•Bred in EngUnd. +Bred in New Zealand. 

This total sum of $1,061,758, divided among the get of 
12 stallions, gives an average of $88,480 for each sire. 
Iroquois has three that won over $10,000 each, being 
Tammany, $72,390; G. W. Johnson, $16,180, and Helen 
Nichols, $10,050. As Iroquois had 37 starters this would 
give about $4,225.70 as the average for each horse. Mr. 
Pickwick's share of the public money was less by some- 
thing over $45,000 than what the tribe of Iroquois carried 
off. His two largest winners were Sir Francis with $43,582 
and the " Alice Bruce colt " with $24,570; and his average 
for 27 representatives is $4121.80 per head. Spendthrift 
had three that crossed the $10,000 mark, Lamplighter, 
with $48,692; Kingston, $17,140, and Pickpocket, $11,405. 
His average for 37 starters is $2,941 each. Longfellow 
had Wadsworth, $13,390, to his credit, and Longstreet 
with $11,500. His average for 48 head is $2043.48 per 
head. — Hidalgo. 

©HE JStOCK *Y''^'^^- 

Live Stock Notes. 

The only safe rule in caring for young stock of any 
kind is to " count that day lost which sees no " pound of 
gain. Keep them growing all the time. 

Some one or more of the books which treat upon the 
diseases of domestic animals should be in the library 01 
every farmer. An early application of some of the most 
simple remedies given there for common diseases may 
save the life of a valuable animal, or hold the disease in 
check until the veterinarian can be called. 

The sheep in this country on Jan. i, 1892, were said to 
have increased in number 602,865, and in value $15,461,- 
509, over Jan. i, 1890. 

The horse that gets his foreleg over the halter is apt to 
be a poor horse afterward. Either the injury is apt to 
cause a permanent lameness or the strain causes a weak- 
ness that makes him lazy ever afterward. Make the halter 
long enough for him to lie down, but not long enough for 
him to get his leg over. Some do this by putting the 
halter rope into a ring at the top of the head, bringing the 
end down through the ring under the jaw when they lead 
him out, which they think gives a better purchase in lead- 
ing him. Others pass the halter rope over a pulley and 
affix a weight which will keep the rope taut whether he 
stands close or afar back. Either are good ways for a 
horse given to pawing in the stable. 

The practice of washing out the feet after each drive 
helps to keep the hoof moist and tough, and should be fol- 
lowed by every horse-owner. " No foot, no horse," is an 
old saying. 

Experiments in Feeding Steers. 

The following bulletin has been issued by the Kansas 
Agricultural Experiment Station : 

Bulletin 34 of the Kansas Experiment Station, at Man- 
hattan, contains a report by Prof. C. C. Georgeson, agri- 
culturist, of a valuable series of experiments in steer- 

Twenty grade Shorthorn steers, averaging about 1200 
pounds in weight, and all having their horns removed, 
were selected out of a herd of about 200. After some 
weeks of preliminary feeding, to accustom the steers to 
their new quarters, they were divided into four lots of five 
steers each, and treated as follows : 

Lots I, 2 and 3 were kept tied in the barn, except for an 
hour or two during the middle of the day, when they had 
the range of an open yard, in which was a shed, open to 
the south, into which they should go at will. All the 
cattle had what fodder and prairie hay they would eat, and 
in addition a grain ration, which was carefully weighed out 
to each steer in the barn fed lots, so that the exact amount 
eaten by each lot could be determined. The grain ration 
was as follows : 

To lot I, a mixture of cornmeal, oilmeal and bran, so 
adjusted as to give a relatively large proportion of albumin- 
oids to carbohydrates in the ration. To lot^2, cornmeal 
only. To lots 3 and 4, ear-corn only. ■ 

Following are the local prices of the feeds^^consumedj: 

Ear-corn, 33 cents per bushel, $940 per ton; cornmeal 
(home-ground), $11 per ton; shorts, $10.80 per ton; bran, 
$8 per ton; oilmeal, $27 per ton; tame hay, $5 per ton; 
prairie hay, $3.50 per ton; cornstalks, $2.50 per ton. 

The experiment continued from November 30th to May 
30th— six months. The total cost of the cattle, delivered 
on the experiment farm in November, amounted to $3.41 
per hundred pounds; lots 2,3 and 4 were sold at $4.10, 
and lot I at $4.20 per hundred pounds in May — the fall 
price being high and the spring price low owing to the 
market fluctuations. 

The following statement gives the financial results of the 
operation, the cost of freight and commission being added 
to the original cost : 

Average Total, 
gain, increase Cost of 

I-ot. pounds. in value. feed. Loss. 

1 436 $130 00 $155 00 $25 00 

2 268 88 00 ic6 00 18 00 

3 284 89 00 1C4 00 15 00 

4 391 89 00 126 00 37 00 
It will be observed that this statement shows the best 

results financially from feeding ear-corn in the stable, the 
lot thus fed making nearly as great a gain, and at consider- 
ably smaller expenditure for food, than the lot fed out- 
doors, and this in a climate particularly favorable to out- 
door feeding. 

The advance in price was about three-quarters of a cent 
per pound; had a full cent been realized, the increased 
value would have covered the cost of feed, but no margin 
except the manure and the possible gain from hogs follow- 
ing the cattle would have been left to cover the cost of 
attendance, interest on the investment, etc. 

The experiment was purposely continued for a longer 
time than is usually found profitable to feed, and the full 
details show that if the cattle could have been sold at an 
earlier date at the price finally realized, there might have 
been a small profit, as the rate of gain was much more 
rapid during the earlier than during the later months of 
the experiment. 

(She 'V'lJ^EYT'fRD. 

Grafting Against Phylloxera. 

The following additional report on the condition of viti- 
culture in the Napa valley has been filed by E. C. Priber, 
one of the State Viticultural Commissioners. The report 
was prepared by A. Warren Robinson, who has just com- 
pleted the canvass of the county. 

Napa^ Dec. 10, 1892. 

It would be exceedingly difficult for any one to accu- 
rately judge of the amount of vineyard acreage in this 
county now infested by phylloxera, even approximately. 
Some vineyards, and they are not few, are entirely de- 
stroyed, and the remnants of quite a number will be dug 
up this winter. But it has been noted in the past that 
many vineyards have suddenly shown signs of the presence 
of the destroying insect, and whole blocks of vines have 
died in a very short time, indicating, evidently, that the 
phylloxera had, unknown and often unsurmised, been for 
some time hard at work at the roots. 

So it is to-day. Vines that show no signs of disease may 
soon be swept away. It is for this reason that hardly any 
one can judge accurately of the amount of vines now in- 
fected. Those that are badly diseased, or even to a fair 
degree, can be detected by the practiced eye, if signs of 
this condition of things appear above ground. But defec- 
tion often comes when the vines are thoroughly diseased. 

Therefore, it may be safely stated that the results of the 
ravages of the phylloxera in our vineyards during the year 
or two to come, cannot now be accurately estimated, and 
the figures given in this report do not begin to show the 
vastness of the injury now working and to follow within 
even two years. 

Since the time resistants were first planted in this county, 
different parties have had much expensive experience in 
grafting foreign varieties upon them. Failure attended 
many of the first trials, but, profiting by past efforts, graft- 
ing is performed, if proper care be taken in every detail of 
its operation, successfully. " In my vineyard ninety-nine 
per cent of grafts have taken and grown vigorously," said 
one vineyardist. 

Many of the failures in years gone by were due to too 
deep and too careless grafting. The soil was dug away 
from the resistant vine several inches and the stock cut off 
some distance from the surface. Where this method was 
practiced a very large per cent of the grafts often died. The 
union of stock and scion was imperfect. In cases where 
the scion was not inserted so low down, but still a lew 
inches below the surface, failure resulted because the roots 
the scion threw off were not removed, through inattention 
or lack of knowledge. The consequence was that as they 
grew they forced the scion out of the stock and failure re- 

The best success now attained by some persons, who have 
had much experience in grafting, is to insert the scion in 
the resistant stock quite near or at the surface of the ground. 
Care should always be taken to see that any rootlets the 
scion may throw off are removed. If permitted to grow, 
the phylloxera may, as often has been the case, prey upon 
these roots and destroy the vine. When this occurs, the 
resistant stock has frequently been condemned, though 
unjustly, as nonresistant. 

When due care has been taken, success has universally 
attended grafting upon resistant stocks. Inner bark of 
stock and scion must be sure to meet, and after tying, the 
earth should be firmly pressed around the graft. If the 
cleft graft is used and but one scion is inserted, the cleft to 
one side of the scion will readily heal although there has 
been some dispute on this point. 

The method of inserting the scion in the side of the stock, 
at an angle, allowing the resistant vine above the graft to 
continue its growth until the union is perfect, then to re- 

January 7, 1893. 

f ACIFie ^URASfl f RE8S. 

move that portion of the vine above the scion, has been 
tried, but not always with success. The theory may be 
good but the result has often been that the wind would 
sway the vine back and forth and the graft would be forced 

Again, i* has been found beat to allow the resistant stock 
to attain good size before grafting, as, if the graft is inserted 
too early, there will not be sufficient strength in the stock 
to support the scion; or the scion may overgrow the stock 
and the result be far from what is desired. But where due 
care is taken in all the essentials, grafts grow readily, rap- 
idly and yield bountifully, even bearing the first year or two. 
Said a vineyardist who has had abundant success in graft- 
ing resistants, " I took this fall from a scion inserted in Ri- 
paria stock last spring, eight pounds of excellent grapes." 
Another, who has had considerable experience in grafting, 
said, " From two-year-old Sauvignon Vert grafts inserted 
in Riparia stocks, I gathered this fall an high as thirty-five 
pounds of grapes to a graft." 

In more than one instance inquiry elicited the informa- 
tion that it was preferable to plant resistant cuttings where 
they were to permanently remain in the vineyard. If planted 
in the nursery and transplanted when the roots had well 
grown, there is, of necessity, more or less of a check to the 
growth of the vine. The experience of one practical vine- 
yardist of many years observation has been that cuttings 
have, in a year or two, overtaken rooted vines that were 
transplan'ed. On the other hand there are those who con- 
tend that it is easier to care for the resistant cuttings in the 
nursery until they are well rooted and at much less expense 
than to plant cuttings at once in the vineyard. There are 
those who favor the one plan— some the other. But many 
strong and unanswerable arguments are presented in favor 
of the method first mentioned. 

What is required in successful grafting is patience, care 
and watchfulness, at the time ot grafting and for some 
months thereafter. If this system is pursued, success should 
attend grafting, as has been proved, conclusively, by the 
experience of many vineyardists in this county. 

A. Warren Robinson. 


Foreign Tree Pests and Diseases, 

The following paper was read at the last regular meeting 
of the State Horticultural Society by Alexander Craw, 
State horticultural quarantine officer: The subject of 
Foreign Tree Pests and Diseases assigned to me at your 
last meeting is one that does not take up the insects 
with which the fruitgrowers of this State are familiar. 
Nevertheless it will be of interest to the horticulturists to 
know the difTerent destructive species that I have found 
upon imported trees, plants and shrubbery from different 
parts of the world. It is not necessary for me to point out 
the importance of quarantine restrictions upon all plant 
life imported or brought to the State from outside districts. 
The introduction of and our expensive experience with the 
destructive " cottony cushion scale," Icerya purchasi, is 
still fresh in the memory of many (ruugrowers. The 
onward march of this fell destroyer in spite of the heroic 
measures adopted to stamp it out, or even keep it in 
check, is now a matter of history. Many a valuable or- 
chard, beautiful shade tree and lovely shrub or flower was 
chopped out root and branch and committed to the flames 
as the result of the introduction and spread of that pest. 
This was done in the hope of exterminating this insidious 
foreigner but was of little if any avail. At that time (1887) 
the future of citrus culture was dark indeed. Men who 
had spent their money and the best portion of their lives 
in the planting and development of their beautiful orange 
groves could see no ray of light through the dark cloud 
that hung over portions of the State. It was only a ques- 
tion of time until the whole State should be invaded. The 
thorough disinfection or the destruction of those trees upon 
which that pest was introduced would have saved hundreds 
of thousands of dollars of property and costly experience 
with washes and chemical fumigation. 

When it is considered that nearly all of the more 
destructive insect pests found in the orchards of this State 
have been introduced, it will be seen that we cannot be too 
strict in our inspection and quarantine of imported trees. 
The destructive red scale Aspidiotus aurantii, was intro- 
duced upon citrus trees from Australia, and is undoubtedly 
a native of that country, for I have never found it upon 
fruit or trees from any other portion of the world with 
which we have dealings. This pest can be traced to four 
diflferent importations of trees from that country about 
eighteen years ago, and from those centers it spread; but 
I am not aware of a single case of this species north of 
Tehachapi, although there is another very closely allied 
species that is found in a number of orange orchards in 
the central counties that is often called the " red scale;" 
this is the " yellow scale,'' Aspidiotus citrifius, and can be 
distinguished from the "red" by its habits of attacking the 
leaves and fruit, and very rarely the twigs or branches, 
whereas, the true red scale can be found as, numerous on 
the bark as on leaves or fruit. The yellow scale was intro- 
duced from Japan in the early seventies, The black, soft, 
oyster-shell, and others are imported species, and the per- 
nicious or so-oalled San Jose scale is unquestionably of 
foreign origin. In regard to the latter I have been informed 
by Mr. John Britton. of San Jose, that the first orchard in- 
fested with this scale was that of the late James Lick, and 
he was of the opinion that the trees were received from 
Ohile. The injury caused by this scale is too well known 
and need not be referred to. In recent years great im- 
provement has been made in remedies for scale pests, both 
in regard to cheapness and efTect upon the tree. But with 
all these improvements it was found impossible to destroy 
one of the species {chionaspis biclavis) of scale insects in- 
festing an importation of 325,000 orange trees that arrived 
about eighteen months ago from the island of Tahiti. 

The owners of these trees made every effort to destroy 
those scales in order that the trees could be passed upon 
and released from quarantine. But after five treatments 
with hydrocyanic acid gas, the most eflfective agency we 
have— used at double and treble strength — the scales sur- 
vived, as they are protected by a very thin covering or skin 
overlying the bark under which they locate. The trees 
were also dipped, root and branch into an insecticide, and 
that too failed; so the court, after weighing these facts, or- 
dered them destroyed. We cannot estimate what the dam- 
age would have been had that insect become established 
in the orchards of the State; but of one thing we are cer- 
tain—it would not have benefited the trees. The long or 
Glover's scale, Myiilaspis gloverii, has been found upon 
citrus trees from Florida and also from Japan, one lot from 
the latter country being so seriously infested that I burned 
them. This scale proved to be a very serious pest when 
first introduced into Florida, and destroyed a number of 
the old groves. The " purple scale," Mytilaspis citricola, 
is like the long scale, but broader, more curved and of a 
purplish instead ot brown color. It is a pest in Europe, 
and has also been found in great numbers upon citrus trees 
from Florida. Both species attack the bark, leaves and 

The "Florida red scale," Aspidiotus ficus, was found 
upon an importation of orange trees from Florida, a ship- 
ment of palm trees {Laiatiia borbonicd) from Cuba, where 
this scale is said to be a native, and also upon a lot of 
Ilix latifolia from Japan. This is a more conspicuous 
scale tban the others, and is also very destructive. 

The " Chaff scale," Parlatoria pergandii, has also been 
found upon trees from Florida and a closely-allied species, 
P. proieus, Ixom the islands of the Pacific. The "wax 
scale," Cerioplastis floridensis, from Florida and C. rusci 
from Japan are very conspicuous and rather pretty scales. 
The latter species was found upon gardenias, oranges and 
camellias, the former upon citrus trees. Another scale 
somewhat resembling the Cerioplastis is the Ctetiochiton 
perforatus from Australia upon palm trees. This is said to 
be a destructive species of coccidae. Another soft scale 
from Australia was found in numbers upon ornamental 
\.x^ts; \X \s Xh^ Dactylopius iccryoides, and, as its specific 
name indicates, resembles the lamily to which the cottony 
cushion scale belongs. Another cottony scale or mealy 
bug, Dactylopius destructor, was found upon coffee and 
other plants from Honolulu. Binana plants from the same 
place were infested with a species of white aphis. Two 
shipments of plants, ardesias and gardenias, from Japan 
were seriously infested with the cottony scale, Ptdvenaria 
camellicola. This resembles the maple scale of the eastern 
States, but is narrower and smaller. Upon trees from 
Japan I found the troublesome pest Chionaspis citri. The 
males of this species are small, narrow, whue scales and 
become so numerous that they completely cover the stem 
like whitewash. This species has also been found upon 
trees from Australia. It attacks the trunk and branches. 
In writing about this scale in Louisiana, Prof. H. A. Mor- 
gan says: "When this species infests young shoots, the 
plant succumbs to the attack just as quickly as it would to 
that of the Glover scale." A scale belonging to the same 
family as the black and soft-brown scale was received upon 
palm trees from Honolulu. This is a very conspicuous 
species, as it is almost a jet-black and lies very flat upon 
the leaf; it is Lecanium depressum. 

Upon the stems and large branches of camellias, azalias 
and peonies is frequently found a large species of scale that 
so closely resembles the bark it is very difficult to detect it. 

A small black Aleyrodes is also found upon camellias. A 
circular black scale resembling the Florida red scale in- 
fested palms from Australia. It is Aspidiotus rossii. 

Besides the foregoing, nine undescribed species have 
been found upon deciduous trees. Ornamental trees and 
plants from the eastern States are frequently found to be 
infested with scale; also eggs of leaf eating insects. 

Peach and other trees from the East are generally in- 
fested with root borers and should be condemned. Two 
large consignments of peach trees from the East were found 
infested with the terrible black aphis. Aphis persica ni^er, 
and were destroyed. This is a new pest to the peach, and 
as it attacks the roots it is more difficult to fight. Nurseries 
of 100,000 trees have been destroyed by this pest in three 
weeks' time. When the trees are dormant this aphis can 
only be found upon the roots. The half-grown insects are 
very dark green and when full are a shining black. When 
trees are found to be infested with this pest no time should 
be lost in destroying them. Disinfection or fumigation 
should not be relied upon. 

Blue Gnms for Fuel. 

In conversation with a ranchman of the valley yesterday, 
a Santa Ana Blade reporter gleaned a few facts concerning 
the growth and value of blue gum as fuel. The gentleman 

I have five acres of land which I did not consider good 
for farming, so I set it to blue gums. I cultivated the land 
at first sufficiently to keep the weeds down until the trees 
could get a start to growing well; after that I paid but 
little attention to them. They grew rapidly and but few 
died, and at the expiration of seven years I cut my trees 
into firewood, for which I found a ready sale at a satisfac- 
tory price. The stumps I left soon began to grow again 
and send up shoots. I left three shoots to the stump and 
gave them no care, and in five years cut them down again 
and realized twice as much wood and money as I had at 
the first cutting. I am now awaiting another growth from 
the same stumps. I hive made a careful estimate of the 
amount of money realized off of the five acres in blue-gum 
trees and the time required to produce them, also a careful 
estimate of the same number of acres that I have farmed 
for the same length of time, and, upon comparison, find the 
five acres in blue-gum trees have made me the most 
money, to say nothing of the labor I have used in farming 
the five acres. 


The State Horticultural Society. 

The regular monthly meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society was held in San Francisco Friday of last week. 
The re was a good attendance and discussion was largely 
upon pruning and the time to plant young trees from the 

Mr. Overacker, of Alameda county, stated that it was a 
growing practice in his locality not to prune cherries after 
four years of age. Peaches must be pruned every year so 
as to counteract heavy growths and to make practicable 
treatment for scale bugs. Prunes must always be more or 
less pruned. 

Mr. A. T. Perkins cited an instance at San Lorenzo 
where unpruned cherry trees thrive, and pruned trees, 
though still young, are sickly. 

Mr. Miles, of Placer county, said in his locality it was 
not a good idea to prune alter the second year. The 
reason is found in the shallow soil of that locality. 

Mr. Shinn always made an exception in pruning cherries 
in favor of the Black Republican. If not pruned heavily 
every year, the berry is always very small for shipment. 
The Royal Ann, after the fifth year, he thought, bore more 
heavily unpruned. 

In response to a question, Mr. Pryal, of A'ameda, stated 
that in his opinion, the best age at which to plant an apple 
tree is when it is two years old, though on a hillside with a 
southern aspect it is safe to plant them when one year old. 
Others can well be planted at three and even f lur yecrs, 
providing extra care is given in planting and treatment of 
the tree afterward. Prof. Wickson called attention to the 
difference in conditions that surround trees in orchards and 
in gardens. In the former the same care cannot be given 
as in the latter, and it is not safe to plant them at so ad- 
vanced an age. For ordinary purposes it is better to take a 
tree as young as possible for planting. Generally, also, the 
smaller the tree the better, if it is thrifty. Mr. Ramsey 
stated that in his experience, young trees, especially peach 
and apricot, had proved more satisfactory than large trees. 
He had found, however, that apples and pears can be suc- 
cessfully handled at 2 years of age. 

Fred C. Miles stated that for peaches, they preferred in 
his region a dormant bud or a June bud. In most other 
trees they preferred yearlings. 

Mr. Rowley reported the discovery of dangerous scale 
bugs in recent importations of Mexican oranges. Commis- 
sion men claimed that there was no danger of spread, in- 
asmuch as the same scale had been 00 the imported oranges 
for the past nine years. 

The following subjects of discussion were reported for the 
January meeting: 

Future of the OUve Industry, B. M. Lelong leader. 

Varieties of Tiees for Ornamentation of Schoolhouses, 
etc.. Prof. C. H. Allen, San Jose. 

Trees for Ornamentation of Highways, A. L. Bancroft, 
of San Francisco. 

In a communication to the society, C. M. Wells, Super- 
intendent of Construction 'for the World's Fair Commission, 
recommended that the society indorse the " scale for judg 
ing citrus fruit" adopted at the late Fruitgrowers' Conven- 
tion at San Jose. A committee was appointed to draft 
suitable resolutions on the subject, with reference to its in- 
troduction as the scale to be used at the World's Fair and 
at all exhibitions where California fruits are to be judged. 
Following is the committee: B. V. Rowley, Fred C. Miles, 
E. W. Maslio. 

C. M. Wells, Los Angeles; James Boyd, Riverside; G. 
M. Gray, Chico; Alfred T. Perkins, Alameda and B. M. 
Lelong, San Francisco, were appointed a committee to en- 
courage exhibits by fruitgrowers at the World's Fair in the 
competitive lists rather than in the California State build- 

The following standing committees were appointed in 
accordance with the provisions of a new constitution: 

Legislation — S. J. Stabler, Yuba city; S. F. Lieb, San 
Jose; E. W. Maslin, Loomis. 

Subjects — W. P. Batchelder, Sin Francisco. 

Apples and Pears — A. Block, Santa Clara. 

Peaches, Nectarines, and Apricots — R. C. Kells, Yuba 

Plums and Prunes — j. L. Mosher, San Jose; Prof. C. 
H. Allen, San Jose; I. H. Thomas, Visalia. 

Cherries and Small Fruits — J. C. Shinn, Niles. 

Figs, Dates and Raisins — E. W. Maslin, Loomis. 

Citrus Fruits — Fred 0. Miles, Penryn; James Boyd, 
Riverside; H. J. Rudisill, Los Angeles. 

Olives and Olive Oil — John Rock, Niles. 

Nuts— W. B. West, Stockton; F. Gillet, Nevada city; A. 
T. Hatch, Suisun. 

Nomenclature — H. Overacker, Jr., Centerville; Leonard 
Coates, Napa; Fred C. Miles, Penryn. 

Native and Seedling Fruits— Prof. E. J. Wickson. 

Forestry and Irrigation — Henry A. Brainard, San Jose. 

Entomology — Alexander Craw, San Francisco; Ed. M. 
Sheburn, Mountain View; W. E. Johnson, Palo Alto; C. 
W. Woodworth, Berkeley. 

Botany — Prof. C. H. Allen, San Jose. 

Ornithology- W. H. Price, Palo Alto. 

Soils and Fertilization— Prof. E. W. Hilgard, Berkeley. 

Marketing and Fruit Products — A. L. Bancroft, San 

The following new members were elected: 
C. M. Wells of Los Angeles, superintendent of horticul- 
ture in World's Fair Commission, and Dr. A. Liliencrantz, 
San Francisco. 

The growers of Sutter county have decided to organize 
a local fruit exchange. This movement for protection and 
mutual advantage has had effect in nearly every part of 
the States. 


f AClFie f^URAb f RESS. 

January 7, 1893 


Lannchiog Ships. 

Written for the Rvral Prhxs by Isabkl Dakung. 

Below the falls the waters spread 

From sandy beach lo wooded shore; 
Serene at length, beyond the rocks, 

Beyond the maddening rush and roar, 
They circled to a sheltered cove 

Where willows drooped and lilies grew 
Along the margin, and each day 

Shy birds, with thirst, each day made new, 
Bowed low to sip, uplifting then 

Their glossy heads and reverent eyes, 
With chirps and twinkling melodies 

That ever seemed a sweet surprise. 

An elm that trembled long ago 

Upon the spring-time torrent's brink 
Still leaned and held one pliant bough 

Above the lake, to rise and sink 
As wandering zephyrs came and went. 

Or lash the waters into loam 
When tempests gathered in a rage 

To drive the truant zephyrs home. 

One summer day a happy child 

Had built a tiny fleet of ships. 
Then eagerly had sought the cove 

With sailor music on his lips. 
He saw aud climbed the pliant bough, 

While still one little, sun-browned band 
Held fast bis treasures. One by one, 

He sent these ventures lorth unmanned, 
Unguarded, save as clear-eyed Faith 

Hid trimmed the sails to catch the breeze. 
And Hope had watched them as they left 

The harbor by the bending trees. 

A snow-white pennon marked with ink 

Quivered and danced about the mast: 
" Go find some other fellow now," 

The boy had written "hurry, fast I " 
' Twas poorly done, the letters strolled 

In zigzag lines from end to end. 
Yet seemed to bear, for seeing eyes, 

The ble:,sing of a hidden friend; 

A friend whose faith and hope were strong. 

Who knew the common wants and needs. 
And, in the love of giving, joined 

A generous thought lo generous deeds. 
The ships might not return to bim, 

But somewhere, on the farther shore. 
Might cheer some other childish heart 

With joy it had not known before. 

Old Uncle Cyrus. 

A True Story. 

Written for the Rural Press by .Mrs. Maggie 
DOWNLNG Brainard. 

|Y, I place the safety of my 
wife and children in your 
hands. Will you be true to 
my flesh and blood?" 

"I will, Marse Jared, I 
swear it, so help me God. 
I'll bring Miss Rachel and the children 
back safe and sound, or I dies with 'em." 

"Thank God, I knew it," fervently an- 
swered father, as he grasped the black hand 
of his faithful servant. 

" Our home is directly in the line of the 
advancing armies, and I (ear will be in the 
middle of the battle-field. The only safety 
for the family is in flight. I put them in 
your charge. Go directly to Brownsville 
and remain at Major Robertson's until 
morning. Then take an easterly course for 
the Alabama line, and make no definite halt 
until you get to Eufaula. Remain there 
until you hear from me." 

" All right," was the prompt answer. 
" Attend to everything for your mistress," 
continued father. " Remember what a 
master I've tried to be to you, and repay me 
now in this trying hour. If I'm carried 
north a prisoner, watch over my family and 
be true to them — until — " in a choking 
voice — " until we meet again, be it in this 
world or the next." 

" God bless you, Marse Jared," said Uncle 
Cy, "we've been raised up together by old 
Marse, with the same principles, and though 
your skin's white and mine's black, we's got 
the same kind 'er white soul." 

"Then go," said father, excitedly, as 
mother canne up crying bitterly. "The 
fighting armies are advancing rapidly. 
Good bye, my dear wife and poor little 
refugee children. God be with you. Keep 
ahead of the armies, Cy. Good bye." 

Away we flew in a stout spring market 
wagon behind a team of swift horses. Trunks 
and valuables had been hurriedly tossed 
into every available space of the vehicle, 
barely leaving room for us to crouch on 
chairs and stools. 

Mother soon sobbed herself into a dread- 
ful headache, and Uncle Cy, contrary to 
his usual sunny nature, had nothing to say; 
but, giving his old felt hat a nervous jerk 
every once in a while, silently drove the 

We reached Major Robertson's just at 
dusk, after a long, hot journey. Here a 
warm welcome greeted us, and our still 
suffering mother was put to bed to rest. 

The country was in a state of general ex- 

citement. This portion, however, was con 
sidered safe from invasion, being out of the 
direct line of the advancing parties. There 
is no accounting, though, for the freaks of 
war or its uncertain phases, hence the very 
citizens who comfortably went to bed at 
night with every assurance of safety were 
aroused before midnight by gunshots from 
retreating cavalry on the one side and ad 
vancing infantry on the other, and the morn 
ing light saw an encamping army in the 
heart of the town. 

General Grant had sent a detached corps 
around by Jackson to flank Gen. Gregg, and 
so, in the circuit to join the main federal 
army on its way to besiege Vicksburg, they 
had come directly through the town. 

Being caught within the lines, our journey 
was naturally at an end, and so it was de- 
cided as soon as the army moved on, that 
we should return home. This was easier 
decided upon than done; for, for some 
reason to this day unexplained, the en 
camped division seemed to have gone into 
spring quarters. 

A week thus passed, a week of mortal 
agony to mother. Not a word could be 
heard from father, and the suspense nearly 
drove her crazy. We happily were too 
young to realize consequences or responsi- 
bilities. Every negro belonging to our kind 
friend's household walked away. "Bottom 
rail's top now," proclaimed the big, fat cook 
as she left the yard. " You'll have to git up 
and git you brek'fuss, and mine, too, when 
dis war's ober. Wite folks got to work for 
niggers now shore, caus Marse Abe say so;" 
and away she sailed in pompous glory. Un- 
cle Cy was as attentive to us and as respect 
ful to mother as ever. Nothing seemed to 
shake his fidelity. 

Ten days passed, and no change. Mother 
was growing thin and weak from mental 
suffering. On the eleventh day. Uncle Cy 
walked into the sitting-room, where the in 
mates of the house were assembled in mis- 
erable idleness, awaiting they knew not 
what, and respectfully holding his hat in his 
hand, bowed to us all, then addressed 

" Miss Rachel, I'm going home." 

O Cy ! " fairly shrieked mother, jumping 
to her feet and excitedly wringing her hands, 
" for God's sake don't desert me." 

" Never, Miss Rachel, never," proudly an- 
swered the old man; "but I'm going home 
to see 'bout Marse Jared. I can't stand it. 
I can't hear nuthin' from him, and I jes' 
don't know what's become of him. So be 
quiet now and listen." 

" But something m^y happen to you," still 
excitedly answered mother; "you may be 
taken for a spy and hung, or — or — Cy, you 
may be persuaded away with fine offers. 
The country is so unsettled I know you will 
never reach Raymond." 

" My mind is done and made up. Miss 
Rachel. I must go and see 'bout Marse 
Jared. Me and him has been raised up to- 
gether, and ever since old Marse died and 
give me to him we'se stood by one 'nuther. 
I went in the army with him- and stood by 
him on the battlefield, and brought him 
home when he was most dead, and now I 
can't rest. Miss Rachel, when I think may 
be he's — he's " 

" What, Cy .'"' gasped poor mother. 

"Hem — he's — well he's — sorter — hem — 
uneasy. I must go; there's no use talking 
'bout it. Write me a letter and gimme, and 
I'll start right oflT." 

binding further words useless, mother 
wrote the letter. Uncle Cy carefully drew 
out the pegs from the sole of his right shoe, 
inserted the closely written letter between 
the soles, and then securely repegged it. 
After bidding us all good-by, he left. 

He preceded directly through the troops 
unmolested, until he had gained about half 
the distance. Here he was called to a halt 
by the master of a broken-down wagon train 
and ordered to go to work. 

Grasping the situation in a moment, he 
knew the best way to do was to quietly obey, 
work until dark, then make his escape. 

Without saying a word, he picked up a 
mallet and hammer and started for work. 
In this he was interrupted by the master. 

" Look here, boys," said he, " that is a 
sharp, shrewd nigger, and I believe the old 
gray-headed rascal is some rebel spy. 
Search him." 

No sooner said than roughly done, and 
Cy was made to strip without a word. In it 
all he civilly helped. 

"Off with them shoes !" 

With a little tremor in his voice, Cy inter- 
posed. " Let me take them shoes off, gen- 
tlemen, myself, for that's beneath a gentle- 
man to handle a nigger's dirty, sweaty shoes, 
and I'se got too much respeck for you to 
'low that." 

This raised a big laugh, and in the mo- 
ment of good humor Uncle Cy pulled off 
his shoes, holding adroitly concealed in the 
palm of his hand the newly-pegged sole. 

Thus, by quick wit he was restored to favor 
and to work. 

At nightfall he laid down his tools, and, 
watching his chance, disappeared in the 
woods. Under the shelter of forest and 
sage-fields he reached home. How often 
have I heard my father tell of the arrival of 
that faithful creature, and how they hysteric- 
ally laughed and cried when they greeted 
each other; how Uncle Cy went to the quar- 
termaster's and drew rations for him and 
made him as comfortable as surrounding 
circumstances would permit, and then how 
light-hearted he started back to bring us 
home again, for the army had passed over 
Big Black river and was encamped in sight 
of Vicksburg. Five long days to sick 
mother, and then a shout from the children 
at play in the yard at the close of the fifth 
proclaimed Uncle Cy's return. In he came 
for happy greetings for all, his brown face 
shining with joy that told good news from 
father before he spoke. 

The next day we bade good-bye lo our 
kind friends, and with the happiest of hearts 
arrived home late in the evening. He 
served faithfully until the close of the war, 
and is now nicely fixed on a place of his 
own at Vicksburg. This is one of the many 
true incidents that have happened in the 

Hints for Housekeepers. 

While the custom of keeping a light in 
the nursery at night is a bad one for many 
reasons, there are some mothers who still 
prefer to adhere to it, and to such we would 
commend the best night-lamps as being pre- 
ferable to gas or an ordinary lamp. If a 
common oil lamp is turned low, it will 
smoke and emit a disagreeable odor, while 
if a gas jet is lowered too far there is dan- 
ger of its being extinguished by the wind, 
and thus endangering the lives of those who 
occupy the room. German tapers may be 
obtained by the box for a small sum at any 
drugstore, and when used according to di- 
rections they make a steady light, and pro- 
duce neither odor nor smoke, and very little 

A persistent washing and rinsing in milk 
will remove an ink stain. 

To remove a glass stopper that has be- 
come tightly wedged, put a drop or two of 
sweet oil in a crevice about the stopper and 
it will loosen in an hour or two. 

Strong ammonia and water will take out 
grease spots. 

Zinc may be polished with a rag mois- 
tened with coal oil, but it must first be 
washed clean and wiped dry with a soft 

Scour wooden utensils, pie, meat and 
bread-boards with cold water and sand- 
soap; it will make and keep them whiter. 

The best shape for a chamois powder- 
bag is a flat, circular one, formed of two cir 
cular pieces of chamois skin about three 
inches across; sew together to make a flat 
piece. Fill the bag and perforate it. To 
make the cover, crochet two little mats of 
white silk, a trifle larger than the chamois 
skins Add to one of the mats a pretty 
border in rose and white or pale blue and 
white, or pale yellow, as you fancy. Lay 
the bag of chamois skin on the bordered 
mat and fasten it down with the unbordered 
mat, using a row of No. i ribbon to face it 
down in place through the meshes of the 
crochet work. The ribbon should match 
the color of the border and should be tied in 
a dainty little bow at one side. 

As a relish for roast duck or game, or- 
ange salad is good. Slice six oranges for 
eight persons. Grate the rind of one and 
add the juice of one lemon, three table 
spoonfuls of salad oil or melted butter, a 
pinch of cayenne pepper, and pour over the 

The forest of Sorrow. 

Once upon a time, through a strange 
country, there rode some goodly knights, 
and their path lay by a deep wood, where 
tangled briers grew very strong and thick, 
and tore the flesh of them that lost their way 
therein. And the leaves of the trees that 
grew in the wood were very dark and thick, 
so that no ray of light came through the 
branches to lighten the gloom and sadness. 
And, as they rode by the dark wood, one 
knight of those that rode, missing his com- 
rades, wandered far away and returned to 
them no more; and they, sorely grieving, 
rode on without him, mourning him as one 

Now, when they reached the fair castle 
toward which they had been journeying, 
they stayed there many days, and made 
merry; and one night, as they sat in cheer- 
ful ease around the logs that burned in the 
great hall, and drank a loving measure, 
there came the comrade they had lost, and 
greeted them. His clothes were ragged like 
a beggar's, and many sad wounds were on 
his sweet flesh, but upon his face there 
shone a great radiance of deep joy. And 
they questioned him, asking him what had 
befallen him; and he told them how in the 
dark wood he had lost his way, and had 
wandered many days and nights, till, torn 
and bleeding, he had lain him down to die. 

Then, when he was nigh unto death, lo! 
through the savage gloom there came to 
him a stately maiden, and took him by the 
hand and led him on through devious paths 
unknown to any man, until upon the dark- 
ness of the woods there dawned a light such 
as the light of day was unto but as a little 
lamp unto the sun; and, in that wondrous 
light, our way-worn knight saw, as in a 
dream, a vision, and so glorious, so fair the 
vision seemed, that of his bleeding wounds 
he thought no more, but stood as one en- 
tranced, whose joy is as deep as the sea, 
whereof no man can tell the depth. 

And the vision faded, and the knight, 
kneeling upon the ground, thanked the 
good saint who into that sad wood had 
strayed his steps, so he had seen the vision 
that lay there hid. 

And the name of that da»k forest was 
Sorrow; but of the vision that the good 
knight saw therein we may not speak nor 
tell. — From " Three Men in a Boat," by 
Jerome K. Jerome. 

The Cure for Low Spirits. 

Rhyme of the Months. 

The old doggerel beginning " Thirty days 
hath September," is no doubt familiar to 
every one in one form or another, and I 
have run across eleven different versions of 
it. Among all the rhymes of the months 
and seasons, the little skit of Sheridan's giv- 
ing each month's characteristic is as good 
as any I remember. It is as follows: 
January, snowy; February, flowy; March, blowy 
April, showery; May, flowery; June, bowery; 
July, moppy; August, croppy; September, poppy; 
October, breezy; November, wheezy; December, 

The rhyme and meter are equally good, 
and the truth wrapped up in each is very 
plainly to be seen. 

" We don't place any value on things till 
we lose them," said Mrs Smith. "That's 
so," said the Widow Jones; " I never knew 
what a good husband I bad lost until I 
heard the minister preach his funeral ser- 
mon." — New York Press. 

The best prescription for depression of 
spirits, generally, is work — work which is 
all-absorbing. The poor who drudge for a 
living seldom develop chronic diseases of 
the nerve and mind, despite the greater 
hardships to which they are subjected. 
How often it happens that the woman of 
wealth, who believes herself to be an invalid, 
and is suddenly thrust into poverty, is able 
to meet the emergency and forgets all the 
morbid tendencies in the necessity which 
calls forth her supreme strength ! A cer- 
tain way of paralyzing her faculties is to 
allow them to waste with disuse. Employ- 
ment keeps away the rust. It keeps the 
mind and heart alive to the interests of the 
day. It has been said that the reason why 
so many old men break down and become 
childish is because they abandon business, 
and thus lose much of their every- day inter- 
est in the world around them. 

It is no uncommon thing to day for people 
who are quite advanced in life to take up 
courses of study and successfully pass 
through them. All such occupations serve 
to keep the interest alive in something be- 
sides mere selfishness, and do more to ward 
away the "fumes of dusky melancholy" than 
all the herbs in the old wife's pot, on which 
our ancestors relied. There is far less ten- 
dency to brooding now in this active work- 
a-day world than there was formerly, when 
people had little to think upon but their 
pains and ills. The daily newspapers, the 
railroads and the telegraphs, which bind the 
interests of the world together in a common 
brotherhood, give now to even the most 
ignorant person but little time for selfih 
brooding. The melancholy maiden with 
clinging skirts and uplifted eyes has given 
place to the athletic woman, with her robust 
health and practical nature. — Jenness Miller 
Illustrated Weekly. 

The Children's Luncheons. — Instead 
of always putting the meat in sandwiches, it 
may be sliced thin, cut in mouthfuls, daintily 
sprinkled with salt, ana wrapped in white 
paper, to be eaten with bread and butter, 
writes Elizabeth Robinson Scovil in the 
Ladies' Home Journal. It is difficult to 
prepare eggs for the lunch-basket. They 
must, of course, be hard-boiled, and should 
be cooked for about 20 minutes, as this ren- 
ders them less indigestible than the ordi- 

January 7, 1893. 

f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 


nary process of boiling them five or six min- 
utes. They can be cut in four pieces length- 
ways, seasoned with salt and wrapped in 
paper, or cut in slices and put between 
bread and butter. Salt is a very important 
ingredient in children's food, and should 
never be omitted from it. A tiny pinch 
should be put in the baby's milk, and the 
child who has learned to like it will resent 
its absence^ 


Mother — " What did you do with that 
medicine the doctor left for you?" Small 
Boy — " I heard there was a poor sick boy 
in the back street, an' I took it around an' 
left it for him." 

" I KNOW, Marie," he said, " I think every 
child shows in some way in what calling it 
is most likely to succeed in after years. Do 
you think so ? " " Then we'd better make a 
real estate man of our Willie. I can't keep 
him out of the dirt." 

"Before I take board with you," said 
the applicant, " I wish to know if you ever 
have prunes on the table?" "No sir," re- 
plied Mrs. Small, " we never have anything 
so common. The nearest I come to that is 
to serve the prunus domestica in a variety 
of delicious ways." "Ah, that's entirely 

Squire Oshkosh (to operator in western 
office) — ■' Look here, this 'ere telegram from 
my son Rube don't sound like his. It's too 
sharp and pointed like. Haven't you made 
some mistake." Operator — " Oh, that's all 
right ! You see our wires are down west of 
here, and we have been working about 6o 
miles over a barbed wire fence." — Puck. 

Miss Gushly (who has tarried late in 
the country) — "I do so love the autumn, 
Farmer Yellowchops ! What is it that 
comes so in the autumn, that gives me such 
tingling blood, such a feeling of wild un 
rest." Farmer Yellowchops— " I can't say 
edzac'ly. Miss, but if it comes on your hands 
an' arms, an' eeches like fun, it's prob'ly the 
new buckwhit cakes !" 

The Annoying Freckle. — Freckles are 
apt to be the torment of young people, and 
especially of very fair blondes with red or 
reddish hair, writes Ella Rodman Church in 
the Ladies' Hotne Journal. Applications 
of all manner of blistering remedies are con- 
stantly recommended and used, such active 
poisons as corrosive sublimate and acetate 
of lead figuring largely in them, and the ob- 
ject to be obtained is nothing less than the 
removal of the outer skin, freckles and all. 
Half an ounce each of Cologne water, 
brandy, lemon juice and alum, boiled to- 
gether, produces the same result, more 
slowly and less painfully, but when the skin 
forms again, and is exposed to the same in 
fluences, the freckles leappear. Tan is 
even worse than freckles, as this is a dark 
layer over the entire surface, whereas the 
former do leave glimpses of a fair skin. 
Where it is permanently established, a 
covering of linen or chamois, cut to fit the 
face and neck, wet with cold waler, if used 
nightly, will gradually wear away the tan. 

*Y^OUNG ^ObKS' C[ois)UMjM. 

Cleaning Windows. — Cleaning windows 
is an important part of the work in the rou- 
tine of housekeeping, and while it does not 
seem a difficult task to keep the glass clear 
and bright, it nevertheless requires a knowl- 
edge of what not to do. Never wash win- 
dows when the sun is shining upon them, 
otherwise they will be cloudy and streaky 
from drying before they are well polished oflF; 
and never wash the outside of the window 
first, if you wish to save trouble. Dust the 
sash and glass and wash the window inside, 
using a little ammonia in the water; wipe 
with a cloth free from lint, and polish off 
with soft paper. For the corners, a small 
brush or pointed stick covered with one end 
of the cloth is useful. When you come to 
the glass outside, the defects remaining will 
be more closely seen. Wipe the panes as 
soon as possible after washing and rinsing, 
and polish with either chamois or soft paper. 
In rinsing, one may dash the water on the 
outside, or use a large sponge. It is prefer- 
able to a cloth. 

A Generous Woman. — Mrs. Anna Ma- 
tilda Maulsby, by her will, which has just 
been presented for probate in Washington, 
provides for the erection and maintenance 
of a home for destitute women, as a memo- 
rial to her mother. She bought a site in a 
fashionable part of the city and set apart 
$35,000 for the buildings and $45,000 as an 
endowment fund. She also bequeaths $30,- 
000 to the Newsboys' and Children's Aid So- 
ciety, for a building to be known as the 
" George Maulsby Memorial Home," in 
memory of her late husband. 

With Trumpet and Drum. 

With big tin trumpet and little red drum, 
Marching like soldiers, the children come; 

It's this way and that way they circle and file — 

My I but that music of theirs is fine! 
This way and that way, and after a while 
They march straight into this heart of minel 
A sturdy old heart, but it has to succumb 
To the blare of that trumpet and beat of that drum! 

Come on, little people, from cot and from hall, 
This heart it hath welcome and room for you all I 
It will sing you its songs and warm you with 

As your dear little arms with my arms inter- 

It will rock you away to the Dreamland above — 
Oh, a jolly old heart is the old heart of mine! 
And jollier still is it bound to become 
When you blow that big trumpet and beat that red 
drum I 

So come; though I see not his dear little face. 
And hear not his voice in this jubilant place, 
I know he were happy to bid me enshrine 

His memory deep in my heart with your play. 
Ah. mel but a love that is sweeter than mine 
Holdeth my boy in its keeping to day! 
And my heart it is lonely, so, little folk come, 
March in and make merry with trumpet and drum! 

Eugene Field. 

For the Little Folks. 

I have three little dolls in my play-room, 

Annie, and Fannie, and May, 
And one is witty, and one is pretty. 

And one is naughty all day. 

And some people wouldn't believe it. 
And others would think it queer, 

But the third is my pet .and my darling, 
Naughty, but dearest dear. 

And over and over I kiss her, 

And over and over I say, 
I never could spare the dolly, 

Who is often naughty all day. 

Harper's Young People. 

Boy Kings. 

A boy heating it announced that the young 
King of Spain was likely to make a visit to 
this country, exclaimed, "O, what a for- 
tunate boy! How happy he must be to know 
that he will be a king!" 

This remark brings to mind a similar ex- 
clamation which fell from the lips of a 
peasant woman who had occasion to ask 
some favor from the household of Louis 
XVI, when they were at Versailles. " O," 
said she, " if I could only have it I should 
be as happy as a queen." 

"As happy as a queen!" said the little 
dauphin, who had been listening to the wo- 
man — "as happy as a queen! I know a 
queen who weeps all day long." 

The little dauphin, child though he was, 
had been made strangely thoughtful by the 
scenes and events which came into his every- 
day life. There m something pathetic in the 
very thought of boy kings and royal youths, 
so sad and so tragic has been the fate of 
many; none more so than the fate of the lit- 
tle fellow who astonished the peasant woman 
by his remark. 

Upon heating that his father was con- 
demned to die, he, rushed out of the apart- 
ment where he and his mother and aunt and 
sister were imprisoned, and made an effort 
to pass the guard, saying: 

" Do let me go. I want to get out and 
beg the people not to kill my father." 

When he was told that his father had 
been executed, he said: 

"And he was so good! Why did they 
kill him ?" 

Afterward, when torn from his mother's 
embrace, and subjected to the brutal treat- 
ment which Simon, the shoemaker, prac- 
ticed upon him day and night, his only re- 
monstrance was, "What harm have I ever 
done to anybody ?" 

Death came to the rescue of this boy 
king, and his suffering was comparatively 
short. Not so fortunate was Ivan VI, who, 
descended from the elder brother of Peter 
the Great, could claim a right of inheritance 
to the Russian throne, but when old enough 
to possess his rights was, through tyranny 
and treachery, thrust into prison, where he 
passed his whole life. Said he: 

" I have hardly any idea of the distress 
which assailed my infancy, but from the 
moment that I began to be sensible of my 
misfortune I never ceased to mingle my 
tears with those of my father and mother, 
who were wretched on my account; and my 
greatest misery was to see the barbarous 
treatment they suffered as we were hurried 
from one prison to another." 

He had been guilty of no crime or misde- 
meanor, but he was the rightful heir to the 
throne, and the usurper, Catherine II, was 
determined that the people should not see 
the boy king. After years of imprisonment 
he was murdered in his cell, and, dressed in 
the garb of a fisherman, was hurried into an 
obscure grave. 

The fate of the young Princes in the 
Tower, murdered through the cruel ambition 
of their uncle, Richard III, is another exam- 
ple of the misery which often falls to the lot 
of youths who have a right to a throne and 
a crown. 

If the gossiping chroniclers may be con- 
sidered authority, Louis XIII, the son of the 
brave and famous Henri IV, the revered 
monarch of the French, did not rest upon a 
bed of roses. The old king, Henri, was a 
believer in the virtue of the rod, and he gave 
it to the boy king unsparingly. Louis was 
not wanting in wit, and upon one occasion, 
when his governess and governor were dis- 
puting with each other as to which had the 
best right to the boy, he said in an under- 
tone, " And I hope some day I shall be my 

At his birthday dinner his father drank 
the toast: " I hope, Louis, 20 years from to- 
day to give you the whip." And the boy re- 
fused to echo that sentiment. Once, as he 
was being taught the ten commandments, 
when he came to the words " Thou shalt not 
kill," he said," What, not kill the Spaniards, 
who are papa's enemies!" The reverend in- 
structor tried to make him understand that 
he must not desire to take the lives of 
Spaniards, who were Christian people. 
" Well, then, replied he, " I suppose I must 
kill the Turks." 

His father had told him that one of his 
pottery fifjures, a monkey, resembled the 
Duke of Guise. Shortly afterward, the Duke 
entered the boy's playroom, and seeing the 
image, asked him what it was. " It's your 
likeness," answered Louis. 

" How do you know that ? " asked the 

" Papa told me so," replied Louis. 

The Dauphin was out riding when his 
father was murdered by Francois Ravaillac. 
When he was informed of it, he exclaimed, 
with tears in his eyes, " O, if I had only 
been there with my sword, I could have 
killed him ! " 

Perhaps no child ever lived who had a less 
joyous and less loved childhood than Fred- 
erick the Great. To call his father a bear 
in uncouthness, and even in cruelty, seems 
perfectly consistent with the facts which are 
known to the world. To be boxed and 
cuffed and whipped was an every-day ex- 
perience for the little Crown Prince. The 
old king's temper was terrific, and when he 
was in an especially ill-humor he always 
took occasion to vent it upon his son and 
daughter, Wilhelmina. Indeed, if we were 
not familiar from other sources with the 
character of this surly and ill-tempered old 
man, it would be difficult to believe the 
things recorded in Wilhelmina's diary. 

When the royal rage broke out, the fa- 
vorite child and the mother did not escape, 
but the worst storming and thumping were 
reserved for Fritz and Wilhelmina. The 
boy's life was directed in a Spartan spirit. 
His food was coarse and often insufficient, 
and he was able to get a due allowance of 
sleep only through the interference of the 
doctor. Beer soup constituted the chief 
article of his diet, and until he was 17 he 
was not allowed one cent of pocket money. 
What would American boys say to such dis- 
cipline ? As the King grew older, his treat- 
ment of the Crown Prince became more and 
more severe, and he added to his unkindness, 
indignities and taunts, telling the boy that 
he was a coward to endure such treatment. 
Upon this, young Fritz tried to escape to 
England, but was captured. 

Of all boy Kings, there is no more pictur- 
esque figure than Conradin, the last of the 
house of Hohenstaufen. At the age of 15, 
in the year 1267, he set out across the Alps 
with an army of 10,000 men to espouse the 
cause of the Ghibelline party in Italy. The 
victim of treachery, he was imprisoned and 
sentenced to be beheaded. Upon the scaf- 
fold he said, " I ask all chiefs and princes 
of this earth whether he is guilty of death 
who defends his own and his people's 
rights." Then flinging his glove from the 
scaffold, to be taken to King Peter of Ara- 
gon as a token that to him Conradin be- 
queathed his rights over Naples and Sicily, 
he submitted to the executioner. A boy in 
years, he had the courage and the dignity 
of a man, and even in dying showed such 
nobility of spirit and such Christian heroism 
that his enemies could not withhold their 
admiration of the chivalrous boy King. 
What a mockery, in the face of all these sad 
experiences, is the expression "as happy as 
a King " 1 

When the little Dauphin, son of Louis 
XVI, fell one day in his sport, and hurt him- 
self badly, his attendants were making a 
great matter of it, when his mother, Marie 
Antoinette, said: " Let him alone; he must 
learn to suffer. It is the lot of Kings ! " 
Dreadfully true was this in his own short 
life and true of royalty in every age. High 
places often demand high suffering. — Zitella 
Cocke in the Harper's Young People. 

Pancakes. — Two cups of milk, one egg, 
two spoons of sugar, two teaspoons of bak- 
ing powder, a little salt, flour for a stiff bat- 
ter; fry in hot lard. 

Rice Pudding.— Two quarts of milk, half 
a cup of rice, two-thirds teacup of sugar and 
one cup of raisins. Bake in a slow oven 
over three hours, stirring occasionally. 

Rye Breakfast Cakes. — Two cups of 
rye meal, one-half cup of molasses, i % cups 
of sweet milk, one teaspoonful of soda, a 
little salt. Mix very soft, and bake at once 
in a roUpan or muffin rings. 

Buckwheat Cakes.— For a family of 
four or five, take one quart of warm water, 
two spoons of Indian meal, small cup of 
yeast, salt, with enough buckwheat to make 
a stiff batter. Let it rise all night. 

Kisses. — Take one tablespoonful of sugar 
to the white of one egg. Flavor with vanilla, 
and beat with a spoon until quite light. 
Drop in little heaps on white paper and bake 
in a cool oven. They must not get brown, 
nor even yellow, but must be hard on top. 

Brown Corn Cakes. — Scald one pint of 
fine corn meal till all wet, then add cold 
water till a little thicker than griddle-cakes. 
Add a pinch of salt. Brown in butter or 
salt-pork fat on both sides, then put them in 
the oven on the grate for 15 minutes to be- 
come crisp. 

Nut Filling.— Take two ounces of 
sugar and make a syrup of it with three 
tablespoonfuls of water, to which add three 
ounces of walnuts, peeled and pounded fine 
in a mortar with the addition of a table- 
spoonful of cream. Add then half a tea- 
spoonful of vanilla essence and one ounce of 
candied lemon peel, minced; stir until thick. 

Chocolate Cake. — Take a quarter of a 
pound of butter, beat to a cream, add the 
yolks of six eggs, half a pound of sugar, and 
stir for half an hour. Then add a quarter 
of a pound of grated chocolate, two tea- 
spoonfuls of cocoa powder, some vanilla 
flavoring, three and a half ounces of corn- 
starch, and finally the snow of the whites of 
six eggs. Bake in a form like preceding 
cakes, but let the oven be hot. It will take 
about three-quarlers of an hour to bake. 

Turkey Soup. — Take the bones and 
scraps left from roast turkey or chicken, or 
any kind of game. Scrape the meat from 
the bones, and lay aside any nice pieces, no 
matter how small. Remove all the stuffing, 
and keep that by itself. Break the bones, 
and pack them closely in a kettle. Cover 
with cold water. Add one small onion, 
sliced, one teaspoon of salt, and a little pep- 
per. Simmer two or three hours, or until 
the bones are clean. Strain, and remove 
the fat. Put the liquor on to boil again, 
and add for every quart of liquor one cup of 
cold meat, cut into small pieces, and half a 
cup of the stuffing. Or omit the stuffing 
and thicken the soup with flour. Simmer 
till the meat is tender, and serve at once. 
If there be a much larger proportion of 
meat and stuffing left, use it in making 
scalloped turkey or croquettes. This is 
much better than to boil meat, bones and 
stuffing together. In that case the stuffing 
absorbs the oil, and gives a very strong, 
disagreeable flavor to the soup. 


Absolutely Pure. 

A cream of tartar baking powder. High- 
est of all in leavening strength. — Latest U. 
S. Government Food Report. 
Royal Baking Powder Co., xo6 Wall St., N. Y. 


f AC[Fie f^URAlo PRESS. 

January 7, 1893, 


From Worthy Master Davis. 

Santa Rosa, Jan. 2, 1893. 

To ie right, and to do right, is right. This, 
the writer wants. I find, in the Rural Press 
of December 17th, in the article headed 
"Return of Master Davis," a few things 
which are not right. Let's get them right, 
and do so without charging the reporter, the 
printer, the proof reader or any one else with 
an intcntiotuil wrong. For we all know, 
mistakes will happen even in a newspaper 
office as well as in " the best regulated 
family." The print makes me say " that the 
report of the worthy lecturer of the National 
Grange contained recommendations in a 
financial way, and that his report after dis- 
cussion, was thrown out." Such a statement 
I did not make, for I well knew that after a 
protracted discussion, and a rollcall, the 
lecturer's report was not changed or modi- 
fied in one particular. It will be a part of 
the journal just as it was submitted by the 
worthy lecturer. 

Again, in commenting on the subjects 
contained in the report made as a minority 
report of the executive committee, the print 
makes it appear that the subject matter con- 
tained in this report was of exactly the same 
nature as that submitted by the worthy lec- 
turer. This is not the case. The term 
"crank-financial scheme " was not used in 
my remarks. Any one who knows Bro. 
Leonard Rhone knows him to be a level- 
headed, honest, sincere man and Patron, 
and however much you may disagree with 
him, you respect him all the while as an 
honorable man. It is true that the financial 
plan proposed by Brother Rhone was hotly 
argued and fought, for and against, and the 
majority of the National Grange refused to 
indorse his plan of making mortgage loans 
on farm property. The report published in 
the Rural of December 17th should, as a 
matter of fact, and to be right, show that 
after much discussion the lecturer's report 
was accepted by the National Grange; while 
the minority report of the executive com- 
mittee was amended by striking out the 
financial recommendations and then adopted. 
I am ever ready to have the facts appear as 
they are, and in this case it is due the wor- 
thy lecturer of the National Grange, Brothers 
Rhone and Charters of the executive com- 
mittee, the Order, the Rural Press and 
myself to be right. No one can afford to be 
so "cranky" that he won't do right when he 
knows what the right is. Hence, knowing 
that you, Mr. Editor, as well as myself, want 
to be right I ask that this correction be given 
the same publicity and circulation that the 
other statements had. By so doing, right, 
which is mighty, will prevail. 

"In essentials unity." This is a part of 
the Grange platform. Can we, as an Order, 
agree on what the "essentials " are ? Just 
now the State legislature is in session. It is 
essential to the industrial classes of Califor- 
nia and of the Union to have a man in the 
Senate of the United States who is not, and 
will not become, a tool of corporate wealth. 
Will we get such a man? Let each Grange 
in this State keep an eye on the Senator and 
Assemblymen from that county and see how 
well he considers this — to the laborer — all 
essential question. Really, the question is a 
most serious one: Do the farmers want a 
farmer to hold office and represent them? 

This storm has been worth dollars to the 
California farmer. 

Owing to the severe weather of Friday 
last the master could not attend the meeting 
of the executive committee. 

Installations, harvest feasts and happy 
reunions are the incidents of the new year 
season with members of the Grange. 

The Journal of proceedings of the last 
session of the California State Grange can 
be had of the secretary. Send two cents 
for postage and have a copy. 

Get a score of applications for your 
Grange during the year 1893! 

Goodbye old year! Welcome 1893. 

A. P. Reardon has been elected master of 
the Kansas State Grange. He is a safe 
man, and the Patrons of Kansas have done 
well to reward Bro. Rearden with reelec- 

The Patrons of the Keystone State have 
reelected Leonard Rhone their worthy 
master of the State Grange. Brother 
Rhone is the present efficient chairman of 
the executive committee of the National 

Delaware State Grange has reelected 
Jnhn C. Higgins worthy master. John C. 
Higgins is a brother of United States 

Senator Higgins of Delaware. We con- 
I gratulate the Patrons of Delaware on their 
choice for worthy master. 

The A. W. for 1893 has been sent to 
deputies. Hope each master will receive it 
on day of his or her installation. If deputies 
have not obtained the word write to the 
master or secretary of the State Grange at 

The master, and no doubt the members 
of the executive committee, will be thanks 
ful for suggestions as to the best and most 
economical means of making a Grange 
canvass of the State during the new year. 
Remember, there is a vast State to be 
reached, many and varied interests to be 
consulted, "many men of many minds" to be 
convinced. How can this be best done? 
Who will outline the most comprehensive, 
terse and successful plan of increasing the 
membership and interest of Granges now in 
existence, and of organizing new, and reor- 
ganizing dormant Granges ? It is often 
said, "where there is a will there is a way." 
Now it goes without the saying, that we 
have the will to upbuild the Grange in Cali- 
fornia. Will some one with more skill 
please point out the way ? In many of the 
Atlantic States the Grange is making won- 
derful gains, why not do so on the Pacific 
coast ? The farmers of California are not 
as well organized as they are in other States. 
Now is the time to act. Let us have a big 
addition to the Grange all along the line in 
1893. With the New Year comes new and 
increased responsibilities. The experiences 
of the past give each one of us an enlarged 
field in which to work. Every additional 
tree or vine, or plant or blade of grass gives 
an additional item for self-improvement and 
self-support. The term "New Year" at 
once suggests new life. We instinctively 
look for new plants, leaves, buds blossoms 
and fruit; we shall soon find the new bird's 
nest, and the tiny eggs. The sportive 
lamb is already to be seen among the flocks 
feeding on the new green of our sunny 
slopes, and newness is already ours, in 
thought and purpose. We will now and 
again write 1892, but the New Year is here, 
and brings its season of decay and unrest, 
as well as its season of newness and hope. 
The forces of nature have caused the vege- 
tation of the past year to dissolve, and with 
it many of our aims and purposes have 
fallen. We know the heavy hand of Time 
has not passed us by, and we recognize all 
too keenly that another span in our bridge 
of years, is fallen. But having passed that 
span, we ought honestly and confidently 
look to the future and see, if we can, what 
its signs of promise are. As members of a 
great fraternity (the Grange), as part of the 
structure that supports and makes thethou^ht 
of the world, it becomes us to see how much 
newness we can add, as our share, of the im- 
provements to be made in 1893. The miner 
has long since learned that " all that glitters 
is not gold." So we should remember, that 
newness is not necessarily improvement. 
Merit determines the value. So with our 
efforts in the line of labor. Let there be 
such a combination as will insure merit and 
newness. Let no one fear lor the result when 
he or she is acting thoughtfully, honestly, 
bravely. Gather new buds and flowers, get 
new ideas and friends, and bind all so closely 
together with the cotd of fraternity that the 
fragrance of the former may blend with the 
strength and stability of the latter, so that 
newness and usefulness born of the Grange 
may be the child which shall bring peace on 
earth good will to men. 

Happy, thrice Happy New Year to all. 

San Jose Grange. 

will It Sever Its Connection with the 
State Granse? 

Sa.n Jose, Jan. 2, 1893. 
To THE Fditor;— At a meeting of the San Jose 
Grange held Dec. 31st, a notice was given by one 
who has been a member of San Jose Grange for ten 
or more years, that, at the meeting to be held Jan. 
141b, he would introduce, for the consideration, a 
resolution providing for the separation of San Jose 
Grange from the Stale Grange, and hoped to be 
prepared at that lime to give abundant reasons why 
San Jose Grange should sever its connection with 
the Slate Grange. 

The brother who gave the notice did not intimate 
that San Jose Grange should discontmue ils weekly 
meetings, but, on the contrary, its mpelings should 
conlinue as .nn independent organization. 

What the final action on the resolution will l)e the 
writer of this knoweth not. But one thing is cer- 
tain, it will open up a broad field for discussion, and 
whether the resolution be adopted or rejected, it is 
evident that one question wilU be pretty thoroughly 
discussed, to wit: Do subordinate Grange-; receive 
benefit or compensation from State and National 
Granges commensurate with the cost of maintaining 
ihpm, and if so, what? 

Installation of officers, literary exercises and har- 
vest feast confined strictly to members of the Order; 
balloting for three candidates is the program for 
Saturday, Jan. 7tb. Amos Adams. 

Mr. Bsrmck Is Eathused. 

Cakmel Valley, Jan 2, 1893. 
To The Editok:— Lowell wrote; 

" Here's bell broke loose, an' we lay flat 
With half the univarse a singein, 

Till Sen 'tor This an' Gov'nor Thet 
Stop squabbUn' fer the garding ingin." 

There are quite a variety of hells thit break loose 
even in the course of one century. The " partickler 
hell'' that Lowell wrote of was the hell of civil war. 
The hell loose just now is the hell of political cor- 
ruption blazing in Paris in connection with the 
Panama Canal scandal. 

The hell I want our people to thunder against is 
the little hell of the very sam" sulphur and nitre 
our politicians are starting in Washington over the 
Nicaragua Canal. What does this great American 
nation waut with any lobbying and log-rolling com- 
pany to assist it in carrying out this great National 

Whatever rights this impecunious corporation has, 
let the great American people buy at value ap- 
praised by disinterested men I Then let our force 
of military engineers put their combined talent and 
personal service at Uncle Sam's disposal, and show 
to the nation that they can do good and valuable 
work for the national pay. Let them have the glory 
of living for their country as well as, if need be, 
dying for it I And let there be no nonsensical red 
tape delay, no unbusiness-like waste of time I Do 
our farmers realize that Congress costs us— us the 
people— %<)o.^o for every minute they are in session? 
Do we realize that one single word uttered in both 
houses costs us 66 cents for its utterance ? Do we 
want this time and these words frittered away in dis- 
cussion as to whether some individual "bounty 
jumoer " sloped after joining the United States 
colors? Or do we want such imperative business as 
this of realizing this grand nineteenth century 
achievement, this cutting the Nicaragua Canal, im- 
mediately taken in hand? 

Let every farmer, let every citizen, let every 
Grange, every Alliance, every organization petition 
Congress in accordance with their views and wishes; 
and do it now I And don't timid'y whisper your 
desires. Thunder at the doors of Congress, and 
THUNDER till Congress hears and acts. 

I don't suppose our Senator Stanford is in any 
very great hurry to get this canal cut. I don't feel 
.>;ure that I should»be if I were in his place. But 
Senator Stanford is there to represent you and not 
the S. P. R. R. Co.; and I have heard of men capa- 
ble of putting duty before self-interest. Anyhow, it 
is your duty to let him know what you want. Do 
yours! Do yours actively, boldly and strongly, and 
yon will make Congress do iheirsi 

Don't let your interest in politics cea'e when 
you cast your vote for your party's champion! 
That's how it comes that after election 

" Kach honnable doughface gits jest wut he axes, 
hxi' the people their annooal solt-sodder an' 

You have had your "annooal sofl-sodder;" now 
make sure you get the Nicaragua Canal, as well as 
your taxes. 

And if you want it, say so NOW I 

Edward Berwick. 

The Secretary's Colnmn. 

By A. T. Drwbv, Secretary State OrkOKe of California 

San Joaquin CouNrv Pomona (Jrange 
will meet at Woodbridge Grange Hall, Jan. 
I2th, at 10 A. M. Subject for discussion: 
The Initiative and Refirendum. 

Joint In.stallation. — All Patrons are 
invited to attend the joint installation nf 
Eden and Temescal Granges at I.O.O.F. 
hall, Oakland, Jan. 7th, at 10 a m. 

State Grange Financial Statement. 
— Receipts during December, of general 
fund, $827.84; disbursements, $232.21; 
balance on hand and in the treasury, 
$595'63. Receipts of lecturers' fund, 
$45.35 and no disbursements; balance, 
$1,919.08. Total balance, in both funds, 

B. A. Giantvalley, P. M. of Eureka 
Grange, is now connected with The Literary 
Northwest at St. Paul, Minn. He writes: 
"Although I am now in a different field of 
labor, I am still with the Grange in my 
thoughts and can look back to many pleas- 
ant hours spent within its gates." 


regret not yet having received the date when 
every Grange will install olTicers. The fol- 
lowing have been announced: Jan. 3, 
Woodbridge; Jan 5, Two Rock; Jan. 7, 
Merced, Eden, Glen Ellen, Potter Valley, 
Tulare, Waterloo, Yuba City, New Hope, 
Pescadero, Stockton, Temescal, Danville, 
Roseville, Selma, Grass Valley, Bennett 
Valley, Watsonville, Enterprise; Jan. 13, 
Washington; Jan. 14, North Butte, Mag- 
nolia, Petaluma, Sacramento. American 
River, Santa Rosa; Feb. 4, Lockeford. 

J. D. Huffman, W. L., visited San 
Francisco this week as representative of 
the San Joaquin County Pomona Grange, 
and also the County Farmers' Alliance 
to forward proposed amendments in the 
Australian Ballot Law. He has been 
actively engaged in conference with the 
various committees of other organizations 
for effecting such amendments as will secure 
greater efficiency in the working of the new 
law. As Bro. Huffman took an active part 
in securing the adoption of this law it seems 
appropriate he should be selected for the 
work he is now engaged in. 

executive commiitee meeting. 
This department of the Pacific Rural 
Press goes to press Tuesdays. Thursday, 
Jan. 5th, the meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee will be held in Sacramento, probably 
at Grange Hall. Among the subjects for 
discussion are: 

Locating the next session of the S. G.; 
Merced Grange resolution on coyote 
bounties; appointing a legislative committee 
and legislative matters generally; plans for 
Grange work for 1893; appointment of depu- 
ties; and such other matters relating to the 
Good of the Order as may be presented. It 
is understood that all members of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee will be present. 


This week will witness the installation of 
cfificers in many Granges. All are apt to be 
fond of the new things of life. We rejoice 
to see new hands stepping willingly forward 
in good heart to take up the work of the 
coming twelve months. We wish all the 
new oflRcers full success, and feel like saying 
good words and per'orming all acts within 
our province to aid them in making the new 
term of 1893 a superior one. That is only 
what every true, humble Patron in the land 
will say and feel. 

We have also kind remembrances for the 
old officers just transferring their imple- 
ments of labor to other select hands. 

Now let every Patron determine to bring 
at least one new member within our gates 
during the year — if possible, before the end 
of the first quarter. 

Don't forget the boys and girls who may 
have reached eligibility to membership, pos- 
sibly sooner than you have realized. The 
Grange needs them, and they need the 
Grange fully as much. In fact, it would be 
a paying investment for many parents to hold 
membeiship in our Order to induce the 
children to come in and stay in. What 
belter place can they have .'' Are there any 
who are not better and safer for being within 
our gates 

The many interesting installation services 
will be accompanied with the pleasant Har- 
vest Feast, affording altogether a rare en- 
joyment that but few members can afford to 
lose. All new officers should prepare them- 
selves to perform their work as efficiently as 
possible, and in this and other ways try to 
make every meeting durinfe the term of 
real interest. 

It is a good time to prepare a special pro- 
gram for at least one meeting during every 
month of the year. This gives Patrons an- 
nounced on the program plenty of oppor- 
tunity to prepare themselves for performing 
the duty assigned. The meetings become 
better advertised, and consequently better 
attended, as a rule, when the order of exer- 
cises is announced a longtime in advance. 


[Secretaries are requested to send us as early report 
as possible for publication under this head.] 

Watsonville Grange.— Election Dec. 
17, 1892; officers chosen : Sister E. Z. 
Roache, M.; George Webb, O. ; Sister A. 
N. Tate. L.; F. Blamh, S.; C;. Rowe, A. S.; 
Wm. Gilkey, C ; R. Williamson, T. ; Sarah 
(i. Cromarty, Sec; Mary Hutrhings, G. K.; 
N. Mauk, Ceres; L. Cooper, P.; Vorah M. 
Roache, F. ; Sister C. E. Bowman, L. A. S.; 
W H. Biwman, Trustee. Date of In- 
stallation, Jan. 7, 1893. 

Woodbridge Grange.— Election Dec. 
6, 1892; officers chosen : H. M. Woods, 
M.; G. H. Ashley, O. ; Miss Melaney 
Mcintosh, L ; John Thompson, S.; Otto 
Spenker, A. S.; Mrs. G. H. Ashley, C; 
Ezra Fiske, T.; H. C. Shattuck. Sec; Jas. 
Pereoti, G. K.; Miss E'ta Williams, Ceres; 
Miss Cassie Ellis, P.; Mi?s Belle Thomp- 
son, F.; Miss Jennie Williams, L. A. S.; E. 

G. Williams, Trustee. Date of installation, 
Jan. 3, 1893. 

Sacramento Pomona Grange. — Sac- 
ramento County Pomona Grange elected 
officers Dec. 31st: L. Sehlmeyer, M.; S. 

H. Jackman, O.; Mrs. S. H. Jackman, L.j 
D. Flint, S.; C. Halverson, A. S ; Mrs. G. 
K. McMullen, C; M. Sprague (reelected), 
S.; A. A. Krull (reelected), 1720 O St., 
Sec; C. A. Hull, G. K ; Miss Etta Plum- 
mer, P.; Mrs. D. Reese, F. ; Mrs. L. 
Sehlmeyer, C ; Mrs. M. A. Youngman, L. 

A. S. : Miss Delia Krull, Pianist. Installa- 
tion Jan. 14th, jointly with Sacramento 
Grange. All Granges in the county and 
visiting Patrons are invited to be present. 

North Buttk Grange. — Election Dec. 
10, 1892; officers chosen: D. Fisher, M. ; Jas. 
Hedeer. O ; Mrs. Denny, L ; Miss Mould, 
S.; W. R. Johnson, A. S.; Mrs. Wilkinson, 
C ; Wrr. Mould. T ; Mr?. Ella Hedger, Sec; 

B. F. Hedger, G. K.; Mrs. Porter, Ceres; 
Miss Marian Rothney, P.; Miss Jennie 
Luther, F. ; Miss Maud Brenton, L- A. S.; 
A. E. Davis, Trustee; Mrs. Ada Hedger, 
Oiganist. Date of installation, Jan. 14, 1893. 

Continued on page 18. 

January 7, 1898. 

f ACIFie l^URAto PRESS. 





The members of the Eem Oounty Land Oompany have a national reputa- 
tion for wealth, business and financial ability. These facta set the matter of 
reliability at rest. The company's capital stock is $10,000,000. 

They have 400,000 acres of arable, irrigable lands upon which the sun shines 
almost constantly; and their enormous irrigation system renders them in- 
dependent of the annual rainfall, 

A clear title; rotation, variety and certainty of crops; easy terms; availability 
to persons in moderate circumstances; ground ready for the plow — no stones 
nor thistles; good society; schools; churches, etc., are a few notable attractions 
of this region of country. 

Kern is the largest county in the San Joaquin Valley. It haa the finest 
climate for curing and drying fruits, etc. 

The 400,000-acre territory of the Zem County Land Oompany is the pick 
of the county. 

Its area is 6,184,000 acres. 

H as the.largest irrigation system in America. 

The home of the peach, French prune, pear and raisin grape. 

Planting and harvesting can be carried on every month in the year. 

N rocks, hilla or stumps on the land. 

A failure of crops is unknown on irrigated lands. 

Kern county fruits take the first prize at the Stat* Fair. 

Land can be made to pay for itself in less than three years. 

Grows more alfalfa than any other county in Oaiifornia. 





The advantages of good soil and plenty of sun, which occur in the Kern 
Valley, would have been of little avail but for the third and all-important 
one of an abundance of water from never- failing sources. 

Through 300 miles of main canals, and 1,100 miles of laterals, the great Kern 
river furnishes enough moisture to slake the thirst of the 400,000 acres al- 
ready referred to. 


rought is out of the question. 

X he system has been constructed in the most careful and scientific manner. 
Some of the canals are 125 feet wide and six feet deep. 

Kern County 
Land Company 

Bakersfleld, - - - California. 

Jackson's Jjotary ^ineyard or (Irchard J; 


It has half-luch steel 
teeth, and l8 made to ro- 
tate either way by simply 
chaDging the cast -Iron 
welRht from one side to 
the other. The Harrow 
wetsrhs 170 lbs., and can 
be taken down and 
packed closely for ship- 

feel; c3.1«t.xia 

etex-), ^aS.I 

The Jackson Vineyard 
Harrow rotates either 
way, at the will of the 
driver, aad by driving 
the slow side next to the 
vine or tree there Is no 
danger of hurting It, as 
the Harrow will roll 
gently around the tree or 

THE JACKSON VINEYARD HARROW wag designed especially for vineyards and orchards, where very 
thorough and carfful work is required. It was introduced to the orchardists in 1S81, and perfected during th»t 
season. It i^ made of gas-pipe, bent round like a wheel, and made perfectly smooth on the outer rim, and presents 
no sharp nornera to the t ees or viues to injure them aa it revolves. It i< provided with handles, so the operator 
oan hold it to or from tlie row. Every farmer should have one for his gsrden, and to level any uneven land, or fill 
up dead furrows. Every vineyardlst or orchard owner should have a sufficient number to go over the whole 
ground in a short time. When the surface Is just io proper condition, one day's work is worth a week's out of 
season. The Jackson Rotary Harrow is a perfect pulverizer, leveler, clod-crusher and weed-killer. It leaves 
weeds on top of the ground— thoroughly shaken— to die. 

BYRON JACKSON. 625 Sixth St.. San Francisco. Cal. 


like to have machines that would lessen 
his labor and cares, and reduce the cost of 
production ? The " Planet Jr." Tools do 
this and do more — they produce better re 
suits and better profits . The new machines 
"PLANET JR." Hill Dropping and Fertilizer Drill; 
" PLANET JR." Combined Drill, Wheel Hoe, Culti- 
vator, Rake and Plow — 
are marvels of mechanical ingenuity. 
The "Planet Jr." book for 1893 shows you their parts and uses 
in detail. It's a book worth having at any price. We send it free. 
S. L. ALLEN & CO., iiojMartcet St., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 


Genuine only with BED 
I BALL brand. 

Recommended by Oold- 
I smith, Marvin, Oamble, 
I Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., eto. 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
I healthy. For mllcb oows; 
I It increases and enriches 
I their milk. 

ass How»rd St., Bmu 
FranelBoo, Oal. 



Etc., Etc. 


Absolutely Guaranteed. 

It Marks. It Furrows. 

It Drops. It Covers. 


^Wicro GUTTER 

A Boy Can Operate It. 
Cuts Potatoes for Seed Faster 
than Eight Men Can by Hand. 
Will Pay for Itself In One Day. 

Simple In Construction. 

It consists of a series of knives 
secured in an opening of tlie table. 
The potato is placed in a pair of 
hinged jaws above ttie knive.';, and by 
a plunger the potato is cut at a single 
stroke and tlie eyes divided in a most 
satisfactory manner. The screen be- 
low frees tlie seed from dirt or chips 
and more tlioroughly prepares the 
cuttings for planting. 




The price places it within 
the reach of all. 

Thoroughly practical. 

Plants 10 to 12 acres per 

tXTRA SLIDES for planting 
PEAS, BEANS, etc. with 
every machine. 

Furnished plain or with 
'fertilizer attachment. Ca- 
pacity of distributing- from 
tv^o hundred toone thousand 
pounds per acre. 

Catalogue of potato and 
corn planting machinery 
FREE. Address 


TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco and Fresno, Agents for the Pacific Coast 

DEWEY & CO. {"^°»i^vl^^f?a^/rof£.^1 PATENT AGENTS 


f AClFie t^URAb f RESS. 

January 7, 1893 




Colnsa Sim; During the past three days the 
Stinch field and Burtis Brothers at Sycamore 
have been engaged in the slaughter of gophers. 
They have kept constantly at it, and now state 
that they have killed 3128 of the little animals. 
The bounty is three cents each. Therefore 
these gentlemen will get from the county 

Contra Costa. 

G. W. McNear is boring for artesian water in 
Martinez. The machinery and boring appa- 
ratus is said to be of the same kind as that used 
in the oil regions of Pennsylvania. 


Reedley Express: There is a lem(in-tree at 
the Mt. Campbell Vineyard Co. which is only 
three years old and bore at least 200 fine lemons 
this year. An acre of such lemons at a low 
price would yield at least $600. 

Sanger Herald: Madera takes the palm for 
big snakes. Two of her citizens have seen a 
reptile near there that was over 100 feet in 
length. The stuff that makes men see snakes 
must be both plentifol and of extraordinary 
quality there. 

Sanger Herald: A few days ago Joseph Burns 
brought to the Herald office a lemon whose 
smallest circumference is Hi inches and largest 
12J inches. It tips the scales at 14i ounces, and 
is a product of Mr. Burns' citrus orchard, about 
six miles east of Sanger. 

Madera Mercury: E. H. Cox has sold his 
famous vineyard near this city to Edward 
Stubbs of Cheshire, England. The consideration 
is $11,000 cash. The vineyard covers 60 acres 
and the vines are both of the finest varieties 
and in magnificent condition. The Cox vine- 
yard is known everywhere as an exceptionally 
line property. 

Republican: The largest haul of coyote scalps 
ever brought to the office of the county clerk 
by any one person in one daj' was brought in 
this afternoon by G. Gilstrap of the West Side. 
He caught them in steel traps, and claims that 
he has just hit upon a plan by which he can 
catch coyotes by the million. He partly proves 
it, for within the last 30 days he has caught 105 
and the price for them is $525. 

The following singular letter, says the Fresno 
Republican, was received recently by a hunter 
of wild game in this county: 

Stockton, December 20, 1892. 

Mr. Boyd: I have gotten your name from a 
friend of yourn & I am writing to you now he 
told me you bunded sume and the last rain has 
drove all the Geese frome hear down south if 
you will catch me 150 geese alive trap them 
with a net or whiskey & wheat I will pay you 
$150 a dollar a piece send some one up with 
them & I will pay his fair up & Back if you 
wont catch them please Give this Notis to your 
leading paper for me raaby some of your friends 
will Ketch them. 

I want them alive 

Please answer 

E A Walser 

Yosemite hotel 
I will be found Any time you come or write 
Address General Delivery Get them as soon as 
you can. 

Mr. Boyd replied as follows: " Send a barrel 
to whisky Jesse Walters at Caruthers. He has 
plenty of wheat but he is short on whisky." 

Developments will be anxiously waited. 

Humboldt Times: Daring the month of No- 
vember there were 2342 sacks of dried peas 
shipped to San Francisco from this county, 
which is a small portion of the whole amount 
received there, and yet the residents of the 
metropolis imagine they get good, pure coffee 
to drink at the average restaurant. 


Echo: Pall information on the subject is not 
yet at hand, but the knowledge already gained 
justifies the conclusion that the acreage of grain 
for 1893 will largely exceed that of any previous 
year in the history of the county. 

Los Angeles. 

The great crop of almonds on 325 acres of 
trees of Hatcb & Rock, near Rivera, this year 
produced about 60 tons of fniit, which will 
bring the company over $10,000. 

Pomona Progress : The barleygrowers say 
they have not had a better promise of a large 
crop since 1889. The grain is coming up lux- 
uriantly on all sides, and there is now sufficient 
moisture in the ground to do well for six or 
eight weeks. 

Another new industry for Los Angeles is the 
planting of oysters at Anaheim Landing. A 
company has been formed for this purpose at 
Los Angeles, which will put out large beds 
of the delicious bivalves, obtaining the seed- 
ysters at the East. 

Pomona Progress: The lowest estimate we 
have seen of the value of the ripening orange 
crop in Southern California is $3,000,000, and 
the highest $4,500,000. The best and most care- 
ful estimate is that of the Santa Fe railroad 
officials, who put it at $4,200,000. They esti- 
mate Pomona's orange yield at $220,000. 

The orange crop of Pomona valley is in first- 
class condition, and, at the preieut market 
prices, will bring tens of thousands of dollars 
to the commnnity during the nextfew months. 
The growers have reason to believe that prices 
will De even better than now as the winter 
passes, and they are not anxioas to contract 
the sale of their crops. 

The Los Nietos and Ranchito Walnut Grow- 
ers Association, on the 19th ult., shipped the 
last of this season's walnut crop. The associa- 
tion delivered to the buyer this season 12,061 
sacks of walnuts, or 1, 2.17.474 pounds, for which 
the growers received $94,825.71. The associa- 

tion's walnut crop loaded 71 cars. Total ship- 
ment of walnuts from Rivera this season was 
82 cars, 13,704 sacks, or 1,425,854 pounds— some- 
thing over $106,000 worth of nuts. 


Chicken thieves are again making them- 
selves known in Mendocino county. Several 
citizens have lost their intended Christmas 

Record : Point Arena creamery is soon to be 
an accomplished fact. About the only difficulty 
that may arise will be in the matter of select- 
ing a suitable site. Several offers of land have 
been made, but opinions are somewhat divided 
as to the best place for the plant. 


Frosty weather has somewhat retarded the 
growth of young grain on the Merced plains. 

Merced colonists have sent a lot of their col- 
ony raisins, figs, home-canned peaches and to- 
matoes for Christmas gifts to their kindred in 
the old country. 

J. M. Lathrop, of Newman, reports the sale 
of the land known as Timothy Paige's Ores- 
timba Colony, being 1400 acres adjoining the 
Woodside Stock Farm, to Messrs. Williams 
Bros., the consideration aggregating over $100,- 
000. The property will still remain on the 
market for sale in subdivisions. 

Merced Express : Hunters have been known 
to sit nearly all night round their campfires 
trying to outtalk each other about long shots 
and the habits of game. The freshest fish story, 
from a river camp in Merced, is that at a point 
on the San Joaquin, carp dug away half an 
acre of hard river-bank, grubbing for wild arti- 

Merced Express : That olives will grow to 
perfection in Merced county is shown by the 
productive condition of the experimental grove 
planted six years ago by Miller & Lux, at Cen- 
tral Point. "Within the last three years a large 
area of olive trees has been planted at colony 
tracts, near Merced City. These are in splendid 
condition, and some will bear fruit next sum- 


The Hunter Bros, will farm 400 acres to 
sugar beets this year near town. They will not 
even reserve enough of their own land to sow 
for hay. 

The storm stopped operations in the beet 
fields of the Salinas district for a time, hut it is 
expected that shipments will be resumed before 
the close of the week. It is estimated that 
there are over 8000 tons of beets yet in the 
fields in that district. 


Napa Register : G.J. Turton, the nursery- 
man, suggests an easy and inexpensive method 
of sprinkling the main county road through 
the valley in summer time. It is to put a large, 
square tank on a wagon-bed, and with it a gas- 
oline engine and pump; to hitch a team to the 
outfit; to hire a man by the month to drive it 
up and down the valley, and by means of a 
sprinkler attachment lay the dust; the water 
used to be pumped from wells sunk at intervals 
along the roadside. Mr. Turton says in most 
cases the wells would be sunk free of charge by 
farmers benefited by the process, and in his 
judgment one man and team thus employed 
will keep nine miles of road in order the season 


Grass Valley Union: Theo. Van Slyke, who 
was in town yesterday, said that one day this 
week a herd of eight deer passed within a short 
distance of his house, going at a leisurely walk. 
He had visions of venison steaks, but being a 
sportsman and a respecter of the law he per- 
mitted them to go their way without molesta- 

More than a year ago the Grass Valley 
Sportsman's Club turned loose several Mongo- 
lian pheasants in Pleasant valley. During the 
past season nothing had been heard from the 
birds, and it has been a mooted question with 
the members of the club whether they had left 
the country, or had fallen a prey to pot-hunters 
or predatory animals. But it appears the birds 
are all right, as a number of them were seen 
during the past week, not far from the point 
they were observed a year ago. This encour- 
ages the belief that the pheasants will thrive in 
the foothills of California. 


Santa Ana Blade : In a talk with a gentle- 
man who has large interests in the coming bar- 
ley crop of the San Joaquin ranch, a Blade re- 

Eorter was informed that many of the farmers 
ad been getting quite blue and discouraged, 
more especially those who had sown early. 
Some of the barley is up and had become badly 
wilted for want of rain; but now, with the 
present fine rainstorm, all felt hopefnl and 
were in a happy condition of mind. He says 
that after the present storm is over, work will 
be pushed ahead with renewed vigor, and that, 
with the grain already sown and the amount to 
be put in, there will be some 25,000 acres of 
barley put in on that ranch the present season. 
San Bernardino. 
Ontario Observer: One of our orange-growers 
has pulled and buried about 50 boxes of oranges. 
He claims that the fruit colors and ripens more 
rapidly and is sweeter than wheo left to mature 
on the trees. 

Redlands Oilrograph : H. H. Ford has an 
eight-acre orchard on Redlands Heights, which 
is two and a half years of age, from one-year- 
old Navel buds. The yield of the trees this 
year is 70 boxes, which is certainly a good 
showing for so young trees. 

Ontario Observer: To be within the truth, 
the Observer stated that the damage done the 
orange crop by the recent blow does not exceed 
five per cent. The fact is, the damage does not 
amount to two per cent. Nearly all of the or- 
anges that were felled to the ground have been 
marketed at $1.25 per box, which of itself is a 
fair price. The green oranges that were stored 

in boxes have ripened nicely, and are in de- 
mand at the same price. The actual loss is 
found to be infinitesimal. 

San DIeso. 
Escondido Advocate: A Julian apple grower 
brought down a ton of fine apples last Saturday 
and sold them to Stevenson Bros, for 2i cents a 
pound. Fifty dollars for a load of Julian 
apples beats Kansas corn at 15 cents a bushe 
all hollow. 

A convention in favor of a new county met 
at Ferris, San Diego countv, the other" day. 
The boundary lines adopted include Alessandro 
and the northern part of San Diego county as 
far as the second standard south S. B. M., which 
includes $5,000,000 of taxable property and 
6500 people. San Jacinto is the proposed name 
of the new county. 

A few weeks ago the first pineapple of this 
year's raising was plucked, says the San Diego 
Sun, and those who assisted the grower to eat 
it pronounced it superb. A large apple is now 
ripe. It is about '7i inches long by 6 in diam- 
eter and is of a rich gold color. It is inspected 
daily by numbers of visitors. Mr. Morrison 
has held the plants back and expects to have a 
crop next summer of at least 500 pineapples. 

A correspondent, says the San Diego Union. 
recently suggested that an attempt be made to 
raise coffee in this county. It is not practicable 
to do so. A tropical climate is necessary. 
Coffee needs an abundance of water. Central 
American plantations get 180 inches of rainfall 
annually. Successful coffee culture is impossi- 
ble without an abundant water supply and a 
higher temperature than are naturally obtain- 
able here. Then, too, the cost of labor is so 
much less in the tropics than here that it 
makes an almost impassible barrier against 
would-be California coffee cultivators. 

San Joaquin. 

Stockton Mail: No more streets should be 
"improved" by the process of grading and 
graveling. It is a waste of money. Gravel wil 
will not stand the wear. If you don't think so 
just borrow a neighbor's rig and drive over any 
one of the recently graveled streets that is sub- 
jected to much travel — Sntter street, for in- 
stance, north of Miner avenue. It has been a 
terrible drain upon the vitality of Stockton, 
this improving of streets that are scarcely 
better afterward than they were before. Some 
streets have already cost more than the best 
pavement would have come to in the first in- 
stance, and they are now not only well nigh 
impassible, but destined to remain a continual 
source of outlay in keeping them in any shape 
at all. The cheapest material is by all odds 
the dearest in the end. 

Santa Barbara. 

Lompoc Record: Stock is beginning to show 
the good effect of new grass already. This 
ought to convince our eastern friends that Cali- 
fornia is the place to live. 

Santa Maria Times: A day's ride through 
the agricultural and horticultural sections of 
this region will till the most despondent man 
with hope. Farm work is going on briskly, 
and orchards formerly neglected are now clean 
and highly cultivated. 

Santa Clara. 

Some discussion is going on regarding the 
best variety of orange to plant in Los Gatos. 
Dealers complain that the Navel is too large, as 
they are sold by the dozen and not by the 
pound as apples are. Dr. McMurtry, who has 
been experimenting with several varieties, has 
these memorandi of his results: Navel, too 
large for profit, is subject to the ravages of 
plant lice; Mandarin, Oonshiu and Satsumi (all 
of one kind), too small, very slow growth, un- 
suitable for the stock generally used, and is 
tasteless; Paper-rind S'. Michaels, thin skinned, 
ripens early, is not excessively acid, and sells 
better than the larger varieties. The Navel is a 
splendid looking fruit, looks well in a front 
yard, and will probably hold its own as the 
best for show. 

Santa Cruz 

The Moon man was in the Shandon and 
Cholame country last week and can vouch for 
the statement that the farmers are putting in a 
larger acreage of grain this year than at any 
season before. The country from Paso Robles 
to Cholame and beyond is one vast stretch of 
newly-turned earth. The farmers out that way 
feel jubilant over the prospect for good crops. 

Reporter : The few orange trees in Vaca val- 
ley old enough to bear are pretty well loaded 
this winter with the golden fruit. We notice 
the two in Col. A. M. Stevenson's front- 
yard on Bush street with a fine crop on them. 
The Martell ranch has been shipping oranges 
for several weeks. 

Solano Republican: The other day a fox 
made its appearapce at Patrick Lang's place, a 
few miles east of Suisun, and, having attracted 
the attention oi Mr. Lang's dogs, they gave 
chase. The dogs brought the fox to bay, and 
Mr. Lang delivered the coup de grace by ren- 
dering Mr. Reynard hors du combat with a 


Santa Rosa Democrat : " A snow year is 
claimed by climatic observers to be a good year 
for agriculture. If this is so, we are in for a 
good prospect this season, as our upland sur- 
roundings are handsomely white-capped." 

Our special reporter from Cloverdale sends a 
full account of the storm in North Sonoma 
and Mendocino. The reports indicate the 
heaviest rainfall ever known in that section. 
Over ten inches of rain in the space of three 
days is in the nature of a cloudburst. 

'The grain warehouse at Pieta was badly 
wrecked in the recent storm. The water under- 
mined the foundation and the wind blew the 
roof off. The company had a big force of men 
at work there Sunday, and by night about 
100,000 bushels of grain had been moved into 

A big farm was sold cheap at Cloverdale re- 
cently. Robert Forsythe, acting as his own 
auctioneer, sold the Mrs. Breitlaugh place, four 
miles from town, consisting of 160 acres of hill 
land, to the hifhest bidder, realizing only $12 
per acre for it, or about one-half its appraised 
value. Land speculators did not seem to be 
very plentiful. 

Petaluma Courier: A gnm-tree on David 
Wharfs farm, six miles from Petaluma, on the 
Santa Rosa road, was torn up by the roots by 
the recent gale. What makes this circumstance 
notable is the fact that that particular gum-tree 
was planted by Mr. Wharf 30 years ago, and 
that it had successfully withstood all previous 


Corning Observer: There were over ten tons 
of turkeys shipped from Corning station to the 
city the week before Christmas, mnking about 
20 tons for the season. Good prices were re- 
ceived for them. 


Porterville ^nierprise; Dave Vaughn brought 
12 navel oranges into town from the Frost 
orchard this week. They weighed 13 ponnds. 

There were 68 cars of freight shipped from 
the little town of Exeter last month — 41 of 
them being grain and 18 being wood. The 
total amount of the freight handled, in ponnds, 
was 1,660,550. 

Visalia Times : L. A. Johnson and Jim 
Fisher recently traded for a ranch in Sonora, 
old Mexico, which contains 1,700,880 acres. 
L. A. has been corresponding with reference to 
the title, and found it is all right. It came 
near paralyzing him when he found there were 
no taxes on his new acquisition. 

There was an interesting rabbit hunt on 
Christmas between the Traver and Reedley 
teams. The hunt was given by the Traver 
learn for a prize of $50, and the contest was to 
have been between several clubs; the others 
failed to appear. The Traver team won first 
money, shooting 122, and Reedley second with 

Lemoore Leader : J. T. Burch, of the S. P. 
Co., let out for rent about 125,000 acres, and 
expected to let 75,(X)0 more this week. "The de- 
mand for pasture lands is immense, and a 
large number of sheep-owners is now on the 
west side rustling for pasture lands. The rental 
is small on these plains, being only 12i cents 
an acre. 


Free Press : The Frederick boys killed a wild 
hog in a jungle on the north side of their place 
the other day. The hog weighed about 300 
pounds. They report seeing some more wild 
bogs, bat could not get near enough to shoot 


While duck-shooting on the overflow in Yolo 
county, Louis Melchoir fainted and fell from 
his skiff and was drowned. The body was re- 
covered. The deceased was a native of Austria, 
aged 40 years, and was an accomplished violin- 
ist and pianist. 


In commenting on recent tables, the Carson 
Appeal says: There were assessed in the State 
of Nevada in 1892, 166,874 head of cattle valued 
at $2,300,483, or between $13 and $14 a head. 
In glancing over these tables, one is struck by 
many curious things. For instance. Humboldt 
county turns in 27,417 head of cattle, including 
cows, beef cattle and stock cattle, valued at 
$352,923, but not a single bull shows up on the 
tax-rolls of that county. The same state of 
affairs exists in Nye, Elko, Esmeralda, Douglas, 
Churchill and White Pine. Stock cattle are 
assessed less than beef cattle, and this is prob- 
ably why the stock cattle of the State as turned 
into the assessor number 146,885, while the 
beef cattle make the modest showing of only 
9430. The horses in the State foot up 48,861, 
valued at $1,077,358. or a little over $22 a head. 
This does not speak much for Nevada horses 
when they average so low; but possibly thehigh 
grades of horses were overlooked when the as- 
sessors were around. Mules in Nevada are 
quiet, only numbering 1320, valued at $46,576, 
and they don't seem to kick at the figures. 
The sheep industry foots up 319,717 sheep, 
valued at $647 649, or about $2 a head. Charles 
Wallace, the assessor of Eureka county, assessed 
his own sheep. He had 100 head of a choice 
breed, and he turned them in at $10 a bead. 


A sack-sewer at the Pendleton, Or., flour- 
mills sewed 600 fifty-pound sacks within five 
hours, which is at the rate of two sacks a 
miimte. Six stitches were taken in each sack. 
The young man claims the championship of the 
Northwpst in the sack-sewing line. 

The Oregon Stale Board of Equalization finds 
Oregon's assessment a badly mixed affair. Some 
counties have assessed mortgag' s at 50 per cent 
some at 66, some at 75 and many at face value. 
Horses and mules range all the way from $160 
to $57; cattle from $10 to $77; swine from $1.50 
to $4.25; and sheep from $1.70 to $2.10. 

Henry L. Shelton of Scio, Or., butchered an 
ordinary-looking hog last week, saj's the Ore- 
gonian, which was found to possess two 
stomachs and two complete sets of intestines. 
Shelton says he never observed anything pe- 
culiar about the animal when alive except that 
he possessed a voracious appetite both for food 
and drink. 


A well-organized band of cattle-thieves is at 
work on the Columbia river stealing cattle from 
stockmen on the Oregon side and selling them 
on the Washington side. 

A bill will be introduced in the next Wash- 
ington legislature abolishing poll tax; also one 
that in incorporated cities there shall be but 
one assessment for municipal, county and State 

January 7, 1893. 

f ACIFie (^URAb f RESS. 


^ee(l3, Hapts, ^tc. 





The Two Best Sblpplngf Varieties for 




Nurseries at Napa, near R. R. Depot, M. J. CROW, 
MaoaKer; residence on Second Street,^one block from 




The Earliest Yellow Freestone Known. 


The Best Peach Knowa for Early Ship- 
ment East. 

Keasonalile prices to dealers and canvassers. For 
particulars apply to 

W. W. SMITH, TacSTlUe, 
A. T. FOSTKB, Dlxoo , 
Or, I. H. THOOIAS & SON, Tlsalla. 

E3- jr. bo"v\7"e:]»', 


6r»88, Clover, Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 
Onion Sets. 



Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalogue (or 
1893 mailed free lo all applicants. Address 


815 & 817 Sansome Street, San Kranclsco, 
or 66 Front Street, Portland, Or. 



A large stock of 

Bartlett Pear Trees and French^Prunes 

On Myrobolan Stocks, at Low Rates. 

Also, a general asaortment of Apple, Pear, Peach, 
Nectarine, Plum, Cherry, Quince, etc., grown in sandy 
loam, without irrigation, which gives a fine proportion 
of roots I offer no trees but what are grown in my own 
grounds and known to be true to label and free from 
scale bugs. Address: W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaiuma, Cal. 

Owing to age and poor health, I will pell^my place and 
business at a bargain. Place consists of 250 acres of land, 
good buildings, 50 acres in orchard, and a large Nursery 
btock, together with horses, wagons and .implements, 
complete, for carrying on the business. A good oppor* 
tunity for enterprising men with capital to step into a 
good-paying business, For further (jarticulars address, 
as above. 



Robe de Sargent Prunes, 
French Prunes on Peach, Almond, 

Pears, Peaches and Apricots, 

Leading Varieties, In large quantities. 

A General Assortment of Decidnoas Fruits 

All our stock is grown without irrigation and is guar 
anteed Drop us a "Card," and we will send you our 
price list. 


San Ramon Valley Nnrsery, 

Danville, Cal. 


We Have on Hand and For Sale 

FRENCH PRUNES on Peach and Myrobolan, 1 Year Old. 
CHERRIES, PEACHES and APPLES 1 and 2 Years Old. 
Also a very Large and Complete Stock of SHADE AND 
California. Write for Prices. E. OILL, 

28TII Strbrt, near San Pablo Ave., Oakland, Cal, 



For sile in lots to suit. Write for prices delivered on 
wharf In San Francisco. For large orders we have special 
inducements. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Petalnma, Cal. 

20,000 June Buds on Almond Roots. 

l.XL, Ne Plus Ultra and Noupariel. 
J A S. O'H AR A, Brentwood, Contra Costa Co 


The New Yellow Freestone Peach. 


RIPENS IMniEDIATELT AFTER THE ALEXANDER (White Cling), which Is the earliasc 

peach in market. 

Fruit is rou<id, of medium size, VERY HIOHLT COLORED, fieeh firm and sweet. 

l8 no new, nntrled variety. 

Tree healthy, stfong grower, and heavy bearer, never having mlsf ed a crop. 

A limited number of yearling trees for sale this season. Apply early before stock Is exhausted. 



Tulare County customers can obtain stock from above Company at Farmersville, Tulare Co. 

1,000,000 TREES, 


Fruit & Ornamental Trees & Plants, Shrubs. Roses, Etc. 



640 ACRES. 



1,000,000 r-iiTTiT JS, 

300,000 G-fL^PSl ■\7-iN:E3m. 


Free from Pests and Guaranteed to be California Grown. 


Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Price I,l8t. 

GEO. C. ROBDING, Manager. 





Apples, Almonds, Apricot, Pear, Prune, Plum, Peach and Cherry. Also fine stock Olives, Oranges, Lemons, 
Nut Trees and Small Fruits; Magnolias, Camellias, Palms. Large stock of Roses, Clematis, Etc , Etc. 


Catalogues Mailed Free. Address 

THOS. IMEHERIN, 516 Battery Street, San Francisco, CaL 






New American Grape, " The Pierce.' 

Olives, Oranges, Lemons and Figs. 

New California Orange, " The Joppa. 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Climbing Plants, Etc. 

Send for our New Catalogue. 





Ffl.ZSN'OSC JL-»-t*."Cr JXTEJSI on Myrobolan, Peach and Almond Roots. 

S.^XITXjX:*X"X* PZ3.^E1.S, Apricots. Cherries, Olives, Walnuts, Btc. 

Correspondence Respectfully Solicited. 



For the season of 1892-93 we are prepared to furnish a com- 
plete line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Vines, Figs, Small Fruits, 

etc,, on short notice and at reasonable living prices. Our stock is 
free from insect pests, and for strength and health of root growth is 
not excelled, as we give this special attention. 

Nurseries are at Acampo on StocktonH. R., and we have an 
office and tree yard in Sacramento from the ist of December to 
the 1 5th of April. VAN GELDER & WYLIE, Prop's, 





Also Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Palms, Roses and Carnatioui. 


Correspondence Solicited. 



California Paper-Shell, Nonpareil, Ne Plus Ultra and 

I. X. L. 

A pamphlet on Almonds mailed free of charge on application. A large supply of the GOLDEN PEACH kad 
FRENCH. PRDNK All kinds of leading fruit trees for sale. No charges made for baling trees. Address 

Daviaville Nurseries, 

Davisville, Oal. 

Seeds, Planis. Etc., Continued on Pages 18 and 19. 


f ACiFie ^URAb pRtss. 

January 7, 1898. 

How the Lucifer Match was Invented. 

It is not generally known that it is to Isaac 
Holden, M. P., that we owe the invention of 
the lucifer match. The discovery was, he 
has told us himself, the result of a happy 
thought. In the morning. I used to get up 
at four o'clock in order to pursue my studies, 
and I used at that time the flint and steel, 
in the use of which I found very great incon- 
venience. Of course I knew, as other chem- 
ists did, the explosive material that was 
necessary in order to produce instantaneous 
light, but it was very difficult to obtain a 
light on wood by that explosive material, 
and the idea occurred to me to put sulphur 
under the explosive mixture. I did that and 
showed it in my next lecture on chemistry, 
a course of which I was delivering at a large 
academy. There was, said Mr. Holden, a 
young man in the room, whose father was a 
chemist in London, and he immediately 
wrote to his father about it, and shortly 
afterward lucifer matches were issued to the 
world. I believe that was the first occasion 
that we had the lucifer match. I was urged 
to go and take out a patent immediately, 
but I thought it was so small a matter and 
it cost me so little labor that I did not 
think it proper to go and get a patent, other- 
wise I have no doubt it would have been 
very profitable.— Pall Mall Gazette. 

Electricity Defined.— The different 
opinions vary as the shades of colors of a 
rainbow. These also existed as to the 
rationnle of electric agency, but modern 
science confidently asserts that the old idea 
of electricity as a ''fluid'' has been ex- 
changed by the well grounded theory that it 
is a latent energy which may at any time be 
called into action by either chemical or me- 
chanical means, thus creating in the mol«- 
cules of matter a modification of motion, 
which for simplicity has been appropriately 
termed an " electric current." The produc- 
tion of electrical phenomena maybe brought 
about in three distinct forms: Static elec- 
tricity, or electricity in rest, and producible 
by frictional excitation; galvanic electricity, 
or the constant current, generated by chem 
ical, and possessing important chemical 
properties; faradic electricity, or electricity 
induction of secondary currents in an adja- 
cent conducting body, by the action of the 
primary galvanic current or of powerful 
agents.— Bleyer. 

Stamping Letters. — An electrically 
controlled machine which will effectively 
stamp 30,000 letters in an hour is one of the 
interestmg inventions that has been adopted 
in the postofficc department. The letters 
are placed upon their edges in a horizontal 
hopper, and an ingenious device carries one 
at a time between two feed-rolls. In this 
way the first separation is effected. A sec- 
ond set of feeding rolls performs another 
part of the work. In a simple way the ink- 
ing rollers are reached, when the envelopes 
are stamped and passed on, one at a time, 
to the stacking table. A register shows the 
number of envelopes canceled. The date 
and hour in the die must be changed by 
hand. The various rollers are run by belts, 
passing over different-sized pulleys, which 
arc in turn connected by gearing to the axle 
of the motor. 

The Proper Remedy.— A Fairfieid, 
(Wash.) elevator man went to his supper ano 
when he returned his warehouse was in flames 
The moral ought to be obvious to all ware- 
housemen, viz: Never go to supper. Or, 
if you do, take your warehouse with you. 

»® PIANO? 

The Recognizari Standard of Modern 
Piano Manufacture. 


32 & 24 G Baltimore St, 

WASHIMMTON, 817 PeDDsylvanla Ave. 


148 Fifth Avenue. 


nia Street, cornet Wehb; Branch. 1700 Market SIreet, 
comer Polk.— For the halt year endioK with Dec. 31, 
1893, a dividend hae been declared at the rate o( five and 
one-teDth (6 1-10) per cent, per annum on Terra Deposits 
and four and one f jurth (4i) per cent, per annum on 
Ordloary Deposits free of taxes, payable oo and after 
TUBSDAY, Jan. 3, 189?. TXJVKU. WHITE, Cashier. 

M A C H ' Y "'■ *"* 

Mining, Ditching, Pumnlng, 
■ ■ 1^ I I W:nd and Steam: Heating Boilert, &c. Will 
^■fcifcanay you to aenii 2Sc. for Encuclopedia, of 

1600 Engravings. The American Well Works, Aurora,IIl. 
also. Chicago, 111.; Dallas, Tex.; Sydney. N. S. W. 

How Sponges are Gathered. 

Arrived at what he fancied may prove a 
profitable ground, the captain of a sponging 
schooner sends out a boat to investigate, 
meantime standing off and on until a dis- 
covery is reported. Then all hands, save 
only the cook, or if she is a large vessel, the 
captain and cook, tumble into the small 
boats and the fishing — if fishing it can be 
called — is begun. 

The vessel has towed astern just half as 
many boats as she has men in the crew, and 
now two men are assigned to each boat. 
One of them stands well aft and sculls with 
a long oar, while the other bends low over 
one of the gunwales in a most constrained 
position, and with head buried in a water- 
glass eagerly scans the bottom as he is 
moved slowly over it. The water-glass is 
simply a wooden bucket, having no bottom, 
that is held an inch or so below the ruffled 
surface, and these clear waters plainly reveal 
all submerged objects to a depth of 40 or 50 
feet. As a further aid in overcoming ripples 
or moderate waves, each small boat is pro- 
vided with a bottle of oil so hung over the 

bow as to slowly drip its contents into the 

Through this magic glass the observer 
sees darting fish, richly-tinted seafans and 
feathers, branching coral, gorgeous ane- 
mones, bristling sea porcupines, and the 
myriad other curious tenants of these tropic 
waters. While seeing these he makes no 
sign, until a small, dark object that, to the 
untrained eye, differs in no respect from the 
loggerheads surrounding it, comes within his 
range of vision. Then, without removing 
his gaze, he reaches for the long-handled 
sponge-hook or rake lying behind him, and 
using it with one hand, quickly tears from 
the bottom a black, slimy mass that he tri- 
umphantly pronounces to be a sheep's wool 
or grass sponge of the first quality. — Scrib- 
ner's Magazine. 

Teacher — " If you had discovered 
America instead of Columbus what would 
you have done ? " Chicago Boy — "Opened 
a real estate office." 

Unitarian Literature 

Bent tree by the CHamfiNa Auzillut of the First Unita- 
rian Church, cor. Oe«ry and Franklin Sts , San Fran- 
Isco. Address Miss S. A. Hobe, as above. 


t--A Prompt Cure: 
e3--A Perfect" Cure. 

Solid gMFOR 


TON6UELESS, Self Guiding. 


dependitiK on size of plows 
and kind of work. 

Inatead or 

natead oT Tour. 

specially adapted 

to Xructlon JSn^lne* 

Uses wheel landside* 
which resists pressure of 
four furrows. No bottom or 
yide friction. Weight of furrows, 
frame and plowman carriod on three '~' 
greased spindles. Draft ruduced to lowest 
possible limit. Foot brake provents Gang rnnning on f ratn 
Uvei^ and turning devi.-e within easy reaoh. I lljUTCD HRAiTT than any Ganir In America. Easier 
^'^^^^K^^^ru.i«htey Furrows and Adjufclu- LIUH I CII UnAr I oble IVamen-t-an bo naraowed or wi^- 
ened at will. Made with stubble, sod and .-tiil>hii_-. .ir breaker boHoniy. Ten or twelve inch cut. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., So. Bend, Ind., or Stanton, Tliomson & Go., Sacramento. 

t7~8peclal pricea and tlmp Tor trini clven on first nrdors from points where we have no afenta. 

Onr book, "FUN OS TU£ FAKM," sent Free to all. ■hs«>«ii«>. 


We have a lari;e sum o( money to loan at a low rate 
o( interest on mortgage on ranches. Write to us for 
full particulars. Buy, sell and exchange lands and Im- 
proved farms. Holcom & Howe, Rooms 6 & 7, Sixth 
floor Mills building, San Francisco. 



rate of Interest on approved security In Farming Lands. 
A. SCflULLEB, Boom 8, 420 California Street, SaD 
f randsco. 


We can send you one of our 


Which Is the result of years of figuring to make the best 
harness ever known fur the money. It Is made from oak 
stock, band atltched and finished by skillful mechanics, 
haudgome full nickel or Davis hard rubber trimmings. 

Just the Harness for an BleKant Tarnent. 

They sell ere tor tas.OO, and harness not as good is 
often sold for 136.00 In retail shops. If harness Is not as 
represented, money will be refunded. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

110 HoAlUst«r St., San Franolsoo. 

Oollar and Hamea, Instead of Breast Collar, 
Sa CX) extra. 

Please state If yoa want slogle strap Harness, or folded 
style BarnesB, with traces double throughout 


The Greatesf of all Musical 

In Inventing the ^f.ollan was to make an iostrumen 
that would do away with the years of practice made 
necessary by the piano and organ and at the sime time 
have music 


But capable of the most delicate shading In expression 
and time, entirely at the will of the performer. 


A marvellous little Instrument eqaal to an OrK>o 
for family nse. Plays all clasues of music; no skill 
req jired. Prlc 98S. 
Send for catalogues and terms to 


26 28-30 O'Farrell St . San Francisco. 



75,000 sold in 1891. 
I 00,000 sold In 1892. 


Siiinjili' niailfil Xt^'for^l fifk 

Nickel, «l. 50. 
Stallion Bits 50 cts. extra. 


J.F. DavicB.Mgr. 


They are made of the Very Best Material. Corrosive Washes DO NOT injure 

the valves, plunger-packing or cylinder. 

Tour neighbor will tell yon that he can spray UOBE TREES IN A DAT with the Bean Pomp than with any other. 



The BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., San Jose, Cal. 

January 7, 1893, 


fireedsr^' llirsctonr. 

six lloeB or less In this directory >t 60o per line per moath. 


J. I. PARSONS, Santa Rosa, Cal. Shtre Stallion, 
pure-bred, registered, comint; four years old; war- 
ranted a breeder, for stle; or will trade for yearling 
cattle, town lots or land. 

F. H. BUKKE, 626 Market St., S. F.; Registered 
Holsteins; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premlnms than any nerd on the Coast 
Pure registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

prBBSBYS— The best A. J. C. C. Registered Herd is 
owned by flenry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

f . PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co., Importer & Breeder 
legistered Shorthorn Cattle. Toung bulls for sale, 

JOHN IjTNOH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 

OHABLES E. HnMBEBT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holsteln-Friesiao 
Cattle. Catalogues on application, 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Breeder of Shorthorns. 
Dealer In fresh Cows, Beef Cattle and Sheep. 

PEBOHERON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, or sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co,, Cal, New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

e. H. MUHPHY, Perkins, Sao. Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs, 

PBTBR SAXE A SON, Lick House, Sao Franolsso, 
Oal. Importers and Breeders, for past 21 yean, of 
•very variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

L. V. WILLITS, Watsonville, Cal., Black Perch- 
erons. Registered Stallions for sale. 

•viljl^lAM NILiE»,LuB Angeles, CaL Thoroaghored 
BeglBtered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. None better. 


Oal., send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

JOHN McFARIiINQ, Callstoga, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send tor Clrcmar. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

B. G. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 

O, BIjOM. Sc. Helena, Brown Leghorns a specialty. 


a. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


H. J. PHILPOTT. Niles, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Tecum^eh and other choice strains of Registered 
Poland- China Hogs. 

J. p. ASHLEY. Linden, Cal., breeder and importer 
of Thoroughbred Swine. Small Yorkshire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China. Superior stock, low prices. 

WILLIAM NILES.Los Angeles, Cal. Thorougbbied 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. CiKOlars free. 

TYLUB BEAOH, San Jose, Oal., bra«dai of 
thoTsnghbred Berkshire and Essex Hogi. 


Importers and Oetlers 
Direct from Europe, 
Ensllsh Sblre Draft, 

Cleveland Buy 
and German Coach 
189 £lghte«nth St., 
I,OB Angeles, Oallfornla 
Write for Catalogue. 



One and a half miles northeast of Sart 
Leandro, Alameda County, 


Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properh . 

Rates Very Reasonable. 


aiI,BBKT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 

P. O. Box 149 ..San Leandro, Oal, 



ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon In the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tributor to the " Pacific Rural Press. " The diseases of 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the country promptly attended to. Telephone 
No. Mm. 


A number of pure-bred Angora Goats In lots to suit. 
This Is the stock of goats formerly owned by Julias 
Weyand and will be sold cheap for cash. Address 

BRNBST WBYAND, Oolnis, Oal. 


Farmer ? If so, you know that a 




" -A. TJ EC E: C3- ^ KT" 



i Sharpest 

from 3 to 30 


per cent, 

1 Safest 


1 Barbs 

any other 



1 Strongest 

1 Main Wires 

The strongest i 

1 ^^^^ 

on earth. 

1 Galvanizing 





Exceedingly Fine Breeding Stock For Sale at Reasonable Figures. 


The BpsI of Wioter Layers. 

3VEXSS X«0X1.S3E:S. - Box 251a, . Na.^ek. Olty. OaI. 

Mann's Green Bone Cutter 


Patented June 15, 1886; August SO, 188S. Canada Patent, June 12, 1890. 

WB WARRANT this machine to cut Dry or Oreen Bones, meat, gristle and 
all, by Hand Power, without clog or difficulty, or MONEY REFUNDED. 

will make then: 26 per cent more fertile, and increase the vigor of the whole flock. 

Tliege Cutters are endorsed by all the leading California poultrymen. Send for a 
Catalogue describing all sizes of Cutters and containing vaulable information In relation 
to feeding green out bones. 


Pacific Coast AKente. 






It is the Cheapest, Best and 
Must Powerful (irubbinp; Ma- 
chine in the world, and 
established and malntaim d 
its reputation tor superiority 
asainst all competitors. Dur- 
ing tlie last six months over 61 
ers ajone. 

LITTLE GIANTS were sold to Minnesota and W isconsln farm 
Where the LITTLE GIANT is known tlie larmer will buy no other. One man and i 
rtiunk of aboy can do the work ot ten men. tor illustrated Catalogue, prices, terms, referenc 

es, etc., address Mohland &. Co., Sisoiimey, Iowa 


Backs, Turkeys, Qeese, Peacocks, Etc, 


Publishers of " Nlles' Pacific Ooaat Poultry and Stock Boole," 

a new book on subjecto connected with eucceesful poultry and stock raising on 
the PaciSo Coast Price 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for Information. 


Jersey and Holstein Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berlcshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES & CO.. Los Angelas, Cal. 


Prlo« $66, Delivered Anywhere In the 

United States. 
These Scales have STEEL BEARINGS, Not Wood- 

From 35 to 60 per cent cheaper than any other 
Scales of like quality. All sizes and kinds 
of Scales always In stock. 

Trnman, Hooker & Co., San Francisco 

DEWEY & 00. m^A^fl^^rJi'''} PATENT AGENTS. 


iDOorporated April, 18Ti. 

Authorised Oapltal $1,000,000 

Capital paid np and BeserTe Fand 800,000 
Dividends paid to 8tookholdera„. 720,000 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I.e. STEELE Vice-President 

AIlBERT MONTPELUEB Cashier and Uanagar 


General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on wheat and 
country produce a speoialty. 

January 1, 18B2. A. IfONTPELLIER, Manager. 


Porteons Improved Scraper 

Patented April 3, 1883. Patented April 17, 1883. 

Manofactored by G. LISSENDEN, 

The attention of the public is called to this Scraper 
and the many varieties of work of which It Is capable, 
such as Railroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build* 
lug. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement will take up and carry Its load to any 
desired distance. It will distribute the dirt evenly or 
deposit its load in bulk as desired. It will do the work 
of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of these 
Scrapers are in use in all parts of the country. 

gg" This Scraper Is all steel— the only one manufac- 
tured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, $40 ; Steel two-horse, $31. 
Address all orders to G. L.IS8ENDBN, Stockton, 


IS THE BEST, because 
It combines simplicity 
of construction with 
power and economy in 
space. It can be run 
with natural or manu- 
factured gas or gasoline 
at a cost of 20 to 25 
cents per horse power 
per day. 

It can be used for 
pumping purposes, as 
well as lor all purposes 
where a perfect engine 
ia required, with the 
advantage of lessening 
the risk of explosions. 
No licensed engineer at 
a high salary needed to 
operate it. 

Send for circulars and 
prices if a good safe en- 
gine is what you need. 

The Orieatdl Lanicli is Perfection, 

Inventor and Manafactarer, 

MONEY Make Some T' 

By using the Pacific Incubator 
and Brooder, which will hatch any 
kind of eggs better than a hen. lounf. 
versal use. Gold Medal wherever ex. 
hibited. Thoroughbred I'onltrj 
aud Ponltry 4 ppllanceg. Send 
8 ct« In stamps for 82-page catalogue, 
with 30 full-sized colored outs of thor- 
oughbred fowls, to Pacific I ncaba- 
tor Co. 1807 Castro St. Oakland, Cal. - 

Hatch Chickens by Steam.' 

Will do it. Thousands in eucceesful oper- 
ation. Simplr, Prrl^ctnudS^lf.netjulaang. 
Lowest-priced firfit-class Hatcher made. 
M f-., ■ ( Jnaranteed to hatch a larger percentage 
9 • of fertile 0f;g3 at loss cost thftn any other, 

Beodeo. for Ulna. Oat&loc. iiLO. U. »taUL, (juiocy, ill* 


ISIS MrrUe Street, OaUaaa CaL 

Send Stamp for Circular. 


Notary Pnblta. 



Mo. SSO Oallfornla Street, 
Tdcpboa* Mo. 1M6. SAH rBAROUOO, OAIi 


f ACIFie t^URAb ]«>RESS. 

January 7, 1893 


Bowens Academy, 

University Av«., Berkeley. 


For Boya and Young Men. 
Special university prejaratlon, depending not oa time 

but on prctrress In studies. 
T. S BOWENS, M. A., - Head Master. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing ami Assaying, 
Open All Year. 
A. VAN DEK NAILLEN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, i2t; Bullion and Chlorination Assay, 
$25; Blowplps Assay, $10. Pull course of assaying, 160 
ESTABLISHED 18M. tT Send (or circular 



Wkrebonee mna Wbarf at Port Oosta. 


Money sdvanoed on Qraln In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Fall Oargoea of Wbeat famtabed Sblppers at sbort notice. 

ALSO OSSSSS FOS GBAIV BAOS, Ag;ricultTiral Implements, Wagoni, Orooeriei 
and MerchandlM of every deiorlption aolioited. 

B. VAN BVERY. Manaser. A. M. BBLT, Aaalstant Manager. 

Analytical Chemists an<l Assayers. 

Angeles, Cal. We have fitted up the beat laboratory 
In Southern California and are prepared to make Assays 
and Analyses of all Metals, Minerals, Ores, Waters, Fer 
tillzers, Etc ASSAYING TAUGHT. 


a4 POST ST.. s. p. 


Jl College instructs In Shorthand, Tjpe Writing, Book 
keeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everytliing pertaining to business 
(or six full montlis. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to ail our pupils. Our school hae 
its f radnates in every part of the State. 


E. P. HEALD, FreoldeDl 

C. 8. HALET, Secretary. 



Bookbeeping, Penmanship, Shorthand, Typewriting, 
English Branches, etc. Graduates aided in getting po- 
sitions. Send for circulars. T. A. ROBINSON, Pre?. 


10, 12 and 14 ft. 
Cheaper than any 
First-Class Mill In 

No bearings, no 
springs, no wheels 
to get out of order. 
The simplest mill In 
♦Vie world. 

10-foot $40 00 

12 (oot 60 00 

U fjot 60 00 

Agent* Wanted 

— ADDRSgg— 

TRDMAN, HOOKER 4 CO., San FraDcisco OF FresBn. 





Bend f orfree illustrated cataloume* showing testimonials 
from thousands whohave sawed from 5 to v cords dutly. 
It saws down trees, folds like a pocket-knife, weighs only 
II lbs., easily carried ou Bhoulder. One man can saw more 
tlmb**r with it than two men with a cross-cut saw. 42,000 In 
UBC. Vye also make larger ptzed machine to carry 7 foot 

Order from the general airent for California. The ma- 
chine win cost you lens than by single shipment direct 
rom the factory at Chicago. 

JAMES LINFORTH, S7 Market St.. S. F. 



DAVID N. HAWLEY, 318 Market St, 


WUtewasli Your Bams and Fences I 

Do Elthar SDccessfally. 
Catalogue and testimonials sent by mall, 
»»r> « Sonar atroot. San Franclsno. Oal 



It Will Cost You 
No More Than 
Other Makes, 


RIFLES »-.o« 




Ail kiuaicbr-ftper tbfto else- 
■whpre. Before you buy, 
BfiDd nUmp forc&tftlo^e to 


166 mats SUf CU«UuU,0. 

Was Awarded the Premium at State Fair Sacramento, OVER ALL OTHERS. 


ai cixxd. ia-r"ooT piaivteiteh.. 

Please note tliat an sj-foot mill has 6J feet more wind surfice than an 8-foot m 
£y^pY GUARANTEED P^^rta broken by stoms that do not wreck 

Any.'MlIl tbat does not worK aatlsfactory may be returned to us and we will 
pay the freight both ways. 


405 & 407 Market Street, - - San Francisco, Oal, 





People who have been annoyed by the unpleas 
antness caused by leaky roofs, draughty rooms, and 
the like, enjoy undisturbed blisa after using our well- 
known products. Those who are as yet ignorant of 
their many merits can be enlightened by writing for 
samples and descriptive circulars, furnished free by 




The 'Pacific Hospital, 

stools. toxx,' OaI. 

Private Hospital for Care and Treatment of Mental and Nervous Diseases. 

Has been in existence for over 10 years, and is favorably Itnown as the model institution of the Pacific Coait. 
For terms and other particulars, apply to the Proprietor and Superintendent, 

-A.jS,A. OTi Pi. -R-JS., 8toolx.toxx, OaI. 

REFERENCES: Dr. L. C. Lane, Dr. W. H. Mays (late Superintendent of State A9\lum at Stockton), Dr. Robert 
A. A. McLanB, Dr. I. S. Tilus, Dr. R. 11. Plunimer, San Franoisco; Dr. E. H. Woolsey, Surfteon S. P. Co. and Oak- 
and Hospital; Dr. W. S. Thome, San Jose; Dr. O. A. Shurtlcff (late Superintendent of State Insane Asylum). Napa. 

Commi^^iop fUerchapt;. 


Commission Merchants, 



Qreen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on OonalsnmentB. 
808 ft 310 Davii 8t„ S&n Franaiit o 

[P. O. Box 18M.1 
JVVonilfcnmenta Solicited. 


BOX, 508, 60&. 607 A 600 Front St, 
And SOO Washington St, SAN FRANCISOO. 





Commis slOD Me rchants. 


418, 416 & 417 WasUmcton St., 

(P. O. Box 209«.) SAN FRANCISCO 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St.^S. F. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 


ATADh OF BFST QUALITY CRUCIBLE STEEL and ground even gauee on the teeth from end to end. Will 
retain the set longer and do more work without fllinir than any other sawa Send (or " Hand Book o Saws." 
uuilud free. HKMRT DISSTON & SONS, Ine., Philadelphia, Pa. 


A valuable book on Good Health will be sent free at your reqoes 

BIrura Company )i«0 .S ins )me .St . ^an Franc Irco. 

•Hj^O disappear when Oleate of Bloura is used. Sent by post. 

tVPersonal attention given to sales and liberal advancai 
made on consignments at low rates of interest. 

[B8TUI.I8BU) ISei.) 




89 Olay Street and 28 Commercial Street. 
Sa« Frakcisoo, Cab. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produce. Poultry, Game, Egg 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 228, 
226 and 237 Washington St., San Francisco, Cal. 






Indlffrstton. KlIlouitnevA, llea<lach«, Conntl- 

f utlon, lljHpepiila, Chronic IJvcr Troubles* 
Mzzlneflft, Uud Complexion, ilysentery. 
4kffenNlve Breath, »nd All dliwrdcrs of the 
Htomaoh. Mver and Itou vU. 

KipanB Tabulea contain notlilcp Injurious to 
the most delicate constitutu^n. Pleaisauttotake, 
Bafe, effectual. Give imnie<liate relief. 

Sold by drugjriiiits. Atrial bottle sent bymaii 
onreofipt of 16 cents. Addrcba 


17 Spear Street. 

8an Franclaro. 


Send for prices on Sower Pip« for culverts, for roads, 
and for dralDtDK* landa. 

" Greenbank " Powdered Caustic 

Soda and Insecticide. 
X". \A/ . o" ^osE:ietojcsr %mo go.. 

Sola Agents, 

no. 8 MARKBT ST.. - San P>rAnoUco. 


Golden Ital. 
ian Queens, 
Tested, $2 Ou 

each; untested, $1.00 each. T, Hiv^s, $\ 90 each. Root's 
V groove sections, S5 i er 1000. Dadant's comb founda- 
tion, 58c and 66c a pound. Smokers $1 e>ch. Glob, 
veils, *1 eaoh, eto. WM. STYAN & SON, San Mateo, Cal 

January 7, 1893. 

f AC! Fie f^uraid press. 


Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 4, 1893 
The after-holiday season has not been marked 
by special activity among jobbers, though condi 
tions do not diff;r materially except in one or two 
lines from a month since. The wheat market 
shows a firmer tone, as a natural result of the after- 
holiday reaction and the slightly better conditions 
that surround the trade. Receipts of various farm 
products from throughout the State have been ex- 
ceptionally light, except butter and eggs, and as a 
consequence quotations have been firmer than 
might otherwise have been expected. 

The Wheat Market. 

A slight decrease in estimates of the visible supply 
in the United Kingdom has been partly responsible 
for an advance m quotations, and the market shows 
generally a better tone than has prevailed for some 
time. The enormous visible supply, however, dis- 
courages any marked advance or decided confidence, 
and it is not to be expected that an entirely healthy 
tone will prevail until crop prospects are better 
known and there is a diminution of resources. 
Cargoes on the way to Europe at this time are about 
the same as one year since, while there is a large 
excess of the visible supply over the same period 
one year since. In the United States, reserves have 
accumulated and held up in an unexpected manner, 
being now double tha; of one year since. At that 
time there was a strong demand, and of course 
great inroads were made upon stocks. If, how- 
ever, the history of the past counts for anything, pro- 
ducers have reason to expect very much better 
prices during the year. It is a fact that since our 
exports of California wheat began there has been 
no year except one in which the price did not reach 
$1.50 per cental and more. The exception was in 
1888, when the highest quotation was $1.45, and 
the lowest $1 20. Notwitnstanding the almost un- 
precedented conditions, we have not touched the 
lowest figure here, nor do we seem likely to. 

Reports from the interior as to the coming crop, 
are of a most satisfactory nature. Climatic condi- 
tions for ploughing and seeding have been exactly 
right in all parts of the State, and, unless some un- 
foreseen contingency arises, the crop of 1893 will be 
very large. On the contrary, early conditions have 
not been favorable in the remainder of the United 
States, and Government reports are that conditions 
for a heavy yield are not so good as they were one 
year since at this time. The same state of things 
prevails in the United Kingdom. There may be a 
shortage elsewhere, the great visible supply may 
find ready means of exhaustion, and the California 
grower next summer may discover himself in very 
happy circumstances. 


Barley is steadier and is on the whole in fair con- 
dition. Holders have not been disposed to make 
offerings, and quotations are inclined to be upward. 
Choice feed is m demand, and brewing is uniformly 

Oats are easy and stocks are large, though par- 
ticularly choice are not plentiful. 


The cold weather of the past few days has re- 
tarded consumption of oranges, and the market has 
been somewhat weak. Receipts are free, and the 
demand slow. The quality ol all California oranges 
shows improvement. Mexican limes are very stiff, 
and the demand active under light recL'ipts. 
Higher prices for limes have ruled during the en- 
tire week. California limes do not show such ac- 
tivity. Japanese oranges are firm at quotations. 
They are selling well even at Los Angeles, the 
home of the citrus fruit. Lady apples range as high 
as $3.00 for very choice. A lot from Tuolumne 
county in half barrels were offered at $7 and $8. 
.Sound winter apples generally bring good prices. 
Poor, small winter pears are in large quantity, and 
sell slow. 

Dried Fruits. 

There is no activity in dried fruits. Dealers com- 
plain that all their sales are in small lots. Receipts 
of raisins have been light during the past week. 
The general condition of the market, however, is 
fairly satisfactory, and the prospects for better 
prices are believed to be good. 


Potatoes are steady and receipts are free. There 
has been no change in quotations during the week, 
though extra choice bring higher prices. New cu- 
cumbers from southern California have appeared in 
the market and sell for $2.50 per dozen. New 
tomatoes have also arrived, and jobbers quote from 
$1.25 to $1.50 per box. Green peas are here, but 
are generally dingy. Asparagus brings good prices. 
There is no material change in onions, prices ruling 
somewhat weaker under free receipts. 


Investigation of our quotations will disclose that 
the whole range of quotations has been raised. 
Turkeys are agam up, and better prices are offered 
for hens, ducks and geese. Receipts of good 
poultry are light, and the demand has been very 
active during the week. Two cars of eastern stock 
were placed on the market yesterday. 

The game market has a decidedly upward tend- 
ency to-day under very light receipts. Quail are 
restored to the figures of $i@i.2s. Dealers claim 
that they expect large receipts every day. They 
say they can give no quotations to-day, in the ab- 
sence of offerings. 

Dairy Products. 

The butter market is now in favor of consumers, 
with large receipts. Even choice is weak. Cheese 
is in good condition, and quotations rule higher 
than a week ago, especially for finer grades. There 
is a good demand for new. 

Eggs also are weak throughout the whole list, 

Hams and bacon are very stiff, the local market 
being affected by conditions East, There seems to 
t>e good reason to expect that quotations will be 
higher. Stocks East are very small, and the stock 
yards are doing less work than for several years. 

Honey is scarce and the demand fair. 

There is no change worth noting in wool or hops. 

Hay shows no change, though there is good de- 
mand for choice alfalfa. 

Beans are in good shape, with good demand and 
firm prices. 

Buckwheat is largely nominal. 

In livestock, hogs and mutton have both devel 
oped an upward tendency. 

Breadstuffs on Passage. 

The quantities of wheat and flour on passage for 
Europe during each 'week in Iiecember were as fol- 

. To . 


Week ending— Kingdom. Continent. 

6th, quarters 2,846,000 944,000 

13th 2,865,000 855,000 

20th 2,733,000 820,000 

27th 2.697,000 772,000 

In the last three weeks of the month there was a 
falling off for both the United Kingdom and Conti- 
nent. For the week enoing January 2d, however, 
there was a small gain for the United Kingdom, the 
quantity being 2,733,000 quarters. At the close of the 
same week there were 712,000 quarters afloat for the 
Continent, or 60,000 less than in the previous week. 

English Wheat Marketed. 

English farmers' deliveries of wheat in December 
were reported as follows: 

Week ending— Quarters. Av. Price- 

8d 53,975 27s od 

10th 53,117 268 lOd 

17th 54,799 268 4d 

24th 50,478 25s 9d 

31st 36,886 258 8d 

At the close the average price per quarter was Is 4d 
lower tnan at the beginning of the month, as against 
a similar decline In November. Prices in England 
have reached the low est fioint on record. 

Imports Into United Kingdom. 

The weekly imports of wheat and flour into the 
United Kingdom in December were as follows: 

r,, I ... Wheat, Flour, 

Weekending— qrs. bbls. 

6th 403,000 233,000 

13th 306,000 234,000 

20lh 421,000 327,000 

27th 272,000 283,000 

Totals 1,402,000 1,077,000 

Against 1,642,000 qrs. wheat and 1,191,000 bbls. flour 
in November. 

Visible Supply of Wheat. 

During each week in December the visible supply 
of wheat in this country east of the Bocky moun- 
tains was reported as follows: 

Week ending— Bushels. 

3d... 7^,581,000 


lyt" 78,:«1,000 

2}8t 79,834,000 

3l8t 81,294,000 

The last week of the month shows a gain of 8,713,- 
000 bushels as compared with the visible supply at 
the beginning of the same. The gain for each week 
was as follows: Week ending 10th. 2,990.000 bushels- 
17th, 2,750.000; 2l8t, 1,613,000; 31st, 1,460.000. In eacli 
instance it will be seen the weekly gain has been cat 

Stocks in Liverpool January Ist: 

Wheat, qrs. Flour, bblg. 

1893 675,000(31700.000 380,000@400 OOO 

1892 360,000@38O.00O l20,000@130,000 

Paris, January 3.— Wheat, January, 21 francs. 

Local Tonnage Statistics. 
The following is a summary of the engaged and dis- 
engaged tonnage here and on the way to this and 
neighboring ports 

. ^ r , 1*^3. 1892. 

Chartered for grain 26.421 83,992 

Miscellaneous charters 10 894 16'727 

Disengaged ,...139,323 36!273 

Totals 176,638 136,932 

At neighboring ports- 
Total tons for 1893 21 924 

Total tons for 1892 49*560 




To San Francisco 265,983 

To San Pedro 7,474 

To San Diego 11,573 

Totals 285,030 302,921 

The disengaged list consists of 73 vessels, of which 
15 are American. 2 are NIcaraguan, 3 are German, 1 is 
Norwegian and 51 are British. 

The list of vessels in port chartered for grain num- 
bers 17, of which 13 are British, 1 is Swedish, 2 are 
Italian and 1 Is German. 

Miscellaneous chaiters include 3 for Hawaiian 
Islands, 3 for New York, 1 for United Kingdom via 
Puget Sound, and 1 for West coast via British 

The vessels chartered to load wheat have a total 
carrying capacity ot about 42,300 tons. At this time 
last year the tonnage under engagement for grain- 
loading amounted to 83,932 tons, with a carrying 
capacity ol about 134,400. 

The Market for Pork Products. 

C. E. Whitney & Co., in their trade circular under 
date of Saturday, write as follows in reference to the 
market for pork products: 

During the past few weeks the situation in the 
pork market has been growing more and more seri- 
ous. The receipts at the main packing centers for 
the past week have been about 360.000 hogs against 
670,000 for the Corresponding week last year. From 
November Ist to date the receipts are 2,700,000 
against 4,500,000 for the same period last year. At 
the same time the heavy demand for the hog product 
is almost unabated and prices are being daily forced 
higher and higher by the absolute legitimate causes, 
i. e., short supply and long demand. All advices 
from hog-raising sections point to a continued short 
supply, and prices will stop advancing only when 
they become so high as to cut the demand down to 
an equality with the production. It is hard to say 
where the packing house product is coming from to 
run through the coming summer, as this is the time 
of the year when the season's supply is usually laid 
away, while this year it is a hard matter to supply 
even present wants, to say nothing ot the future. 
Exports of Flour. 

The export values of flour from San Francisco 
in the given years were as lollows: 

1892 81,552,501 1888 81,081,678 

1891 1 827,436 1887 1,631.472 

1890 1,709 537 1886 1,600,147 

1889 1,523,327 1885 1,771,539 

making a total of 812,697,637 for the eight years, or 
an annual average of 81,687,204.62. 

With new steamship lines running firom Victoria 
and Tacoma there has oeen keen competition on the 
part of the Oregon and Washington millers to secure 
a larger share 01 the China trade, and evidently they 
are in a measure realizing their hopes, though there 
was no particularly large decrease in the quantity of 
flour shipped from this port In 1892. Somewhat 
lower prices have ruled this year, hut this has been 
mainly incident to lower prices of wheat and partly 
to competition. 

The Wool Trade In 1892 
George Abbot furnishes the following report of 
wool receipts, productions, etc., in 1892 


Becelpts at San Francisco : 

January, bags 395 

February 15 

March 6,599 

April 20,765 

May 11,975 

June 10,660 

July 3,930 

August 6,182 

September 9,620 

October 15,444 

November 2,436 

December 540 

Total 87,661 


Spring Wool, 52,021 bags 17.166 930 

Spring Wool, shipped from interior 4,176,000 

Total Spring 21,342,930 

Fall Wool, 30,640 bags 12,216.000 

Fall Wool, shipped from interior 1,220,000 

Total Fall and Spring 34,778,930 

Pulled Wool, shipped from San Francisco 
and interior 1,024,000 

Total production of Califorola 36,802,930 

On hand December 31, 1891 2,500,oo0 

Oregon, 10 305 bags 3,503,700 

Nevada and Territories 1,500,000 

Foreign, 6,478 bags 1 489,940 

Grand total 44,796,570 


Domestic, Foreign, Pulled and Scoured— Pounds. 
Per rail, inclusive of shipments from in- 
terior 24,185 195 

Per steamer, via Cape Horn 699,408 

Per sailing vessel 3,056,496 

Total exports 27,841,099 

On hand December 31, 1892, 1,500,000 pounds. Value 

of exports, 86JJ00,000. 
N. B.— Diflerence between receipts and exports 

arises from consumption of local mills and wool on 

hand awaiting shipment in the grease or scoured. 

Foreign wool is chiefly from Australia in transit to 

Eastern markets. The weights of above are gross. 

Tare on bags, 3 lbs each, tressed bales shipped, 14 

lbs each. 

According to Mr. Abbot's records the largest pro- 
duction was in 1876. being 66,550,973 pounds. During 
the past ten years the production has been estimated 
as follows : 

Years. Pounds. 

1883 40,848,690 

1884 37,415,330 

1885 36,561,390 

1886 38,609,160 

1887 31 564,231 

1888 32,569,972 

18S9 „ 34,008 370 

1990 „ 34,854 640 

1891 33,183,475 

1892 85,802,930 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce from all sources at this port for 7 
days ending January 4, 1S93, were as follows 

Flour, qr. sKs 47,101 Chicory, bbls 

Wheat, ctls 1U6,823 Hop<, bdls 

Eye, •• . 
Oats, " . 
Com, *' , 
Butter, , , 

do bz8 . 

do bbls , 

do kegs , 

do tubs 

do i bxs . 
tObeeae, ctls 

do bis.. 

Eggs, doz 19,510 

Beans, sks 2,326 

Potatoes, eks 20,966 

Onions, " 2.78* 

Bran, sks 8,361 

Middlings " 1,769 

24,296IWool, bdls . 

I Hay, ton 
11,289 Straw, 

4 273 



Wine, gals 143.E60 

Brandy, " 43,850 

Raisins, bxs 2,935 

Honey, ca 


Walnuts " 

Almonds" .... 
Mustard " .... 
Flax •' .... 

Popcorn " 

Broom com, bbls 

Leather, rolls 

Tal'ow, ctls 

Hides 1,567 

Pelts 877 




Markets by Telegraph. 

British Grain Trade. 

London, January 2.— The ^fark Lane Express says: 
Owing to small deliveries English wheats are in in- 
creased demand and prices 6d better. Another 
week's frost will probably cause values to increase 
Is 6d A review of last year's trade shows a fall dur- 
ing the year of lOs 7d per quarter. Indian wheat is 
9d, Russian and red winter 6d and fine white foreign 
3d dearer. 

Wheat Supplies In England. 

London, Jan. 3.— Wheat and flour on passage to the 
United Kingdom, 2,733,000 qrs.; Continent, 712,000. 

Imports of wheat into United Kingdom during the 
past week, 215,000 qrs.; flour, 209.000 bbls. 

Indian shipments of wheat during the past week, 
United Kingdom, 10,000 qrs.; Continent, 20,ono. 

Stocks in principal ports of United Kingdom 
lighter than has been anticipated; total, 3,500,000 

The stocks on hand Jan. 1st were as follows : 

Wheat, qrs. Flour, bbls. 

193 250,000(9260,000 775,000@800,000 

1892 625,000@550,000 420,000(8440,000 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the closing prices paid for wheat options 
per ctl. for the past week: 

~ ' Feb. Mar April. May. 

5a09Jd 5»10id Sslljd esOUd 
SslOid Ssllid BaOlid esOMil 
SslOid EslHd 6s00 d 6sOUd 

Dec. Jan. 
Thursday.... 5bIj7 d SsDS d 

Friday 5b07 d 5s09id 

Saturday . . . 6s08 d 6s09 d 


Tuesday 68lOJd OsOOid BeOlJd 6802 d 6603id 

The following are the prices for California car£:oes for otf 
coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for ifae past week: 
O. O. P. S. N. D. Market for P. S 

Thursday... 30s6d 3l33d 30a6d Quiet 

Friday SOsfld 31s6d SOsSd Firmer 

Saturday... 3 J89d 31sBd 3089d Firmer 

Monday.. Holiday 

Tuesday.... 3l83d 3283d 31s3d Better 

To-day s cablegram is as f oUowo : 

Liverpool, Jan. 4. — Wheat, firmly held. California spot 
lots. Bs 4d; off coast. 31s 3d; just shipped, 32s 3d; nearly 
due, 31s 3d; cargoes oil coast, firmly held; on passage, quiet 
but eteady; Mark Lane wheat, turn dearer; French country 
maTkets, firm. 

Eastern Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices per bushel of wheat 
for the past week at 

New York. 






Day. Dec. 

Thursday 77i 

Friday 77i 



Tuesday 78i 80J 825 

The foUowtne is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 

New York, Jan. 4.— Wheat, 78io for January, 79Jc for 

February. 81 o for March, 83ic for May, 83ic tor June and 

844c for July. 


Day. Dec. Jan 

Thursday 72 72J 

Friday 71i 

HaturJay (Holiday.) 


Tuesday 72* 

The lollowlog Is to day's teJegram— per bunhel: 
Cbicaoo, Jan. 4— Wheat, 79o for May. 




78f 77J 

San Francisco. 



... Dec. Jan. May 

Thursday, highest 1 28 .... 1 J2 

" lowest 1 27J 1 31J 

Friday, highest 129 .... 133 

" lowest 1 i9 1 324 

Saturday, highest 1 30 .... 1 341 

lowest 1 30 .... 1 33I 

Monday, highest 

" lowest 

Tuesday, highest 1 30 1 291 134} 

" lowest 1 27i 1 29| 1 34J 

The following are to-day'i recorded sales on Call: 
Wheat-Moming— Informal: May— 1100 tons, SI.345 per 
ctl. Regular seasioo: May— 30i) tons, $1,345; 16i,U, Si 34S- 
100, S1.34J. Buyer January-100 tots, $1,294: 100, $i 29i 
per ctl. Af .emoon-May— lOa tons, $1.34i; 700, SI 341 
per ctl. 


„, Deo. Jan. May 

Thursday, highest *76} .... gjS 

" lowest 76| .... 81I 

t Friday, highest •774 .... 83* 

" lowest •77i .... 821 

Saturday, highest t90 .... 83| 

" lowest t90 .... 83t 

Monday, highest 

" lowest WW WW 

Tuesday, highest W. '. 85* 

" lowest 8j| 

••Sample market, 
t Brewing, spot. 
The following are to-day's recorded sales on Call: 
Barley— Regular session; May— lOO tons, 85Jc; 500, 85* 
per ctl. Afternoon— No sales. 

General Produce. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
January 4, 1892. 
Do country m'ls. 3 90 ® — 

Superfine 2 60 @ 3 00 

Walnuts, hard 

shell, Cal, lb.. 6 (g 8 
Do soft shell ... 8 @ 9i 
Do paper-shell.. 10 @ 12 
Almonds, f ft sh'l 12 (a 13J 

Paper shell 13 @ 15 

Hardshell 6 @ — 

Brazil 10 @ — 

Pecans, small.. 8 @ 10 

Do large 14 16 

Peanuts 3}@ 4 



Bayo, ctl 2 40 (a 2 60 

Butter 2 75 (3 3 CO 

Pea 2 60 @ 2 76 

Red 2 50 (a 2 76 

Pink 2 CO (g 2 25 

Small White... 2 60 (^ 2 75 
Large White... 2 35 @ 2 60 

Lima 2 9() @ 3 Ou 

Fid Pea8,blk eye 1 10 1 65 

Do green 2 UO @ 2 25 

Split 4 60 @ 6 50 

Oal., poor to 

fair, tt) 15 @ — 

Do g'd to choice 22S@ 30 
DoOiltedged... — @ 3i4 
Do Creamery .. . 274(8 — 
Do do Giltedge. — <S 35 
Eastern, lad.e.. 18S(g — 

Oal. Pickled 20 ia> — 

Cal. Keg 20 (^ — 

East'ru Crt-am'y 24 i^s 25 

Gal. choice 

cream 124(3 14 

Do fair to good. 10 (g 12 
Do Giltedged.. 14 @ — 

Di) Skim 6 @ 64 

Young America 134(9 144 

Cal. "as is," doz 20 @ — 

Do shaky 15 ftr — 

Do candled 30 @ — 

Do choice 32J@ — 

Do fresh laid... — @ 35 
Dodo s'lcdwhte —@ 374 
Eastern c 1 d- 

storage 25 ^ — 

Do fresh 284@ — 

Do selected - @ 324 

Outside prices for selected 
large egga and inside prices 
for mixed sizes— small eggs 
are bard to sell. 


Bran, ton 13 00® 14 00 

Feedmeal 25 00@ 26 00 

Grd Barley.... 19 OOM 19 50 

Middlings @ 21 00 

Oil Cake Meal.. @ 35 00 


Food (Red Ball 

Brand) in 100- 

Ib. Cabinets. . . - (g 8 00 

Compressed ... 7 00 @ 10 00 
Wheat, per ton. 9 OOCot — 

Do choice .. (a 13 60 

Wheat and oats 8 00(S 11 50 

Wild Oats 7 00@ 9 00 

Cultivated do . 6 OOft* 9 00 

Barley 6 W@ 9 00 

Alfalfa. 8 OOm 10 60 

Clover 8 O0(cC 10 00 

Straw, bale 35@ LO 

Barley, feed, ctl lt<m 774 

Do good 78J@ 

Do choice 80 @ 

Do brewing 9i) @ 98 

Do do choice... 935@ 

Do do Giltedge. 9?4@ 

Do Chevalier. . . 80 @ 

Do do Giltedge.! 15 @ 

Buckwheat 2 25 (^ 

Corn, white.... 1 074® 110 

Yellow, large... hOO (a 

Do smaU 1 074@ 1 10 

Oats, milling...! 35 (a 1374 

Feed, choice....! 37iW 

Do good 1 30 (a 

Do lair ! 26 @ 

Do common....! 124(8 

Surprise 1 40 (^ 

Black feed 1 05 (g 1 16 

m 1 30 

1 174 

Do seed 1 17ii 

Gray 1 30 ® 

Rye 1 124@ 

*Wheat, milling 

Gi tedged 1 274@ 

Do choice ! 26J® 

Do fair to good. 1 264(3 

ShippiQg.choice 1 26i@ 

Do good 1 26 @ 

Do fair ! 224 W 

Common ! 20 

Sunora ! 20 @ 1 30 


1892, fair 17 @ — 

Good 18 @ — 

Choice 19 @ — 

Extra,citymills 3 90 @ — 

Hlberts 10 W 

7 @ 

Hickory . _ . 

Chestnuts 13 ( 


Sllverskin 1 00 @ 1 10 


River Reds 46 @ 86 

Early Rose, ctl. 65 @ 75 

Peerless 80 @ 90 

Burbank Seed's 75 (^ 86 
Do do Salinas.. 1 15 (a 1 25 
Do do Oregon.. 1 15 («t 1 25 

Sweet 60 @ 76 

Extra choice sell for mora 


Hens, doz 6 00 (g 7 00 

Roosters, old. . . 6 00 (a 6 50 

Do young 6 00 @ 00 

Broilers, small. 3 50 @ 4 00 

Do large 4 00 @ 4 60 

Fryers 4 00 W 5 00 

Ducks 500@700 

Do large 6 60 @ 6 00 

Do eiiralarge.. 6 60 (g 7 00 

Geese, pair 1 50 ^ 2 25 

Turkeys, gobl'r. 18 @ 20 
Turkeys, hens.. 17 @ 20 

Do dressed 18 @ 22 

All kinds of poultry, if poor 
or small, sell at less than 
quoted; if large and in good 
condition, they sell Cor more 
than quoted. 

Manhattan Egg 

Food (Red Ball 

Brand) in 100- 

Ib, Cabinets... — (gll 60 
Quail, per doz.. 1 00 @ 1 35 

Ducks — (ui — 

Do Maid ^ doz 3 00 @ 3 60 

Do Sprig 3 Cu @ 2 26 

Do Teal 1 50 @ — 

Do Widgeon 1 60 (a — 

Do small 1 25 @ — 

Geese 3 00 @ — 

Do gray ^ doz. . 2 00 (u) 3 00 

Do White 1 00 @ 1 60 

Do Brant 1 25 @ 1 75 

Snipe 2 00 (a — 

Do Knglish, doz 1 60 @ 2 00 
Do Jack, per doz 75 ® 1 28 
Hare, doz.. 1 25 (a — 
Rabbits, large. . 1 25 # 1 60 

Do small 1 00 @ 1 26 

Oal. bacon, 

heavy, per tb. 



Cal sm'k'd beef. 
Hams, Caisalt'd 


Clover, Red. 


Mustard, yellow 

Do brown 

Fall, 18 
1 374[S Joaquin, plain 
Do mountain . . . 

Do lamb .... 

Northern Choice 
Do Defective... 

Oo Lamb _ 

HONEY-1892 Crop, 
White c ti m b, 
2-lb frame.... 
Do do 1-lb frame 
White extracted 

Amber do 

Dark do 

Beeswax, lb.... 

12 (a 

12 @ 

14 <S 





15 (a 




15 @ 

30 # 

26 (a 


7 (S 

5 @ 





8 & 


8 @ 


14 @ 

11 @ 

10 @ 


Fruits and Vegetables. 

Ohoioe seUbted, In good paokagei, (etcb an advanoe on the 
qaotations, while Tery poor gradea sell leu than the lower 
Limes, Hex .... 6 00 1 

Do Oal — ( 

Lemons, box.... 3 50 1 
Do Sicily choice 5 60 1 
Apples 35 

Do Extra choice 1 50 _ 

Pears 25 @ 1 00 

do Winter Nelis 1 00 @ 1 50 

Persimmoos 60 @ 1 00 

Oranges, pr bx- 
Navei3,Kiver'de 2 00 (8 3 60 
Do, Butte Co... 3 00 @ 3 60 
needl'g.River'de 3 00 (9 2 25 

Do, Ftesno 3 00 @ 2 50 

Do, Butte! Co... 2 OJ 2 25 
Extra choice fruit for special 
purposes sells at an advance 
ou outsiie quotations 
ueeu, ak - 76 

January 4, 


7 00 

i 60 

Ukra, dry. lb.... 8 « 

) 10 

3 00 

Parsnips, ctl. ... 1 00 K 

c 1 60 

6 00 

Peppers, dry, lb 7 i 

) 8 


Turnips, ctl — < 

( 70 

1 25 

(Jabhage. 100 Dn 40 (? 

» 60 

1 75 

Garilc. lf< S> . . m 

I 34 

Mar'fat Squash, 

" ton 5 00 ® 8 00 

Cauliflower 40 @ 60 

Celery 60 « 76 

Mushrooms,^ lb 

Oo, Common. . . 8 (3 IS 

Do, Button 30 (S M 

Tomatoes, box. 1 00 (oi 1 23 

String Beans. 
Rhubarb . 
Gieen Peas . 

6 @ 


Asparagus VS (g SO 


f ACIFie iyjHAis, f RESS. 

January 7, 1893 

Addilional Grange News. 

Enterprise Grange. — Election, Dec 
5, 1892; officers chosen: N. G. Wilson, 
M.; J. A. Simons, O.; Geo. Artz, L.; J. O 
Sherwood, S.; W. Coy, A. S.; Geo. Wilson, 
C; Mrs. Simons, T. ; Minnie Toomey, Sec; 
F. A. Schultz, G. K.; Etta Plummer, Ceres; 
Hattie Bonlin, P.; Grace Toomey, F.; Alice 
Chase, L. A. S. Date of installation, Jan 
7, 1893- 

A Grange Watch Meeting. 

The watch night social of Sacramento 
Grange proved a pleasant occasion. Patrons 
and their families to the number of 125 
assembled to participate in the merrymak- 
ing. The program was brief and was pre- 
sented by members of the Grange. First 
was a tableau, " Under the Mistletoe," fol- 
lowed by an instrumental duet on piano and 
violin. The curtains were then withdrawn, 
revealing " The Belle of the Grange," which 
was neither more nor less than a brand new 
dinner bell. A vocal solo preceded the 
tableau, " Bachelor's Dream," wherein a for- 
lorn Granger fell asleep while darning his 
sock, and a beautiful maiden appeared and 
completed his task without disturbing his 
sonorous slumbers. A charade in which 
one brother had charge of the culinary de- 
partment, another rocked the cradle, and a 
past State master handled the family wash- 
ing in a masterly way, while the ladies dis- 
cussed the current topics, was entitled 
" Woman's Rights." Sixteen young people 
in costume and masked appeared upon the 
floor and danced the Bellamy Quadrille, or 
Looking Backward, and the applause which 
greeted the performance was uproarious. 
After a grand march, quadrilles, waltzes and 
polkas followed each other in rapid succes- 
sion, and youthful feet kept time to the 
music while the older people watched the 
dancing and had a social converse. 

Refreshments were served in the banquet 
hall, and as midnight approached the Vir- 
ginia reel was danced and the old year 
passed away and the new was ushered in by 
friendly handclasps and interchange of 

We passed out from the glare of gaslight 
to where the night's sable curtain was bril- 
liant with starry luster and confined by a sil- 
ver cresent, and Jack Frost had liberally 
bestowed his frozen moisture, which scintil- 
lated in the warm, soft light, and went our 
several ways. 


ICommission Merchants] 

406 & 408 DAVIS ST S.F. 


"Wormy Fniit 
I ami Ix^af BliKbt 
lof Apples, Pwira. 
B Che m 08, and Pi u m s 
j|preTetnt«d; also Cirap 
faDd Potato Uot— by 

B)rayinK with.*^lalil'B 
ouble ActioK ExcelHior 
Spraying Outtite Bent , 
in ihe market. Thousands « 
in use. Catalogue, di>scnb-L 
ing all insecta injohoua to 
fniH, mailed Free. Addms 


X>01N "XTKr^IT ! 

Secure your accommodations NOW if you lutcnd to vMt 
the World's Fair By contractlDg ahead, we can famish 
you w|lL >l<airable rooms at OISE THIRD what they will 
cost next fuminer \Vrit«_- at once tor particulars. A reli- 
able person In eTery town can make money repreHe'^tlug us 
PI KNlNHIff«i) C0.11PANY, 
(Incorporated under the law.i of Illinois), 

(■Ilff Illustrated PublicaiionSk 
KIbIbWITH maps, desoribins 
■ ■ m W Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, 
■ IHI Blldaho, Wasliington aucl Oregon, tlw 
a^ThebertAfrieuIttmil.OiMinj and Timber' 
Lands now open to Mttlen. Mailed FREE. Aiinm 
Caail. b. laaBOUH, iMd Vtm., n. r. B. B., St. Paal, MlaT 

, Wastiington and Oregon, tlltt 


There is not a seedsman or nurseryman in the 
country who exercises more care in the production 
of pure seeds with strong germinating qualities, or, 
in growing strictly fine bulbs and plants than does 
H. VV. Backljee, of Rockford, 111., who has an il- 
lustrated advertisement in another column of this 

paper. He produces and has for sale all kinds of 
farm, garden and flower seeds, plants, bulbs, etc. , 
and sells them at prices that virtually defy competi- 
tion. His beautifully illustrated catalogue with 
descriptions, prices, etc. , will Ije furnished free as 
per advertisement. 




Opens January 10, 1893. 

Closes February 11, 1893, 


AmoDs which win be the AnDual Ezblbitlon of the Northern California Citrus Fair 
Asaoctatlon, a Orand Display of Natural Products of Various Counties of the State, the 
Largest Collection Ever Seen In This City of Valuable Statuary and Paintings, an Or- 
cnestra of Fifty Musicians, Ino.udlng Noted Soloists and Mies May Cook, the Young 
California Oornetlst, Six Large Aquariums, Machinery In Motion, Objects of Art, Indus- 
try and Manufacture. 

A <^Tn lg>»loxx s 

Adult's aini^la admigglon In daytime, 26c.: evening, 60c Child's single a^lmlaaion, daytime, lec ; evenlnt, 
26c. Season t<cketa Issued only to members o( the Hechaniea' logtituts. Doable season ticket, $2.60; single sea- 
son ticket, tl.60. 

Season tickets may be obtained by non-members at the following rates: Double season, |6; 
single season, |4, which Includes membership In the lostltnte, subject to conflrmatlon by the management and 
does for the present quarter. IBWlN O. S TUMP, President 



Operated by one small Boy. No Man required. 



. , . from the Center. 

The Pacific Spader and Vineyard Oaltlrator 

('oes more work In one stiolce than a Disc Harri>w In ten. 
S'zee, to 12 feet. 


San Franclsoo and Fresno. 


No 60- Bt-toot Spider 16-Incb Blades 

No. 6D— 7 " " 18 " " 

No. lOD— 6} " " 80 " 

No. 14D— 7 " " 20 " " 

No. 16D— 8 " " ao " 

No. 200—10 " •• 20 " " 

No. 24D— K •' " 20 " 


Especially adapted to pulverizing " bottoms "—one 
man and a email boy can operate it. 

Linden, Cal . , Nov. 26, 1892. 
Messrs. Truman, Hooker & Co., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Gentlemen:-! was induced by your agent, Mr. I. 
0. Fowler, to purchase one of your PACIFIC SPADERS, 
which I have tested on some very hard 1 and and mus t 
say it does its work to perfection. I will say to 
all who contemplate purchasing a Cultivator to take 
the Pacific Spader every time. I remain 
Yours very truly, 

C. V. Webb. 

Seal nice one, too— latest style out. PRETTV CAPS TO HATCH 

f Trn^ T=» TT" TTSf 

AQE 6 
AGE 8 
AGE 10 
AGE 12 


I- ) 

Colon an gray mixed and light tan mixed, the new popular fabrics— not dark. We have only 71 
left, and they will not go round. 

AGE 4 ARE $2.50-POSTAGE 18c. 

ARE 2.75-POSTAGE 20c. 
3.00— POSTAGE 22c. 
3.25— POSTAGE 24c. 
3.50-POSTAGE 25c. 
C to IVTtitolx Oo -w-l-tlrx tlxe> Oooit«. 

You will be asked •6.00 (or these elsewhere. We hare LADIKS' COATS t3-76 to tl2.00. Lonf 
Coats, last year's style, SO left, were $12.00 to 120.00, now t6.00 to $8.00. Oar list tells aboat 'am. 
Send forit— TRsa— to 

414-416-418 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Send for Price Lists 

And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 




Kings River 



General Nursery Stock. 


Some choice Orange and l>mon land planted and 
caied for, at tedrock prices. 




Palm and Citrus Nursery 



And all Citrus Trees In variety. 

ORNAMENTAL TREICS, best adapted to California and 
its subtropical sectloos. 

.\ Urge stock of CIIBRIMOYA (Custard Apple) and 

Tbe J \VA PLUU (Euganla Jambolana), a handsome 
fruit-bearing tree from Java, mailed free for lOi. 



Santa Barbara California. 

Oak Mound Nurseries. 


At Prices which Defy Competition. 


KOB'T P. EAOHDS. T.nk>po*t. I-«ke To , Cal. 



2128 Tenth St., Sacramento, 


Grown in the open ground, namely: MANZANILLO or 


For sale at bed-rock prices. We ate a^aio in the mar- 
ket with Clean, Healthy stock, grown entirely without 

Canada Nursery, Redwood City, Cal. 


Recorded and guaranteed fine brtd, FOR SALE, sinirle 
or In carload lots. Prices very reasooable. Address: 


Oekwood Park Stock Farm, 
DANVILT.i; Contra Costa Co., Cal. 


for Nurstrynii-n. dcalc r». or coimurnMa^lSlera. 

in car louds or box lots, 
hee our prlce.s lj«-fur e buyi ng, 'i i,ey are very low. 


.\pplc (.rarta at ^ll.^i^v^homS^^^^^ 

1 rune (;raltif (on .Marianu skk Ks) at !$9 per m. 
I'ear (^iralla at :<<>4.00 per m. w ira m. 

All Ursi class and U-st of materlaJ used, f o Ix 


JVu 1 graded S-mh, and all np atMI.Iu per m- 
mul Pear Stocks, same urailc, at ij(7..50 p.ri i.f.o.b. 
Iree of disease We are strictly wlioh-snleri, and 
Brow nothing but tbe above stock. Our trade hua 
grown to Immense proportions (second to none) 
through the merits of our goods. "wuo. 

Send for samples. For f nil particulars, a<ldrees 
II.C.GRAVES & SOIVS, L.e'.Snmmlt.Mo. 




Mc)n«'y iiiadc t>y hnylng my seeds. 
35 pkts 81.00. 2cto5opkt. 

Presents \\\\\\ evi'r>' ortlc r. s«-n(l 
postal card witli iiaiue and ud- 
ilrfs.** for catalogue. 

A. R. AMES. Madison. Wis. 

'resh! Reliable! Celebratod 

r^or /■iin7!;,t- SI r<itij Clfrminat- 
iiig Only 2. 3 * ic iwr 
Inrifc pki:. f.,000.000 -VoiWIy 
Krf ra.i With onlcrs (hl« vi-ar.Bna. 

Illu.. Colored Hvrd and I'laal Cata- . 

logae FRKKtoiill who nditrossat once -j 
H. W. BUCKBEE, ,1 
Beckford Heed Fanaa. «| 
No. 23a . Hockrord. III. . , 

January 7, 1893. 


Nevada City, Cal. 



Tbe LiSTgesc acd Best Collection of "Nut' 
BeariDg Trees to be found In the 
United States, and Excelled 
Novvtaere In Europe. 

84 Varieties of French Walnuts, hardy, proJuctive, 
perfect bloomers, regular soft shell varieties, includlog 
the Mayette, Franquette, Cluster, Vourey, Parieienne, 
Proeparturlens (4 varieties), Alpine or Wonder of the 
Alps, Chaberte, Barthere, Mammoth orJauge, Meylan, 
Laciniated or Ash-leaved (highly ornamental). Weeping 
(with limbs bending gracefully down like those of the 
Weeping Willow), and 11 other varieties, 4 of which are 
of California origin. 

Our Seedling Trees are guaranteed to be "Second 
Generation" Trees, being grown from nuts borne on the 
original or on trees grafted from the original. 

Our Grafted Trees are all grafted from tli« ori- 
ginal and therefore absolately trae. 

10 Varieties of French Chestnuts or "Marrons", 
solely propagated by grafting; the finest, largest and 

Varieties of Filberts (Avelines, Cobnuts and Round 
Filbert"). See chapter on " How to Train Filberts to 
Make them Bear Abundantly," in catalogue. 

11 V%rieties of Prunes, including five diSerent 
" types " of the Prune d' Ente or Robe de Sargent or 
French Prune, all synonyms; what is wrongly called in 
California Robe de Sargent we call " Loire D'Entc", as 
it is found only in tho nurseries of the Loire va'ley in 
France, and not in those of tbe true Robe De Sergent'e 
home In the valley of the Lot. 

841 Varieties of Grapes, divided into Extra Early 
Early, Medium and Late Varieties. The largest and 
choi>;est collection to be found in Califoinla. 

APUIL. OHERRIKS, the very earliest kinds ever 
introduced in this country. 
Pears, Apples, Plums, Apricots, etc. 
Small Fruits of all snrts 

Portngsl urange, fine and smooth thin skin and 

Corsica Lemon, a superb Lemon, the equal of tbe 

General Descriptive Catalogue, with essay on 
And How to Redeem Large, Unproductive, Delicate, 
Defective or Hard shell Walnut Trees by Grafting " 
Illustrated with 8 cuts on Walnut Grafting. 


Nevada Oity, - California. 


(Successor to LuiHRa Bdrbank.) 

SHADE TREES in Surplus. 


Prunes, Cherries, Olives, 

I>a'o Su'bstlt-u.tlxxs- 

New rice list free on application. 


A Large and Extra Choice Stock of 

Fruit, Shade and Evergreen TreeB 
and Floweringr Shrubs. 


The Largest and Best Stock of Camellias, 
Azaleas and Uhododendrone, conalst- 
iDg of tbe Best European Sorts. 

Nurseries at Millbrae. Greenhouses and Office and 
Salesyard at Baker and Lombard Sts., San Francisco. 


p. LUDBMANN, Pacific Nursery, 

Baker & L.ombard 8ts., San Francisco, Val. 
Send tor Price List. 


For Rare new Tropical fruit 
and ornamental plants and 
trees. Palms, Ferns, Orange 
Trees, Pineapples, Bamboos, 
Aquatics, Etc 

Plants safely shipped every- 
where. Send stamp for new 
and full oatalcgue which tells 
all about this subject. 

Oneoo, Fla. 




Grown from our seed in 1893. It will 
cost you only <^ 4 Cents to com 
pete for the A'T Five Prizeb 
The Vaufchan Potato is kno s i 
as one of the very best eai 
and productive varieties no 
before the public, and no earl 
potato now grown has cause 
as great a sensation since th 
Early Rose was first intro 
duced. It has size, qualit> 
and yield. We want to si 
how large a yield and howlarf 
a single tuber can be grown f r — 
ten ounces of this grand Potato, 
and will pay two hundred dollars 
In cash to secure this information 

Ilyou mention the name of this paper t 

id 24 cents (ia-2c. stamps), we , 
1 mail, postpaid to any ad-i 
Iress in the U. S., 10 ounces of 
the Vaughan Potato, Competl- 
ion Card and FREB copy of 


The most magnificent Seed 
and Plant Book ever issued, 
A Mirror of American Hor- 
' ticulture to date.— 20 pages 
larger than ever, with 150 ac- 
curate new engravings. The 
cover design in ten colors and 
gold is of real artistic beauty. 



88 State St. 12 Barclay St. 

Our ever-blooming Cannas, Sil- 
ver Leaf Calla, California Sweet 
Peas, &c., cannot be had else- 
where. Write to-day. East tfr 
West* New York or Chicago. 

Tointroduce oar Northern Grown Veg- 
etable Seeds we have decided to give awny 
2(X),000pnckatie3Of see'l. ob we believe this the 
. best way ton/lverti'-eourqui erior Bt^ick.s. To every reader of th in paper sending us 10c. 'silver or 
postal note) actual cost of postage and packing, we wil I send postpaid the wonderful CREAM Col- 
lection OF VegetableSeeds, precisely the same as we have always sold for 40c. The collection 
consists of the foHowinu four rjire novelties: Queen of the Market Kahish. an extra earl.v scar- 
let variety. Early Rui5T Tomato, ohHolutely the earliest in cultiv.ition; New C'iEAM Lettuce. 
very fine flavor and exceedingly handsome; EVERGiiEEN CUCUMBEB, new and desirable, either 
for cucumbers or pickling purposes 

In addition to this we will roail free our catalog^ue of new and choice 
Seeds, l*lants, Itulbs, and Small Frnits for 1893, which contains thousands 
of illu.'^trations, colored plat-es, pictures of Horticultural and Agricul- 
tural Hall at the Worlds Fair, and a 25c. certificate. 
Unn'tFitil to Take Advantage of This Offer. Address, 

/Aay ?c Coi 




lA wOlLw 'l^i^'i^^l^t^ THE BEST. 

Largest collection of 4'hryHaiitliofnniiifi. Cweranlums, Carnations and 
lto{ronia.«. I'siro Swdn. M any novj-lties in Tlaiits. Hardy KIirulHi 
rare and valuable. TjMp-pilfrM AUfAVI With every first order of 
Stock unanrp.ssed.Ai^' UlVbH MflHI • ^1. 00. or more, an elegant 
Kose and pucket of beautiful FlowerSeed. Lowest prices and many great 
inducements offered. We guarantee delivery in first-class condition. 

jriiSST SEE!! (20 Fine Kver-hlnoming Rosea for only gl.OO 

what we send to 20 Chr.Tfmnthemums, fine variety. " VI. 00 
anyaddressforonly I 20 4)!oraniiiniM, 'J<^) kinds " ^1.00 

$j I i'arnation.o. .ill different " 81.00 

I I I I I 12 H.Tl>rid RofirH. well grown slock.. " gl.OO 
■ I 12 Viirieties of Rreronia* " »I.OO 

Write for our new Illustrated ('alalogue (the finest ever issued) and se- 
cure check for an elegant Rose and packet of Seed, Free to all applicants. 

G.R.GAUSE & CO. 'Succ'rs to hiii & co RICHMOND, IND. 



,We Are The Only Firm 

Givinff^to customers cash discounts on orders. We are the 
only Firm distributing among patrons a year's subscrip- 
tion to loo agricultural papers without exacting any 
equivalent. No other beed Catalo^e, of America 
or Europe, contains so great a variety of several of 
the standard vegetables, and. in addition, are naany 
choice varieties peculiarly our own. Though great- 
ly enlarged in both the vegetable and flower seed depart- 
ments, wesendourcatalogueFKEEtoall. The three 
warrants still hold good, and our customers may rely upon it. 
th.nt the well earned reputation of our seed for freshness and 
purity will continue to be guarded as a most precious part of our 
pital. J. J. H. GREGORY & SON. Marblehead. Mass, 


^ Common-Sense 



For 1893 


116 Pi ges, 200 Fine Engravings. Full of, 
useful and Instructive Information. ^ 
One of the Most Reliable Catalogues published. < 
All kinds of Guaranteed Garden, Flower and Field' 
Seeds, Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Small Fruits.' 

The Great FREEMAN POTATO Given Away!: 

Choice Roses, Flowering Plants and Bulbs. ' 
German Hares, &c., Jkc. Address ^ 

SAMUEL WILSON, Seed Grower, Mechanicsville, Pa.; 


Seeds oo^BsTREQ 


Why Not Procure the Best Direct from the Crowers? Our illustrated Catalogue, over UO 
pages, offers one of the most complete stocks in the H. 8. at right prices. Free to planujrs. Bend for it to-d»7^ 


THE STORRS & HARRISOH CO., Painesville, Lake Co., 0. 

DEWEY & CO. {"=S.S'vifo^?a7.:i^t.^ } PATENT AGENTS, 


Illustrated = 
=? Catalogue 

F03FK. X883 

Is now ready and has been mailed f^'WM 
to our regular customers. Others can ^ 
receive a copy by remittinK twenty cents, which may 
be deducted from the first order sent amoanting to 
one dollar. 

^hePWood pall flap^erij Co. 


100,000 EXTRA PINE 


Apple, Pear, Plum. Oberry, Peacb, Apricot. 
Neotaiine, Quince, Orape Vlnea 
and Small Fruits. 

600,000 FRUIT TREES! 

Orange, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and all kinds of Nut-Bearing 
Trees Shade and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 


Astc for Prices. 

James T. Bogue. Marysvlite Cal. 


Importers and Growers. 
Standard Fruits, Shade Trees, Shrubs 
and Ornamentals, 

No Irrigation. Free from Pests. 

Write (or prices and catalogue to 

DUANH BROS,, Martinez, Oal. 


You Think 

any kind of a crop will do, then 
any kind of seeds will do ; but for 
the best results you should plant 


f Always the best, they are reoot^nized i 
the standard everywhere. 
Ferry's Seed Annual is the most 
important book of the kind pub- 
lished. It is Invaluable to the 
planter. We send it (fr 

D. M. FERRY & CO. 



Nursery Stock. 

Send and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona, Oal. 


In Variety. 

Prices and a Pamphlet on Olive 
Culture in California Mailed Free. 



Pomona, - L^s Angeles Co., Cal. 


Eleven years experience hag taught me how to 
PBOPBKIiT root the Olive. No artiflcial heat nged. 

Montecito P. 0., Santa Barbara Co., Oal. 

On a II p r A Practical Treatise by T. A. Garey 

tl A PI U t ffiving tbe results of loog experl- 

i i n ■« W fci enoe in Southern CaUJornla. 199 

f^lll Tlinr P<^^> <^'°th bound. Sent postpaid 

I III IIIKI" reduced price of 75 cts. per copy. 

MUb I Ullk DKWBTPU&CO..SS0Maikfil.«. .. 

f AClFie ^URAio f RESS January 7. 1898 








DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 305 & 307 Market St., San Francisco. 

The above ou» illustrates oar new eprayiug pump, the ■' ChampiOD," and ita aJaptablUty to the work for which 
I has been especially deslgoetj. 

After ten years experience In Die spraying pump buslnest, and the wants of orchardists therein, we have built 
this pump, as being b»t suited to their requirement'. Before putting it on the marliet we submitted the model 
to several prominent fruit growers, and as the design met with their unaualifled aoproval also, we have no hesita- 
tion in declaring It to be the beat spray pump ever made, and justly entitled to be named •' Champion. " 

As will be seen from the illuBtrstlon, the pump Is very compact and strong. It is perfectly double-acting and 
h%i a braas-llned cylinder. The motion of the piston is horitontal. The handle Is so arranged that the leverage 
Is very powerful, and the movement Is easy and natural. The air chamber is onOBually Urge, admitting of the 
continuous and even discharge necessary for good and thorough spraying. 

The valves are metal and have metal seats. They all lie directly beneath the air chamber and are readily 
exposed on loosening four bolts, and without touching the cylinder. 

The pump has a double auction and a double discharge, one each on either aide. The above cut (hows the 
pump in operation with four lines of discharge hose. It can be readily arranged for a lesH number if deiiifed. 
With this pump one man can eaally keep four men busy spraying, as well as attend to the team and stirring of the 
liquid We believe the pumps supply a Icug felt want, aa, for aervioe, coDveDienae, easlnsaa of operation and 
durability, they are far superior to any other in use. 

Oar BAMBOO EXTENSION is an admirable invention. The operator of the pump, by the use of this 
extension, can get to all parts of the tree while on the gmuod, also saving himself from getting his hands and face 
burnt from the solution. A» a rule, the man who doei the ilrlring of the team does the pumping, and thn pattv 
who has charge of the Bamboo Extension does the spraying. This Is the very best pump made, without any 

We also carry a foil Une of other Spray Pumpa-GOCLDS. STAR, EUREKA; also full line of Spray 
Nozzles, Spray Uose and everything connected with the Spray Pump Outfits. 


312 and 314 Market Street, Janction of Bueh, San Francisco, Oal. 


Rio B oNiTo N urseries, 




Apples, Bartlett Pears, French 
Prunes, Olives. 


FIGS: The TRUE COMMERCIAL White Adriatic, 

Z>E]X1.SX^I«T Soft Slxoll X^-A.XjiBIXTT. 







o«iiLiAxx<A offloo. BIQQS, Butte Co., 

«. j:r""""""'' oa. California. 

Vol. XLV. No. 2. 


Office, 220 Market St. 

Eastern Shipment of California (drapes. 

The eastern shipmenl of table grapes is one of the great 
lines of our fruit industry. It constituted one of the earli- 
est efforts in that direction, beginning "in al small way as 
soon as the first overland route was opened, and increasing 
beyond all early estimates of probabilities. Though or- 
chard fruits have won the precedence in weight of ship- 
ments in recent years, the vineyard product has brought 
vast sums of money tolthe State, and willj^continue to do 
so. Very much has been learned in the production of 
grapes suitable] for [ship- 
ping. Methods of culture, 
selection of locations'and 
soils and of varieties and 
methods of packing for 
distant shipment, have 
been learned at the 
cost of expensive experi- 
ence, and the business is 
far safer and surer now 
than when the pioneer 
growers and dealers of the 
Sacramento valley first en- 
tered upon the dangerous 
venture of shipping an un- 
tried product at the almost 
incredible freight rates 
which then prevailed. 

Yolo county can claim 
honorable age as a shipper 
of table grapes as well as in 
the raisin industry. The 
honorable pioneers, Q. G. 
Briggs and R. B, Blowers, 
will never be forgotten for 
their efforts in this line. 
Since then, other men and 
other regions have in later 
days grown more grapes 
and made more money than 
did they. The production 
has extended from the vi- 
cinity of Sacramento to the 
coast valleys and hillsides 
on the west and to the foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada 
on the east. It has also 
extended considerable dis- 
tances northward and 
southward in the great 

valley. Each region has now its special season of ripen- 
ing and its varieties which it produces in especial ex- 

The engraving on this page shows grape-picking for 
shipment on a grape-farm in Yolo county. It is common 
to seek the shade of trees to pursue the careful work which 
must be done in trimming the bunches and placing them 
in the receptacles to best endure the journey. One large 
grower near Sacramento, though successful and well-to-do, 
and prominent as well in public affairs, insists on packing 
with his own hands the bulk of his product, and he works 
with extreme rapidity and with the aid of as many as he 
can use to fetch and carry. The prices he receives and the 
fame of his brand are full reward for the devotion. Other 
shippers use many hands at packing- time, as the picture 
shows, and the packing season is an event of social as well 
as industrial importance, as the belles of the vicinity do 
not disdain to enlist their slender fingers in this service, 
and they do well. Naturally, the scene is not strictly 
business, for the attraction of the camera is great, and 
loiterers have been drawn from a wide area. Still, in its 
main features, the picture is true to life — the long table 

at which the packers sit; the large boxes just brought in 
from the adjacent vineyard; the wagon half-laden wiih 
well-filled crates — all these and other features of the 
picture are characteristic of the scene which the subject 

Commissioner Perky of Orange county reported to 
the southern California horticultural commissioners that 
he has fumigated 47,000 trees at less expense than 25 cents 
per tree, and he adds the gratifying intelligence that in 
his district the scale has almost entirely disappeared. 

The Coming Rose Show. 

The State Floral Society has just issued its premium list 
for its next rose show, which will be held in the Mechanics' 
Pavilion, San Francisco, beginning Wednesday, April 26, 
and continuing four days. The society announces the in- 
tention to make this the most extensive flower show ever 
held on this continent. This may be rather an ambitious 
undertaking, but as the World's Fair does not open until 
May it may be quite possible to do it. The experience of 
the society in filling the main floor of the Mechanics' 

Pavilion twice last year 
gives it confidence toward 
an end which we hope will 
be realized. There are 
$3000 in premiums offered 
and the list showsa breadth, 
variety and uniqueness in 
awards which ran hardly 
fail to awake exhibitors 
and delight the public. 
Every flower-grower who 
reads the Rural should 
send for a copy of the 
premium list and see ii 
there is not some class in 
which their best work can 
be introduced to the pub- 
lic. W. H. Smyth, 224 
Market street, is the man- 
j>t!»r for the society, and 
he will honor all requests 
lor information. 


John Scott, commissioner for Los Angeles, reports that he 
has made sturdy efforts to abolish diseases in trees by fu- 
migation, and has been fairly successful. Trees that were 
found to be diseased have been cut down by the hundred, 
and everything has been done that would conduce to a 
healthy growth. The old stocks, when cut down, have 
been destroyed by fire in most instances, which generally 
obliterates all vestiges of disease. 

Among many other schemes for county division in Cali- 
fornia is one to split Tulare into four quarters, making as 
many new counties. It is a real pity that there are not 
enough counties in the State to go around among all aspir- 
ing towns which wish to be county seats. But perhaps we 
might as well wish for the millenium at once and have 
complete happiness come to everybody all in a heap. 

Thb ingenious calculation is made that the Fresno 
raisin pack for 1892 would load a train ten miles long. 
One thousand, nine hundred and sixty cars, or to put it 
in pounds, 41,148,000 pounds of raisins, in 1892, and none 
in 1882, tells the story of Fresno's marvelous development 
as a great fruit-raising, country. 

Happy is the lot of the 
rancher who planted pota- 
toes, and plenty of them, 
last season, and has held 
on to them up to this time. 
There is a notable dispar- 
ity between supply and de- 
mand in the markets, and 
extra choice are now rated 
as high as $1.40 and $1.50 
per cental. Many esculents 
arrive in frozen condition, 
and of course do not sell 
well. But for those which 
are in first-class condition, 
there is a rosy prospect of 
still higher prices. The 

homely " murphy " may not be a thing of beauty, nor even 
a joy forever, but it has just now for the producer golden 
qualities of the most satisfactory kind. 

This is the season of poultry shows on the Pacific coast. 
Last week a successful three days' exhibit was made at 
Salem, Or., and this week at Seattle, Wash., a similar 
show has been held. Both attracted much attention and 
large attendance, and the exhibits were varied and credit- 
able. This week, Petaluma has been the Mecca of Cali- 
fornia poultry-raisers and fanciers. Enough is known al- 
ready of the exhibition to warrant the statement that it 
has been a veritable triumph for its promoters. 

The California scale for judging citrus fruits has been 
forwarded to the proper authorities at the World's Fair. 
It is not yet determined whether it will be used for the 
entire range of fruit exhibits, but it will at least be used 
forjudging California exhibits. 

The importation of raw sugar into the United States 
during the last fiscal year free of duty amounted to 1,300,- 
000 tons, or 130,000 carloads. 



January 14, 1893 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 Front St., San FraneUco., Cai. 

Annual StiEacRiPTio.v Rate Three Dollars a year. While this notice 
appears, all «ub«criber8 pa>-ing $3 In advance wUl receive IS mouths' (one year 
and 13 weeM credit. For i?2 In advance, 10 months. For $1 iu advance, Ave 
months. Trial subecriptiona tor three months, paid In advance, each 60 cents. 


J Week. 1 Month. 3 Montht. ITear. 

Per Line (agate) » .25 $ .50 » l.M «4.00 

Half inch (1 square 1.00 2.90 6.50 J2.00 

One inch 1.80 B-'* ".00 42.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Spedal or reading notices, legal 
advertisements, notices appearing In extraordinary type, or in particular parts 
of the paper, at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at 8. F. Post OlHce as second-class mall matter. 

ANV subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the Rural Press, vrith 
a postage stamp, wiU receive a reply, either through the coliunns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The answer will be given as promptly as practicable. 

ALFRED HOLM AN General Manager 

San Francisco, January 14, 1893. 


I LLUSTRATIONS.— Packing Grapes in Yolo County for Eastern Ship- 
ment, 21. „^ „ 

EDITORIALS.— Eastern Shipment of California Grapes; TBe Coming 
Rose snow: Miscellaneous, -il. The Week; A Grain Farm for the 
Prison Board; Agricultural De,)ression in England; Fruit Culture in 
Its lufancy; Mihcellaneous, a. Fjom an Independent Standpoint; 

COKRESHONDENCE.— Low Returns from Pears Shipped East; The 
Value of Poultry: Helf-Sucking Cow, Agricultural Statistics, 24. 

MISCELLANEOUS. -The Forfeited Laud Grant; Gilt-Edge Brood- 
mares; Items, 21. Eihuology of the Eskimos; The Language of the 
World. . , „ . , 

POULTRY YARD.— Artificial Incubation as Compared with Natural 
Method; Expensive Food for a Hen: Points on Ducks; Toe Charm of 
Chicken-Raising; On Keeping Eggs. Judging the Age of Poultry. 25. 

THE DAIRY.— A Proposed Anti-Oleomargarine Law, 25. Dairy Notes, 

THE STOCK Y*ARD.— The Fat-Stock Show at Chicago; Smoking and 
Curing Bacon; Hoes Becoming Valuable, 26. 

THE FIELD.— The Year in Napa County, 26. The Storm in Butte 
County; The European H jp Crop, 2" 

HORTICULTURE —The Orange Crop; Large Arpa of New Orchards: 
For Pernicious Scale and Lecaniums; Fruit-Raising Pays; To Amend 
the Irrigation Law. 27. 

THE HOME CIRCLE -The Song ol the Dairy: Last Year; Homonyms; 
Kuew When He was Through: Happinehi Defined: A DilT-rent Ver- 
sion of an Old Tale; San Francisco Notes, 2.S. California Women and 
the World's Fair; Di You Know, '28. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Little Orphant Annie; Study in Insects; 
Diplomacy: The Ch-rm of Pleasantness: Bulwer and Tennyson, 29. 

DOMESTH; ECONOMY.— Tested Recipes, 29. 

PATRONS OF HU-iBANI)RY.— From the Worthy Master; Y'uba City 
Grauge; San Jose Grange: The Secretary's Column; Sacramento Po- 
mona GranK-; Woodbrldge Grange Installation, 30. 





Nursery Stock— J. P. Sweeney & Co. 
Nursery Stock— Long Brothers, Fresno, Cal. 
Nursery Stock— Slark Bros., Louisiana, Mo. 
Nursery Slock— Herman Schwarz. Sicramento. 
Nursery Stock— A. Moiticr, Middletown. Cal. 
Nursery Slock and Poultry— A. Schell, Santa Roea. 
Furniture— California Furniture Company. 
Red Seal Granulated Lye— P. C. Tomson & Co. 
Railroad Travel— W. A. Bistell. 
Catile— Boynton Bros., Hoilister. 

World's Fair Guide- Columbian Visitor's Guide Co., Chicago. 
Broodmares at Auction— Killip & Co 

Wagons and Carriages— California Wagon and Carriage Co. 
Land for Sale— John F. Byxbee. 

See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

Nearly the whole week a dense fog-cloud has palled the 
northern and central interior of the State; the central 
coast and the southern areas have had clear skiea with 
sharp mornings and warm days. It is probable that the 
winter has done its worst, and this is all we get of the 
great aerial movement which has knocked the bottom out 
of eastern thermometers — a mere outer trini;e of a great 
storm, chilly, it is true, but balmy as compared with the 
centers. This is the old-fashioned California winter; 
may the style never go out. 

Much field work has been done of late. The weather 
has favored seeding, and a wide area has received wheat 
which is too cheap to sell. Tree-planting has proceeded 
in full measure, and all accounts indicate its unusual ex- 
tent in all parts of the State. Buds are already swelling 
in the warmer regions, and the glories of February are 

There is no occasion for farmers and live-stock men to 
get excited over the present condition of the pork market. 
It is true that prices have taken an almost unprecedented 
jump, and still have a very emphatic upward tendency. 
But the causes are natural. There is a serious shortage in 
the supply, which the course of nature and the efforts of 
the producer will in time no doubt correct. Salted and 
smoked meats are now so high as to be almost a luxury, 
and, if prices advance much more, it is probable that the 
consumers will change to cheaper meats — spring chicken, 
mayhap — and the demand will not be so pressing. The 
indications, however, are excellent for good prices for some 
time to come, and if you are going to smoke hams or 
bacon, or pack pork, don't be in too big a hurry for fear 
the market will collapse, and turn out an inferior product. 
Ohoice meata are assured of a good sale any time; poor, 
almost never. 

Fruit Culture in Its Infancy. 

Fruit culture in California has acquired large dimen- 
sions; but it is clear that it is, so to speak, as yet only in 
swaddling clothes. Preparations for the planting of new 
orchards are at this season very much more extensive than 
ever before, and nurserymen everywhere report a very 
general demand for trees. Advices from southern Cali- 
fornia are that the proposed acreage of deciduous fruits — 
peaches, apricots and prunes — is more than 100 per cent 
larger than ever before for one year. These figures are 
probably an exaggeration, but it is unquestionably the 
truth that this year's planting will increase the acreage in 
those fruits to a greater degree than in any former year. 
The orange acreage, too, is being largely added to, but not 
in the same proportion as the lemon. There are many 
who believe that a wider and more profitable field will 
open up before California lemon culture than any other 
fruit, not even excepting the orange. The advance in 
methods of growth and cultivation during the past few 
years has been sufficient to make the California lemon a 
powerful and successful rival to the most famous foreign 
products; and it is not seriously doubted that it will be- 
come, in time, actually superior in quality and appearance, 
if, indeed, it is not now entitled to that high distinction. 
California is the only State in the Union where the lemon 
has been or can be raised in commercial quantities. The 
consumption in the United States is almost entirely of 
the foreign lemon, the California product cutting an al- 
most inappreciable figure in the total. Knowledge as to 
the proper culture of the lemon has become so general in 
this State, and natural conditions of soil and climate of 
certain regions are so favorable, that the industry is as- 
sured of a permanent place in the fruit interests of the 
State, if a market can be found. Ability to compete with 
the foreign lemon in ijuality and price, the increasing 
consumption in the United States, a natural preference 
that Americans might be expected to have for a home 
article, and the limited area in which the lemon can be 
profitably grown in the United States, seem to leave ab- 
solutely no question that this latter great desideratum will 
be permanently provided and its culture more widely en- 
gaged in with safety. 

The California orange is making steady advances ip the 
markets of the world. Reasonable prices and education 
as to its merits and qualities appear to be ail that is 
necessary to assure its more general use. Precisely the 
same can with truth be said of most of the deciduous 
fruits, and the nuts, raisins and other peculiar products of 

The advance in fruit-growing is not by any means con- 
fined to southern California. It is general throughout the 
State. One section is the complement of the other. The 
northern fruit belt is more than ever demonstrating its 
value and advantages. Southern California is a counter- 
part of the north in production of citrus fruits as well as 
prunes, apiicots, peaches, pears, apples, etc., which 
achieved their first commercial prominence at the north. 
The present northern citrus fair is a revelation of the giant 
possibilities of northern California. It is an education in 
itself to behold the magnificent display at the fair. 
Northern California has climatic and soil conditions 
which are doing their full share in placing our State in i 
the very front rank of fruit regions. And its growers are 
not in any respect inferior to any others in capability, en- 
terprise or knowledge of the best and most valuable 
methods. They know h»w to fight pests and insects, and 
to surround orchards with the moit approved methods of 
cultivation. They understand the relation of their indus- 
try and their products to general conditions and to the 
markets. They are, as a rule, men of intelligence, energy, 
and mental activity and acuteuess. 

The future of the fruit industry in all California cannot 
be estimated. It is folly to predict what it will be in a 
few years. Growers need not always expect flowery paths 
of ease in cultivation or in sale of their output. Their 
foreign rivals will not surrender without a stubborn con- 
test. Nature may not always smile on their orchards. 
Pests and insects do not die easily. Frosts will come, 
storms will rage, winds will blow. Transportation com- 
panies do not always afford cheap freight rates. Buyers 
may not at all times be in accord with sellers. Middlemen 
may not be easily controlled. Many drawbacks may be 
encountered. But, on the whole, our natural advantages 
are superior, our methods good, and our opportunities ex- 
cellent. Let us do our best to take advantage of them. 

The income from walnuts to the Las Nietos and Ban- 
chito Walnut Growers' Association of Rivera for 1892 was 
$94,825,71. The association delivered to the buyer 12,061 
sacks of walnuts, or 1,257,474 pounds. The crop loaded 
71 cars. Total shipment of walnuts from Rivera this sea- 
son was 82 cars, 13,704 sacks, or 1,425,854 pounds, some- 
thing over $106,000 worth of nuts. 

A Grain Farmer for the Prison Board. 

Senator Oatrom, of Yuba county, has put forth a very 
proper and forcible claim that the Board of State Prison 
Directors should include among its members a grain 
farmer who knows something about grain bags. His claim 
did not avail anything immediately, but it is well to have 
it upon record and it will ultimately prevail. 

The proposition is the most reasonable that could be 
put forward. The only article manufactured at the San 
Queatin prison is the jute grain bag, and this industry 
was originally undertaken for the express purpose of fur- 
nishing the grain-producer cheaper bags. But the farm- 
ers were satit^fied that they had not been treated fairly in 
the sale of the bags — that speculators and large-scale agri- 
culturists had been favored, and the small farmer, whose 
living, precarious as it is, depends upon his own toil and 
thrift, had been left out iu the cold. It was in the hope 
of remedying this, Mr. Ostrom said, that a well-informed 
grain farmer is needed on the Prison Board, so that he 
might point out the evils to the other members who are 
not farmers. 

The fact that the desirability of having upon the Prison 
Board a representative of the class whom it is intended to 
benefit has been so long overlooked, is simply illustrative 
of the small account which is generally taken of farmers 
even in the special matters in which they are most con- 
cerned. If the Slate Prison was making bags for coffee- 
dealers, or for peanut-venders, or even game bags for pot- 
hunters, the most natural popular impulse would be to put 
representatives of these distinguished callings upon the 
board, in order that the bags might be properly made and 
disposed of. But inasmuch as it is simply a bag for a 
farmer, why any lot of serviceable politicians will do. 
These men not only know better than the farmer does him- 
self what kind of a bag he needs to put his grain into, but 
they could, every last one of them, in their own conceit, 
tell the farmer how he could improve his grain-growing 
and all that. 

There will come a time, and it is not far distant either, 
when the public will accord' to the farmer the distinction 
of being something of an expert in his own line. It will 
come just as soon as he learns to assert his own claims to 
such consideration. Even such audacity as Senator Ostrom 
displayed in daring to announce to the California Senate 
that a farmer knows something about his swn affairs and 
claims the right to regulate them, is of value in hastening 
the desirable end. 

Agricultural Depression in England. 

Our English farming friends are again to undertake to 
legislate themselves into prosperity or perhaps to pass laws 
against depression. It is a difficult task, and most efforts 
in that direction fail. They have begun upon the present 
undertaking somewhat differently than they did a decade 
ago when some sort of a high joint Agricultural Commis- 
sion sat and rode for months taking testimony, and formu- 
lated a formidable report in which farmers were advised 
to abandon unprofitable lines of work and go to making 
jam because the vacancy in the Eogliah people which 
could be jammed full of jam was something remarkable. 
This was the leading cure for depression ten years 
ago, and the result was that the disease passed 
quickly from acute to chronic, and the English 
farmers, having lost confidence in Royal Commis- 
sion prescriptions, resolve to cure their own ills by cooper- 
ation and organization. The situation thus becomes more 
hopeful, but the treatment will be long and largely ex- 
perimental. An organization is planned which will in- 
clude landlords, tenant farmers and laborers. The Mark 
Lane Express has little fiith in its benefiting its clients, 
the tenant farmers, as they are merely in a position to be 
ground between the upper and the nether millstone, for, 
between the landlord on the one side and his laborers on 
the other, the poor farmer grows weary of life and would 
gladly even fly from ills he knows to evils he wots not, but 
he is so laden down that he cannot raise a feather. Still, 
cooperation and organization may show the farmer some- 
think. If he cannot live as a third of a thing, he may 
learn how to make himself a larger fraction. In any event, 
there will be something new, and it cannot be worse than 
that which has been. 

Thb Mechanics' Institute and Northern Citrus Fair — 
"dress parade for the main show in the big tent at the 
World's Fair" — opened in San Francisco last Tuesday 
night " in a blaze of glory," the local press picturesquely 
informs us. The displays of citrus fruit, confined almost 
entirely to oranges, are magnificent and are far finer, more 
complete and artistic than at any previous fair. With the 
exception of an exhibit from Tulare county, the displays 
are entirely from northern California. Butte, Sacramento, 
Placer and Yuba counties are represented in a splendid 
manner. The Rural Press next week will contain a 
complete description of the fair and its leading features. 

January 14, 1893. 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

The first notable attempt since the election to lay out 
the future policy of the defeated party comes from Senator 
Dolph of Oregon. In the North American Review for 
January he discusses the question, '' Does the Republican 
Party Need Reorganization ? " and answers it by giving an 
outline of the course which, in his judgment, the party 
should follow. Mr. Dolph does not accept any of the 
common theories as to the cause of the Republican defeat. 
To attribute it to those who were in charge of the cam- 
paigQ would, he thinks, " belittle the struggle ; " to attrib- 
ute it to hostility to Mr. Harrison would, he thinks, be 
totally misleading; nor, in his judgment, is the defeat 
justly chargeable to the tariff policy, or other policies of 
the party. It came about, he declares, from a " spirit of 
unrest," a sort of "warfare with existing conditions." 
Proceeding to the probable future policy of the party, he 
declares that it should stand in opposition to free silver 
coinage; that it should contiaue to advocate the policy of 
protection, and that it should not abandou the principle 
which lay back of the Force Bill. Above all, he declares 
the Republican party should staud firm in maintaining 
the doctrine of centralization in government as laid down 
by HamiltoQ and as supported by the decisions of John 
Marshall. It needs no reorganization, he says, but, 
rather, to go forward in support of the principles for which 
it has stood in the past. " I will not venture to predicate," 
he says, " the definite steps which the party may be ex- 
pected to take, but I will suggest a matter which might 
well be made prominent in the next declaration of party 
principles. It is the subject of immigration, now demand- 
ing the serious consideration of the American people. The 
rush of foreigners to our shores is so great and the immi- 
gration is of such a character as seriously to test our pow- 
ers of assimilation, if not to menace our institutions. The 
annual increase by immigration of artisans, mechanics 
and lab'^rers causes undue competition with labor in this 
country. Some legislation is demanded for the preserva- 
tion of American institutions and the protection of Amer- 
ican labor." We quote this recommendation in full, be- 
cause it is the only addition to the party doctrine which 
the writer proposes. 

Mr. Dolph fails to comprehend the situation and there- 
fore fails to grapple with its problems. He charges the re- 
cent defeat to a general dissatisfaction with existing 
conditions, and yet, singularly enough, has nothing to 
offerby way of compromising this dissatisfaction save the sin- 
gle scheme to regulate immigration. Does Mr. Dolph 
suppose for a moment that the political discontent of the 
country, which resulted in the defeat of his party, is con- 
cerned only or chiefly with the immigration question ? If 
this is the limit of his view, he is a man of less discern- 
ment than his fellow-citizens have generally supposed. If 
the results of the late election mean anything, they mean 
dissatisfaction with the extreme features of the protective 
tariff; disgust with the growth of wealth and privilege on 
the one hand and of poverty on the other; dissatisfaction 
with a systrm which permits trusts and corporations to en- 
gross the fat, leaving to producers only the bone; dissatis- 
faction with the increasing value of money under the 
system of a single gold standard; dissatisfaction with re- 
cent pension legislation; and profound distrust of the 
legislative branch of the government — particularly of the 
Senate. Whether or not the Republican party is justly blam- 
able for these causes of discontent, there can be no doubt as 
to the fact that by many thousands of voters they are charged 
up against it. If the Republican party is to be rehabili- 
tated and to recover its lost power, it must face the new 
issues; it must not be content to follow Mr. Dolph's plan 
of clinging fondly to traditions and offering to the pre- 
vailing spirit of unrest the one only project of immigra- 
tion reform. If the Republican party wants to succeed, 
it must not accept the leadership of those who, like Mr. 
Dolph, appear blind to the new issues in American afiairs. 
There are men in the Republican party who see farther 
than Mr. Dolph, and who may be depended upon to pro- 
vide a more promising scheme of policy; and if it were 
not for this prospect, the outlook would be hopeless in- 

The project to unite the representatives of rural con- 
stituencies at Sacramento into an association for the pro- 
motion of legitimate legislation has failed; and there is no 
reason to hope that it will come to anything during the 
present session. It will not, in fact, come to anything 
until the rural representatives are masters of themselves; 
and this will not be until there is a change in the methods 
by which legislative candidates are put in nomi- 
nation and in the methods by which campaigns are 
promoted. In theory, members of the legislature are 
selected by the people of the districts to which they stand 
accredited; in fact, four out of five are selected by the man- 
agers of special interests subject to legislation. What the 

districts do in reality is to ratify at the nominating con- 
ventions and at the polls a choice previously made by in- 
terested parties and imposed upon the people by familiar 
methods of political management. A " representative " 
selected in this way is no representative at all; he is the 
mere creature of some manager," not more the master of 
his own courses than a beast in harness. 

Some of our readers, perhaps, have not forgotten the ex- 
perience which Mr, Berwick, of Monterey, detailed in the 
RuEAL last September. He was nominated for the legis- 
lature (by what party it does not matter) and accepted the 
nomination with frank and honest pride, construing it as 
a mark of confidence on the part of his fellow citizens, 
pleased with the chance to serve their interests. But,, 
a few days after the convention, he was called upon by the 
county committee to pay a specific assessment " for cam- 
paign purposes," equal to full half of the salary of a mem- 
ber of the legislature. Mr. Berwick was shocked; he re- 
fused positively to buy a seat in the legislature, declaring 
that he would be elected fairly and squarely, or not at all. 
It turned out, of course, not at all; but his candidacy was 
a notable thing, for it was an object lesson in honest poli- 
tics. There was, he is able to declare, one candidate for 
the legislature who paid no assessments, who pledged no 
support to any manager, who subsidized no newspaper, 
who bought no favor of any kind, who asked no man to 
vote for him. It was a noble success, because it was a sign 
that decency of political sentiment is not entirely dead. 

If the representatives of rural constituencies in the leg- 
islature were men like Mr. Berwick; or if, being who they 
are, they had been elected by the methods of his can- 
didacy, there would be no difficulty in bringing them into 
an association outside of political lines for the protection 
and promotion of the particular interests which nominally 
they represent. But, under the circumstances of their 
nomination and election, it is out of the question; they 
will do the work expected of them by the political and 
corporation managers because they are bound by ties 
which they cannot break. We hope lor nothing at the 
hands of this legislature; we expect to see, among the re- 
sults of the session, the election of a United States Senator 
friendly to corporation interests, the grip of the Railroad 
Commission made tighter than before, all the corporation 
demands fully answered, extravagance in appropriations, 
a horde of crumb-pickers made fat, and a multitude of 
legitimate interests neglected. If the outlook is a blue 
one, it is not bluer than the realities of former years. 

There will, we trust, be a legislature in California some 
time that will remember the purposes for which it was 
elected by the people, and will devote its time in a 
business-like way to legitimate subjects of legislation; but 
it will not be so long as the existing system of nomination 
and of campaigning is the practice of the State. So long 
as this system is retained, it will (excepting in occasional 
instances) bar men of independence and character from the 
legislature. Such men will not buy office or accept it 
upon degrading terms, and without such men there is no 
reason to expect good laws. 

The senatorial situation at Sacramento promises to lead 
to a deadlock. Neither of the three parties has a majority 
on joint ballot, and neither seems able to get help in the 
matter of electing a senator from the other two. The 
Democrats, who lack only a vote or two of a majority, 
have, in their caucus, nominated Mr. White of Los An- 
geles, but they have not votes enough to elect him. The 
Republicans declare that they will stand as a unit for a 
candidate of their own, and it is understood that the 
Populists have signed a pledge to hold together. Clearly, 
the Populists have the bull by the horns. They are in a 
position to combine with whichever of the other parties 
will name a man to their liking. If they use their power 
wisely, and through it secure a senator who will stand by 
the interests of the people as opposed to the interest of the 
railroads, it will give their party a mighty boom. To join 
in the election of White would be a sheer waste of oppor- 
tunity and fatal blunder. It looks as if the contest would 
last till toward the end of the session. Nothing could be 
more unfortunate for the interests of general legislation; 
for it will take time and energies which ought to be other- 
wise employed, and will enter as an element of bargaining 
and jobbery into subjects that ought to be settled upon con- 
sideration of their merits alone. 

The extravagance of the legislature is likely to reflect 
serious discredit upon the party (the Democratic) which 
practically controls both houses on all ordinary questions. 
On Monday of this week the number of standing com- 
mittees in the Assembly was arbitrarily increased from 
thirty-one to forty-three, with no other purpose than to 
give each of the forty-three Democratic members a com- 
mittee chairmanship, which carries with it the appoint- 
ment of a clerk. For this addition of twelve to the roll 
of clerkships there is no sort of necessity or excuse. 
Already the employes number about one hundred and 

fifty — one for each member of the legislature, with some 
thirty odd to spare. 

In response to many inquirers we print below the full 
presidential vote cast in the late election. It is given in a 
form designed to show the proportionate strength of each 
party in each State. Except in one case of a few re- 
mote counties, this report is official. 






Connecticut , 





















New Hampshire.. 

New .Tersey 

New York 

North Carolina... 

North Dakota 




Rhode Island 

South Carolina... 

South Dakota 






West Virginia 




30,143 . 

9.19 V 
1' 7,756 



62 871 


Total 5,567.990| 5,176,611 


















*The vote credited to Harrison in Louisiana was cast for a fusion 
ticket containing the names of four Republicans and three Populist 

Mr. Blaine is worse again and now lies at the point of 
death. His physicians declare that recovery is impos - 
sible. The complication in Kansas created by the can- 
didacy of Mrs. Lease, the Populist orator, for the U. S. 
Senate has been removed by her withdrawal from the 
contest. Lorenzo D. Lewelling, Populist, was inaugu- 
rated Governor of Kansas on Monday of this current 

week. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler died at Washington 

city Wednesday morning of this current week, aged 75 
years; Senator McKenna of West Virginia died at Wash- 
ington city on Tuesday of this week. 

The Rural Press notes with regret a scheme to place 
the orange of southern Cdifornia in direct competition 
with those from northern California at the present northern 
citrus fair. The proposition has been seriously made to 
have a decision as to the merits or superiority of one over 
the other, the advocates of each section to put up $100, 
and the winner to devote the proceeds to some charitable 
institution. The contest should not take place for a variety 
of good and sufficient reasons. It would be certain to en- 
gender a great deal of ill-feeling, and, whatever the result, 
it would be neither conclusive nor satisfactory. The con- 
ditions that surround the culture of the orange, north and 
south, are difi'erent, and must always remain so. The test 
could not therefore be entirely fair to both. The Rpral 
Press sincerely hopes this ill-advised and hasty proposal 
will be indefinitely postponed and never heard from again. 

Mr. John F. Byxbee of 42 Market street, this city, 
has sent a postal card to each member of the legislature 
asking that he " lend his influence to repeal that portion 
of the game laws whereby quail can be taken in no other 
manner than by being shot." He says: " I am informed 
that one-half of those shot either die in the brush or are 
so badly mutilated as to be unfit for food. Allow them to 
be trapped and be killed in the same manner as the do- 
mestic fowl, and we have a wholesome and toothsome 

The third annual show of the Sonoma County Poultry 
and Pet Stock Association began at Petaluma last Tues- 
day and continued during the week. There are in all 
about 1500 entries, Brown Leghorns predominating, fol- 
lowed by White Leghorns. Light and dark Brahmas are 
not so well represented. There are 7» entries of pigeons 
by the Pacific Coast Pigeon Olub. More extended notice 
of the show will be given in next week's Rubal Press. 



January 14, 1893, 

The maple-sugar product of the United States this last 
season was 3,500,000 pounds, on which the government 
bounty was $60,000. only a part of which has been paid. 

Three million dollars is the estimated gross income 
from the southern California orange crop for 1892-93. At 
the present rate of growth it will not be many years until 
it is $10,000,000. 

Assemblyman Talbot has introduced in the State 
legislature a bill to appropriate $10,000 for the purpose of 
sending an expert to foreign countries to import parasites 
in the interest of horticulturists. 

The prune crop of California la'tt year is estimated at 
30,000,000 poun()<<; the hop crop at 39,750 bales; the raisin 
crop at 57,162,000 pounds; the wheat crop at 38,554,000 
bushels, and the barley crop at 12,333,000 bushels. 

It is reported that 200,000 acres of the great Miller & 
Lux tract, in Kern county, have been sold to an Eaglish 
syndicate lor $2,500,000, and that the property will be sur- 
veyed, subdivided, and platted immediately, with a view 
to colonization the coming spring. 

The latest statistical reports say that the irrigated 
acreage of California now comprises 3,500,000. Irrigation, 
it is said, has cost $20,000,000, but the value of the land 
has increased many times that amount, and very much 
more than pays interest on the investment, 

The Sutter County Farmer, an excellent paper, appears 
this week in a new dress and improved make-up Speak- 
ing of newspapers, the Woodland Mail got out a very 
creditable New Year's number, containing a variety of 
useful information about Woodland and Yolo county. 

The State Board of Trade, at its meeting Tuesday, 
listened to an admirable essay on irrigation by B. M. Le- 
long, secretary of the State Board of Horticulture. 
Among other ihings, the board passed resolutions of re- 
gret for the death of John Q. Brown, ex-secretary and 

It appears that during the past year the production of 
beet sugar in California increased from 8,000,000 pounds 
of the previous year to nearly 23,000,000 pounds. The 
sugar industry is reaching such great proportions that it is 
likely Congress will meet strong opposition from a new 
and powerful interest if it attempts to abolish the sugar 

The man who paints hit yard fence, cleans up his 
premises, whitewashes his barn and outhouses and keeps 
the weeds from growing on the sidewalk in front of his 
gate, wisely says the Tulare Times, is a greater benefactor 
to a city than the individual who spends his time on the 
street corners prating about a silurian city and the dead 
condition of his adopted home. 

Receipts of California wines at New York by sea last 
year were greater than ever before, amounting to 4,298,- 
567 gallons. The receipts of California wines in New 
York by railway were still larger. They aggregated 6,136,- 
219 gallons, over half a million gallons more than the 
year before. This makes a total of over 10,000,000 gal- 
lons of California wines delivered in New York last year. 

An address has been sent out by the Sacramento Board 
of Supervisors to like bodies in several river counties ask- 
ing that representatives be sent to a convention to be held 
in Sacramento January 18th, for the purpose of consid- 
ering the matter of reclaiming valuable lands now subject 
to overflow from the rivers. The matt<'r is a very im- 
portant one to Yolo, Su'ter, Colusa, Yuba, Butte, Sa^ra- 
mento, Solano and other counties, and it is expected that 
the convention will be a large one. 

Some feeling has been created among California vine- 
yardists over an announcement that one judge shall de- 
termine the merits and qualities of all wines at the World's 
Fair, and make the awards. It is claimed that a strong 
prejudice exists against California wines among eastern 
dealers and winemakers, because of its successful com- 
petition there, and their antagonism may have weight with 
a single judge. The local Viticultural Commission will 
endeavor to secure an increase of the award committee 
to five. 

Hawaiian Bananas are to have a rival in the San 
Francisco market in the appearance of shipments from the 
United States of Columbia, by way of New Orleans, to the 
extent of two carloads. 'They have already made their 
presence felt. The fruit is pronounced of excellent qual- 
ity, and was unloaded in fine condition. It was shipped 
from Santa Marta, Columbia, to .Vew Orleans, and re- 
shipped thence by rail. The first trip required five days, 
the second six. It will doubtless be found that the South 
American banana, left with due carelessness upon the 
sidewalk, possesses equally meritorious slipping qualities 
to trip up the hasiy passer-by as its Hawaiian competitor. 

The National League for Good Roads has requested 
Dr. H. Latham to promote the organization of a league in 
this State. With this object in view, the doctor proposes 
addressing the newspapers of the State, asking them to 
use their influence to induce the boards of supervisors of 
their respective counties to appoint delegates to attend a 
convention to be held at Sacramento some time before the 
adjournment of the present legislature, so that any recom- 
mendations which may De made can be promptly acted 
upon. Any intelligent means that will forward the move- 
ment for good roads— better roads, the very best roads- 
deserves the pious support of every newspaper and every 
citizen of California. 

That California can produce good cotton has been 
known for years, but thit it can produce it profitably with 
available labor sunplies and at ruling rates has not yet 
been fully determined. One of the best tamples of Cali- 

fornia cotton yet brought forward is that recently sent to the 
Agricultural Experiment Station at Berkeley by E. L. 
Menefee of the Flemming place, northeast of Visalia. The 
sample was examined by Dr. Loughridge of the Station 
staff, who is from the South and an expert on cotton, and 
he pronounces it excellent. He says the bolls are as large 
as he has seen and the cotton itself is very fine. The or- 
dinary yield in the South is about 1200 pounds to the acre 
iu the seed, and Mr. Menefee's will average nearly 1500, 
which is equal to the finest yield in the South and on rich 

A Farmers' Institute will be held under the auspices 
of the Grange at Tulare on Saturday, January 21st. The 
sessions will open at 10 a. m. and continue throughout the 
dav, and they will be conducted by Prof. Wickson of the 
State University. The subjects will be varied, including 
fruit-producing and marketing, dairying, etc., and well- 
informed local speakers as well as from abroad have been 
secured. An effort will be made to give the meetings 
more clearly the institute character than those previously 
held in Tulare, and the time will not be divided with any 
other organization. All are invited to attend and partici- 
pate. Much of the success of an Institute depends upon 
securing the wide interest of the community at large, and 
this we hope will be effected. 

Chicago papers are busilr engaged in diffusing infor- 
mation that hotel and lodging rates at the World's Fair 
will be very reasonable and even cheap; and, in proof, 
submit the following as the average to be charged, ascer- 
tained by a systematic canvass of the city: Single room, 
single bed, one person, $1.36; double room, double bed, 
one person, $2.12; double room, double bed, two persons, 
$2.70; double room, two double beds, two persons, $3.50; 
double room, two double beds, three persons, $4.15; double 
room, two double beds, four persons, $5.50. The Chicago 
press has unwittingly shown that the "gouge "is to be 
universally practiced by hotel and lodging-house keepers, 
and private landladies anxious to turn a more or less hon- 
est penny by renting rooms. The prices are outrfgeons. 
A respectable and comfortable room, for which in Chicago 
the charge will be $2.12 per night, can be obtained in Ban 
Francisco for fifty cents. 

The annual Tournament of Roses at Pasadena was held 
last week and was a gorgeous success. Features of the 
parade were: A party of cavaliers; the Columbia Hill 
Tennis Club in uniform, the lady members riding in a 
finely decorated coach, preceded by outriders; Carlton 
guests in Wiley & Greeley's six-in-hand team, decorated 
with calla lilies, red roses and evergreen; young equestri- 
ennes in bifurcated skirts; beautifully adorned phaetons; 
lady guests from the Raymond, in a buckboard drawn by 
white horses; sixteen frocked butchers riding burros; the 
tastefully and elaborately decorated carriages; young ladies 
riding ponies gaily caparisoned; and many other beautiful 
and novel things. All this in January, when Old Boreas is 
supposed to desert the hyperborean regions, and, attended 
by chilling blasts, desolating blizzards, snow, ice, and 
other unwelcome concomitants of the frigid arctic, make 
his conquest of the temperate zone. Think of young 
ladies on horseback in bifurcated skirts in January ! 

The Forfeited Railroad Grant. 

The railroad lands belonging to the Southern Pacific 
Company in the southern part of the State, which were de- 
clared forfeited to the National Government by a recent 
decision of the United States Supreme Court, have been 
officially described or designated as follows: 

The grant includes all unoccupied Government land lying 
30 miles on each side of the railroad track from the ocean 
shore at San Buenaventura to Los Angeles. It then con- 
tinues along for 30 miles each side of the surveys from Los 
Angeles through the county of San Bernardino to the 
Colorado river at The Needles. A Los Angeles expert, 
who had made a specialty of investigating these lands, 
states that " there are none fairer in the southern part of 
the State." These lands embraced within the grant, which 
are designated as being " desert waste," are susceptible of 
the highest cultivation. The Wright irrigation district, 
which lies contiguous to part of the forfeited grant, fur- 
nishes an illustration of the productive capacity of these 
lands. In Ventura county all the available valley lands 
have been sold. In the mountainous districts, however, 
there are thousands of acres worth taking up. In Los An- 
geles county, in the north weslem part, there are but few 
acres of any value remaining, and the same state of things 
exists until within a few miles of the bounds of San Ber- 
nardino county is reached. From there to the Needles 
plenty of vacant tracts can be had for the taking up. 

Gilt-Edge Broodmares. 

On the 27th of this month an opportunity will be given 
to get the produce of the best stallions in California. Sen- 
ator Leland Stanford has commissioned Messrs. Killip & 
Co. to sell a draft of grandly-bred mares from the famous 
Palo Alto Stock Farm. These mares are by Electioneer 
and other of the noted sires, and are in foal to Nephew, 
Azmoor, 2;2o>^; Electricity, 2:i7X! Whips, 2:27^^; Pied- 
mont, Alban, Langton, Good Gift and Sport, 2:22%. As 
the sale is to be absolute and strictly to the highest bidder, 
the opportunity of a lifetime to obtain not only a grand 
broodmare, but the foal as well, is afforded by this sale. 
See the advertisement in this week's issue. Catalogues 
containing names, breeding and time of foaling may be had 
by addressing Killip & Co., auctioneers, 22 Montgomery 

The Tubbs Cordage Co has discharged all its Chinese 
employes. They have gradually been putting white men 
and boys at work for some time past, and the entire rope 
works will be run in future without any Chines^. 

Low Returns from Pears Shipped East. 

Aptos, Cal., January 8, 1893. 

To the Editor: — The general tendency throughouc the 
State of constantly increasing its orchards and fruit prod- 
ucts; the cry that lots of money has been made and is to be 
made in that line, will certainly gladden the heart of many 
a fruitgrower like myself who finds the planting and care of 
a new orchard a nonpaying business. But the time flies 
fast, and in the near future we may look (or a sweet reward. 

Last year prices of good fruit were not bad, and having 
some extra fine pears, I ventured, with hundreds of others, 
to ship them East, and I wish to give those of my col- 
leagues who feel interested in the subject the benefit of my 

Facts and figures do not lie and often go a long way in 
proving that there is a screw loose somewhere. 

/found sending pears to New York and Boston a rather 
expensive piece of business, but do not intend to force my 
individual experience upon any one as sufficient proof that 
"all is not gold that glitters." 

My pears were sent through a large shipping concern, 
and went partly to New York and partly to Boston, viz., 
22 boxes to the first-named place and 24 to the latter. 

The car which went to New York must have been a very 
unlucky one. It contained 468 boxes of pears, which sold 
for an average of $i.o8i, and, according to my bill, the ex- 
penses of loading, freight, refrigerator, icing and commis- 
sion footed up to $1.23 per box. Consequently, here was a 
dead loss of nearly 15 cents on every box outside of the 
grower's expenses for picking, packing, hauling, etc. 

Out of the 468 boxes in that car only 134 brought more 
than $1 23, but they averaged only $1 46, and consequently 
did not swell the bank account of their happy owners much. 

The other car did somewhat better and contained, with 
other fruits, 215 boxes of pears, which sold in Boston for 
an average of $1.62}. The expenses, as above, were $1.45 
per box, and we were getting rich at the rate of 17^ cents 
per box for 45 pounds of pears, picked, packed and deliv- 
ered into the bargain. 

The customary multiplication table of the real estate 
agent, viz., so much per tree, so many trees per acre, and 
so much for ten acres, would certainly make here a glorious 

As I happened to receive and read to- day the pamphlet 
" Fruit vs. Wheat," an address before the State Horti- 
cultural Convention at San Jose, by Gen. N. P. Chipman, 
I was forcibly impressed with the truthfulness of his con- 
clusion where he says that the real problem with us is one 
of transportation and distribution. 

It is certainly to be hoped that of the thousands of fruit- 
cars sent East this last season but few have made as poor 
a showing as the two cited above, but if we could get more 
downright facts and less general information, it would be 
better for all concerned. 


[It is just as well to look occasionally at low-water marksi 
and our correspondent's experience will serve a good pur- 
pose. The fruit-prcducers have often to pocket losses like 
that described, and yet persistence in well-doing, viz., 
growing and marketing good fruit, yields fair rewards on 
the whole. The practice, which our correspondent de- 
plores, of taking exceptionally good figures and multiplying 
them bv all the acres out of doors, is pernicious and an injury 
to the State. To counteract such misleading reports, we 
are quite willing to give an occasional reference to the 
processes of subtraction and division. — Ed. Press ] 

The Value of Poultry. 

Santa Rosa, Cal., Jan. 2, 1893. 

To THE Editor : — I will give the exact production of 
my chickens lor one year, and hope some one will give 
the cost of the food, as I have fed mostly corn of my 
own raising : 

Jan. I, 1892, commenced with 80 hens. 

Jan. I. 1893, I have 90 hens. 

Average through the year. 85 bens. 

They laid during the year 8841 eggs. 

Average each hen, lo 'i dozen eggs. 

Weekly market receipta during the year, $176.11. 

Sold chickens during the year, $25.10. 

I have on hand in value over the 80 that I commenced with, $15.90. 
Total receipts, $217.11, 

So you will see my 80 hens averaged $2 71 each. 

W. S. Green. 

Self-Sucking Cow. 

CoMPTON, Los Angeles Co. 

To the Editor: — Can some of the readers of the 
Rural Press give a gooH remedy to prevent a cow from 
sucking herself. Nelson Ward. 

[We know of nothing except the mechanical devices usu- 
ally employed; viz., the light oval board which fits into the 
nostrils and falls over the mouth when the head is raised, 
so the cow cannot mouth the teat; also the harness with a 
light wooden bar on each side of the cow so she cannot get 
her head around to the udder. The nostril apron is sold 
at the dairy implement stores. Can any reader give some- 
thing better ?— Ed. ] 

The Tulare irrigation district has been successfully com- 
pleted. The district has 112 miles of canals, main and 
lateral, not counting small distributing ditches owned by 
private individuals, which are connected therewith. Of 
flumes there are 1622 lineal feet, and 270 check-weirs, 
drops and headgates, and innumerable bridges. All told, 
1,148,628 feet were used in the various structures. The 
cost for irrigation of good farming and alfalfa lands will 
not exceed $1 per acre per year. What is a dollar an acre 
to insurance for a first-class crop ? 

January 14, 1893 



Artificial Incabation as Compared with Natural 

LODI, December 29, 1892. 
To THE Editor: — In a former article I have treated of 
this matter, with a promise to speak more fully of it at 
some future time. I have said that for many reasons 
incubation was altogether preferable to the method of 
hatching with hens and I also say that the natural method 
or the "old hen" method has nothing to recommend it 
over the artificial. To sum up, pro and con, please take 
notice that first while the hen is sitting there are three 
weeks of what would have been otherwise egg-producing 
comparatively wasted, as the machine would have done it 
at much less cost with much less care and labor and more 
thoroughly as to results, while meantime the hen would 
have been defraying the cost of the hatch in eggs. To 
hatch say 300 eggs, from 20 to 24 hens would be necessary, 
then, supposing that you had your required number of 
"biddies," we must take the risk of some among them 
being nervous or flighty and unreliable sitters and incom- 
petent as mothers or careless and clumsy in their move- 
ments among the eggs and young chicks, thus destroying 
many — all of which faults the incubator with proper treat- 
ment is free from. Supposing you to have secured 24 
hens, suitable in all respects, which is not by any means 
an easy thing to do and which calls for a testing of each 
hen with say three or four porcelain eggs for three or four 
days, in order to make sure as far as you can of the hen's 
settled intention to carry the matter right through to a 
successful issue, your next step is then to prepare 24 
nests for them in a body in one house or isolated ones 
placed here and there as you find suitable places. Sitting 
.hem all together in one house reduces, I think, the 
amount of care and labor materially as then one has them 
where the care of the whole is not very much greater than 
the care of one sitter would be. Still, arrange it as you 
may, it will require an average of two hours each day 
easily to feed and water them, and occasionally clean out 
their quarters and supply dust baths, shells, insectides, &c., 
all of which must be fathfuUy done; while the incubator 
exacts only an occasional look at the thermometer, a slight 
turning up or down of the wick of the lamp, turning of the 
eggs and keeping your lamp filled and trimmed as often as 
found necessary — all of which does not require more than 
a half hour each day. Then as to expense in material: with 
an incubator of approved construction, between three and 
four gallons of coal oil is amply sufficient for the hatch, or 
say five gallons for hatching and brooding the chicks — 
and I have found Pratt's Astral, at an expense of 20 cents 
per gallon, to be as good as the best — which, as compared 
with the time and labor necessary in the care of the hens 
and the expense of feed, c&c, makes, I think, a much more 
favorable showing for the artificial method than for the 
natural one, to say nothing of the number of eggs that 
number of hens would give one in three weeks' time, say 
from 17 to 20 dozen, at an average price of 30 cents per 

Then, your incubator, supposing everything to be as it 
should, will make a much more thorough hatch than the 
hens, supposing them to have had every advantage and to 
have done their best. This, as every practical poultry 
raiser will admit, I think, is a correct showing of the two 
methods. More than this, and which is no inconsiderable 
point, your artificially hatched chick will be found free from 
lice -which, with with your utmost care, will not always be 
the case with chicks hatched under hens. 

Having thus, as I think, conclusively demonstrated the 
superiority of incubator to the hen as a hatcher, it now re- 
mains to say something of the care and method to be ob- 
served in conducting an incubator hatch to make it a 
successful and satisfactory one. Of the standard incu- 
bators, one will do as well as another (beware of machines 
of "home construction," or you will come to grief as surely 
as you pin your faith on them). Supposing it to be set up in 
a suitable place, a house or a room free from draughts and 
of as even temperature as possible, light your lamp; then, 
when your thermometer indicates a temperature of 104° in 
your egg-chamber, it will be necessary to turn down your 
wick somewhat and keep your egg-chamber at that degree 
of heat, or as nearly so as possible, taking care, however, 
not to let it get above that at any time, or rooked eggs will 
be the result, and, of course, no chicks. When you have 
secured this result, place your eggs in the trays in the egg- 
chamber, and you will see that the temperature rapidly 
drops, which is due to the eggs being cold; but as the eggs 
warm, it will come up again; and here it will be well t" say 
that a very short time with the temperature at from six to 
ten degrees higher than the proper one is sufficient in which 
to cook the eggs, and when that is done you may as well 
suspend operations on that hatch and commence anew, as 
hatching cooked chicks has never yet been done. 

Letting the temperature fall somewhat is not so disastrous 
and may not affect the vitality ol the eeg if not too long 
continued. I have had it fall below 90° during the night, 
and the eggs in the morning to seem cold, without its ap- 
parently disturbirg the hatch. Still, it is 10 be avoided by 
all means, and the temperature kept as near as possible to 
104°. Here authorities differ somewhat, some advocating 
the keeping of the temperature at 102° during say the first 
half of the hatch, and increasing it gradually to 104° or 
even to 105°. Others again advise never allowing it to ex- 
ceed 103°. My own experience has satisfied me that 104° 
straight is good enough for me, and T do not ofcen go under 
90 per cent of chicks. I use the " Golden Gate," which is 
not any better, perhaps, than many others of standard 
make; and, in fact, no machine is good without careful and 
unremitting attention to even the smallest and seemingly 
most unimportant requirement, and this is the "rock that 
many split on," and the secret of many a poor hatch and 

the condemnation of many a good machine. Anyone of 
ordinary intelligence can successfully run a good incubator 
if he holds himself strictly and unremittingly to attention 
to all details, and unless he does, no amount of intelligence 
can hope for successful hatching, however good the incu- 
bator may be. 

I do not know that hot-air machines are in any way 
preferable to hot-water machines, and am inclined to think 
that they are not; still, I have used only hot air ones, and 
find them to be sufificiently good. 

No one can hope for his first experience with any ma- 
chine to be a satisfactory one. My first trial resulted in a 
loss of six hundred eggs, done to a turn. I could not have 
cooked them better with the help of a stove, and I realized 
that I had not been careful enough, and that if I really 
wanted chicks (and I did) that I must neglect nothing, and 
I proceeded, forthwith, to act on that knowledge, and found 
that it paid, and it will pay always, and a contrary course 
only tends to convince one that there is nothing in incu- 

There are many varieties of hot air incubators, some in 
which the eggs are turned automatically all at once, and 
others in which it is necessary to turn them one at a time 
by hand, which is much the best method, as being the 
more reliable, for by the first method many eggs escape 
turning, some at one time and some others at another, 
whereas by the hand method, although it takes somewhat 
more time to do it, you are certain that all are turned which 
is an important matter. Many makers of incubators, hav- 
ing in view the reputation of their machines for thorough 
hatching, refuse to turn out a machine with the automatic 
egg-turning attachment, knowing that thereby they risk the 
incomplete turning of the eggs, and the consequent con- 
demnation of their machine. In some, the eggs are placed 
in trays which are filled with sand moistened with water as 
near the temperature of the eggs as possible each time the 
eggs are turned, which should be each morning and eve- 
ning. In others in which the bottom of the pan is formed of 
wire cloth the eggs are placed, and pans of water 
placed under them to supply the required moisture. After 
using both methods I have settled on the moist sand as 
preferable in most respects. And now Mr. Editor, as per- 
haps I have already claimed more space in your valuable 
journal than this article is entitled to, I had better close for 
the present and endeavor to say more some other time. 

T. B. Geffroy. 

Expensive Food for a Hen. 

Wild Flower, Cal, Dec. 30, 1892. 

To THE Editor: — A new source of supply of the pre- 
cious metal has been discovered at Wild Flower that 
bears a close analogy to the famous goose of the fable. 

Recently, a lady of the neighborhood, in preparing a 
chicken for the table, found a silver dime of the 1891 
coinage. The coin resembled in color a bright gold piece, 
and the finder took it to be a five-dollar gold coin. Its 
present appearance is very flattering to the digestive ap- 
paratus of the fowl, for it is very much abraded, the 
milled edges having disappeared, and it is apparent that, 
had a reasonable time been allowed, the chicken would have 
accomplished this gastronomic feat with less inconvenience 
than Mark Twain's reports occasioned the camel. Thus 
we see the effects of the cataclysm of People's Party poli- 
tics since even the domestic fowls demand free silver. 

The owner of the chicken expressed his satisfaction that 
it was only ten cents, else, says he. "every chicken on the 
place would be immediately sacrificed as a votive offering 
to Mammon." Reader. 

Points on Ducks. 

1. The Pekin is considered the most rapidly-growing 

2. The weights (Standard) of adults are as follows: 
Pekin drake, eight pounds; Aylesbury drake, nine pounds; 
Rouen drake, nine pounds; Cayuga drake, eight pounds; 
Muscovy drake, ten pounds. The duck of each breed is 
one pound less in weieht than the drake. 

3. Pekins and Aylesbury breeds are white, Cayugas 
black, and Rouens of varied color. The Muscovy does not 
really belong to the duck family, as their eggs require the 
same period for hatching as those of the goose, while the 
produce of a mating of the Muscovy with other breeds 
causes a sterile hybrid. 

4. Feed ducklings on soft food always, and have plenty 
of drinking water near, as a duckling will choke to death if 
deprived of water while eating dry food. 

5. Very cold water for drinking will cause cramps in 

6. When crowded in yards, ducklings often die sudden- 
ly, due to eating the filth in the yards. 

7. Ducklings throw the water out of the troughs be- 
cause they are then washing their bills. They always aim 
to keep their nostrils clean. 

8. They are kept in brooders in lots of about 50, under 
a brooder a yard square in a brooder house 6x10 feet, with 
a yard 6x16 feet, but as they grow rapidly they soon 
crowd the brooder, and may then be kept in a warm room. 

9 Have board floors for grown ducks, with cut straw, 
or litter, on the floor. Cheap, partition nests are sufficient. 

ID. Dampness is fatal to ducks, both adults and duck- 
lings, hence they must have t/ry sleeping places. 

II. It costs only six cents to produce a pound of duck. 
Ducks eat twice as much as chicks, but they make up by 
growing twice as fast. — Poultry Keeper. 

The Charm of Chicken-Raising. 

It is astonishing how the charm of chicken raising grows 
on one and how it affects one's powers of observation and 
memory. It is true that there are incident to such a life 
what the world might call annoyances ard discomforts, 
I but to the true artist in fowl culture they are but disagree- 
I able incidents— the bitter which comes with the sweet. 

There are rats and weevils which must be kept , 
perches and nests, but who can describe the manly seuae 
of protectorship and responsibility created by such efTorts ? 

There are chicken-houses to be kept neat and clean, 
shells to be baked or broken, feeds to be mixed, but from 
the sense of knowledge which comes with acquired skill in 
all those branches, what innocent and agreeable pride and 
self-respect do not spring ? What traits of patience 
and diplomacy are exhibited in the skillful treatment of 
the obdurate and aggressive hen that is determined to sit 
even when she ought to be laying? 

What gentleness and forethought must be exhibited in 
the proper care of the downy brood fresh from the well- 
kept nest or the more roomy incubator 1 Nay, it is rather 
the life of a poet and a philosopher combined, and the 
man who has thus stood the test successfully should be 
entitled to the summa cum laude of nature's best school. 
— Fancier, 

On Keeping Eggs.— To keep eggs we know of no 
more simple and efficient way than the one we have al- 
ways practiced, says the Lancaster, Ind., Farmer, and 
which was successfully practiced by our father for the last 
30 or 40 years. This is by taking none but perfectly fresh 
and sound eggs and setting them in layers on the top or 
small end, in a box or basket or anything that will hold 
eggs. We do not put anything between them, nor do we 
put them up "air tight," but we always keep them in a 
cellar. Eggs that we have put away in this position, were, 
after being kept six months, as good and fresh as the day 
they were laid, and we have never found one that was 
spoiled or stale among them, when thus served. We feel 
confident that they would keep good and fresh for one 

Judging the Age of Poultry.— Examine the feet and 
legs; the size and appearance of the spurs form a guide, as 
we are told by an expert in the New York World. The 
skin of the pullet or cockerel is smooth, and has a fresh ap- 
pearance, while that of the adult fowl yearly grows coarse 
and more shriveled. Place the thumb and forefinger on 
each side of the back near the "pope's nose" and press. 
In young birds the part is supple, in old ones it is difficult 
to bend. If, in feeling the tip of the breast-bone, the griz- 
zle forming there is tender and supple, the bird is young. 
Ducks that have arrived at the age of two or three years 
have a deep depression down below the breast feathers, 
and their waddle becomes more and more ungainly. 

A Proposed Anti-Oleomargarine Law. 

At the request of the Dairymen's Association, Senator 
McAllister of Contra Costa and Marin counties has pre- 
pared and will urge the passage of the following oleomar- 
garine bill before the present session of the legislature: 

An Act to prevent deception in the manufacture and sale of bitlter and 
of cheese, and to appropriate money for its enforcement. 

Th' people of the State of California, represented in Senate and As- 
sembly, do enact as follo7vs : 

Section i. That for the purposes of this Act, every article, sub- 
stance or compound other than that produced from pure milk or 
cream from the same, made in the semblance of butter.'and designed 
to be used as a substitute for butter made from pure milk or cream 
from the same, is hereby declared to be imitation butter; and that (or 
the purposes of this Act, every article, substance or compound other 
than that produced from pure milk, or cream from the same, made in 
the semblance of cheese, and designed to be used as a substitute for 
chee<^e made from pure milk or cream from the same, is hereby de- 
clared to be imitation cheese; provided that the use of salt, rennet 
and harmless coloring matter for coloring the product of pure milk or 
cream shall not be construed to render such product an imitation; 
and provided that nothing in this section shall prevent the use of pure 
skimmed mi'k in the manufacture of cheese. 

Sec. 2. Each person who manufactures imitation butter or imita- 
tion cheese shall mark by branding, stamping and stenciling upon 
the top and sides of each tub, firkin, box or other package in which 
such article shall be kept, and in which it shall be removed from the 
place where it is produced, in a clear and durable manner, in the 
English language, the words "imitation butter" or "imitation 
cheese, " as the case may be, it? printed letters in plain Roman type, 
each of which fhall not be less than one inch in length by one-half of 
an inch in width. 

Sec. 3. No person by himself or another shall knowingly ship, 
consign or forward by any common carrier, whether public or private, 
anv imitation butter or imitation cheese unless the same be marked 
as provided by section two of this Act; and no carrier shall knowingly 
receive, for the purpose of forwarding or transporting, any imitation 
butter or imitation cheese unless it shall be marked as hereinbefore 
provided, consigned, and by the carrier receipted for as "imitation 
butter" or '' imitation cheese," as the case may be; provided that 
this Act shall not applv to any goods in transit between foreign States 
and across the State of California. 

Sec 4. No person shall knowingly have in his possession, or 
under his control, any imitation butter or imitation cheese unless the 
tub, firkin, bnx or other package containing the same be clearly and 
durably marked, as provided by section two of this Act. 

Sec. 5. No person by himself or another shall knowingly sell or 
offer for sale imitation butter or imitation cheese under the pretense 
that the same is pure butter or pure cheese; and no person by him- 
self or another shall knowingly sell any imitation butter or imitation 
cheese unless he shall have informed the purchaser distinctly, at the 
time of the sale, that the same is imitation batter or imitation cheese, 
as the case may be, and shall have delivered to th«- purchaser at the 
time of the sale a statement clearly printed in the English language, 
which shall re'er to the articles sold, and which shall contain, in 
prominent and plain Roman type, the words "imitation butter" or 
"imitation cheese." as the case may be, and shall give the name and 
place of business of the maker. 

Sec. 6. No keeper of a hotel, boarding-house, restaurant or other 
public place of entertainment shall knowingly place before any 
patron for use as food any imitation butter or imitation cheese unless 
the same be accompanied by a placard containing the words "imita- 
tion butter " or "imitation cheese," as the case may be, printed in 
plain Roman type, and by a verbal notification to said patron that 
such substance is imitation butter or imitation cheese. 

Sec 7. No person by himself or another shsU knowingly peddle, 
sell or deliver from any cart, wagon or other vehicle, upon the public 
streets or highways, imitation butter or imitation chee«e unless said 
cart, wagon or other vehicle shall have on both sides the placard in 
printed letters o' plain Roman type, each of which letters shall be not 
less than two inches in length by one inch in width, " Licensed o 



January 14, 1893 

ell imitation butter, ■■ or " Licensed to sell imitation cheese." as the 
case may be. 

Sec. 8. No action can be maintained on account of any sale or 
other contract made in violation of or with intent to violate this Act 
by or through any person who was knowingly a parly to such wrong- 
ful sale or other contract. 

Sec. 9. Every person having possession or control of any imita- 
tion butter or imitation cheese which is not marked as required by 
the provisions of this Act, shall be presumed to have known, during 
the time of such possession or control, that the same was imitation 
butter or imitation cheese, as the case may be. 

Sec, 10. No person shall efface, erase, cancel or remove any 
mark provided for by this Act, with intent to mislead, deceive or to 
violate any of the provisions of this Act. 

Sec. h. No butter or cheese not made wholly from pure milk or 
cream, salt and harnile';s coloring matter, shall be used in any of the 
charitable or penal institutions that receive assistance from the State. 

Sec. 12. Whoever shall violate any of the provisions or sections 
of this Acl shall b» deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, upon 
conviction thereof, be punished, for the first offense, by a fine of not 
less than seventy-five dollars nor more than one hundred and filty 
dollars, or by imprisonment in the County Jail for not exceeding 
thirty days, and for each subsequent offense by a fine of not less than 
two hundred and fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, or 
by imprisonment in the County Jail not less than thirty days nor 
more than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment in the 
discretion of the court. 

In the remaining provisions the Governor is empowered 
to appoint a State Dairy Bureau of three persons — one to 
serve three years, one to serve two, and one to serve one, 
from April i, 1893. Thereafter as their terms expire, ap- 
pointments shall be for three years. Members shall serve 
without compensation, and shall make biennial reports to 
the legislature " of the number of assistants, experts, chem- 
ists, agents and counsel employed and of their expenses 
and disbursements, with such other information as shall be 
for the advantage of the dairy interests in the State and of 
all investigations made by them, with all cases prosecuted 
and the results of such prosecution." 

The Board is empowered to enforce all the provisions of 
the Act, and to employ a secretary at $1200 per year. The 
chairman is vested with the same powers to administer 
oaths, etc., as a justice of the peace. 

Whoever shall have in his possession any imitation 
butter or cheese shall be construed to have possession of 
the property with unlawful intent. 

District attorneys are made prosecuting officers. 

The sum of $10,000 is appropriated to carry out the pur- 
poses of the Act. 

Dairy Notes. 

It is easier to sell 30-cent butter for 35 cents than to sell 
20-cent butter for 10 cents a pound, and the buyers are 
better satisfied. 

A dozen eergs are worth now about as much as a pound 
of butter. The eggs can be made for ten cents; can the 
butter be made for the same money? No ! But don't sell 
the cows and buy hens with the money; it takes a genius 
to make money with a big lot of hens. Keep the cows and 
let the firm be Butter, Eggs & Co. 

The Jersey cow could easily be made a larger animal by 
breeding for that purpose, but she probably would lose, or 
at least not gain, in butter production, while she would re 
quire more food. One might as well try to combine the 
size of the draft horse and the speed of the racehorse as to 
try to make the cow that is distinctively a milk or butter 
producer at the same time a beef animal. 

A correspondent of the Farmer's Review tells how he 
keeps his butter in good condition. He says: "Three 
years ago I adopted the plan of making the butter into 
rolls, wrapping them with cheesecloth (parchment paper I 
consider the best), packing into new pork barrels, and 
covering with a strong brine that will float an egg. Cover 
the butter with a brine, so that the air will not come in 
contact wi'h it again until wanted for use. Time seems to 
have no effect on the butter when properly handled this 
way. My butter is just as fresh to-day as when it went in 
the brine." 

While a " not very good " cow may not lose us money 
in an average season, she will in a season of high price for 
feed and a not corresponding high price for dairy products. 
The very best cows pay right along regardless of weather, 
price of feed or price of dairy goods. Of course they do 
not pay so well when feed is abnormally high and milk and 
butter sell at normal prices, but they will pay something 
when the other kind don't pay anything. The moral is, 
keep good cows. Easier said than done, but still it can be 
done. Always? Yes, always. When money is scarce 
(as it is with most farmers of late years), the way is to hire 
or buy a pure-bred bull to breed the common cows to. 

The Fat-Stock Show at Chicago. 

Written for.the.RuRAL Press. 

It looked at one time as if there was to be no show of 
fat-stock at Chicago this year, but, thanks to the exhibition 
of pluck on the part of breeders of both cattle, sheep and 
pigs, there was a show, notwithstanding the fact that the 
Iowa Slate Board of Agriculture, under whose patronage 
it had been held for several years, had said that there could 
be no fat-stock show this year. This was a severe blow 
to those who had been at the expense and trouble of pre- 
paring animals for the expected annual exhibition, and for 
Christmas beef. 

To have deprived intending exhibitors of bringing their 
fat -stock together in the usual way would also have cut ofT 
from them the most advantageous manner of disnosin? 
of them. ^ ^ 

A little friendly rivalry among breeders is a good thing 
both for the advancement of the breeders and the breeds 
of live stock represented by them. Even the difficulties 
encountered in the breeding and rearing of live stock fre- 

quently act as a spurring on to higher efforts and greater 
perseverance, especially with the few who do not know the 
word "can't." Whatever of benefits were to be derived 
from the trials and disappointments of the hour, the breed- 
ers in the present instance seemed fully bent on reaping to 
the utmost extent possible under the circumstances. 

We have now, at last, the " precedent,' that a cattle 
show can be held in these United States, independent of 
all State Boards of Agriculture. We may not, but hopt 
to, live to see the day when there will be real agricultural 
and live stock shows in California, conducted in the inter 
ests of agriculturists generally, and supported by tillers of 
the soil and breeders of all kinds of improved live stock in 
a manner suitable to afford instruction to all who go to 
fhem with the object of learning by the experience and ex- 
ample of exhibitors, free from the baneful influences of 
horse-racing with its ever recurrent attendant gambling. 
These ought to be relegated to their proper place, apart 
from things agricultural. All who are in the habit of at- 
tending our fairs cannot but admit that they are unduly 
fostered and encouraged for the good of the community at 

To return to the " Emergency Show," as it has been 
called. When those who had interests at stake found that 
the Iowa State Board had given up the idea of a fat-stock 
show, they went to work, in conjunction with all interested 
parties who were willing to give financial help, and were 
thus able, within two weeks' time, to raise the sum of $1500 
in cash, to be offered in premiums, which was paid out to 
successful exhibitors on the 13th and 14th of December, 
1892, as follows : To cattle, $1000; sheep, $250; and hogs 
Si 50, so that the working expenses could have been but 

There were 56 head of cattle exhibited, about 20 of 
which were Shorthorns, 17 grades and crosses, the re- 
mainder consisting of Hereford?, Devons and Aberdeen- 

Sheep were represented by four breeds, viz , Southdowns, 
Oxfords, Leicesters and Merinos, while there were only two 
exhibitors of swine, who showed specimens of Victorias and 

The premium for the best herd in the show was 
awarded to the Van Natta Herefords, which were, says the 
Breeders' Gazette, " in the judgment of some, the best- 
fitted string of cattle ever seen at an American Fat- Stock 

The sweepstakes premium for the best beast in the show 
went to J. H. Potts & Son's Shorthorn steer King, bis com- 
petitors being the Van Natta Hereford Jerry Rusk and 
Atkins & Andrew's grade Angus. 

In regard to prices obtained for the show cattle that were 
sold, the last named brought $6.75 per 100 pounds, live 
weight; several Hereford steers sold for $7 per 100 pounds, 
one two-year-old belonging to S. Van Natta selling for 
$7.50 a hundred. The champion steer. Potts & Son's 
two-year-old, King, sold for eight cents a hundred — weight 
1600 pounds — thus realizing $128, besides $280 won in 
prizes, a total of S408. 

We do not have in California the well-fed, finished 
steers that sold for the above-named prices. There is one 
very good reason for not having them; that is, because the 
price of dressed beef here is no more than the price per 
pound, live weight, in Chicago, consequently it would not 
pay to produce such here. 

those in the center being removed to the sides, and the lat- 
ter to the center of the place. Uniform color is thus ob- 
tained for all. There is not much risk in curing hams this 
way if the house is properly constructed and the fire 
watched. The newer methods of using acids and a quick 
fire, cannot begin to produce as good meat as that cured by 
this old process. 

Smoking and Curing Bacon. 

In view of the rising prices in smoked and salted meats, 
farmers will not find amiss the following hints as to the 
best methods of curing bacon, by A. B. Barrett, in the 
American Cidiivaior : 

The value of bacon depends first upon a proper piece of 
good meat, and then everything is in the curing and smok- 
ing. Good smoking gives to the meat a delicious flavor 
that often enhances its value from one to two cents a 
pound, and it is of importance that every one smoking 
bacon for the market should endeavor to add this quality. 
The farmer who has only a dozen or so of hocks for this 
purpose ran do the work a great deal better than the large 
curing-houses, where so many are handled that it is impos- 
sible to give proper attention 'o each one. Besides, the 
farmer often has all the facilities to do the work well, and 
plenty of time in the fall and winter to devote to the work. 

The flesh surface nf the hams and shoulders should first 
be scrubbed carefully until they are clean, and then fine 
black pepper should be sprinkled thickly over them from a 
tin box. Some use equal parts of black and red pepper, 
but the former used alone gives as good results. Ordinary 
twine should then be fastened in the hock end of each ham 
and shoulder, and in the thick side of each middling, to 
suspend them from the hooks in the curing-house. 

The smokehouse should have cement, brick or hard 
earth floor, and the fire made in the center of the room. 
This should be started with dry stuff, and as it burns well, 
smother it with green hickory or green chips from oak, 
hickory or other logs. Chips will often be too dry, and it 
will be necessary to wet them with water to keep them from 
blazing. Everything depends upon the fire now. It must 
be regulated so as to not get too hot nor too cold. A good 
smoke and no blaze is required. Water and chips are the 
means by which to tegulate it in this way. 

Half a day at a time for a week or two weeks will suffice 
to cure the hams well, and this slow method is better than 
a quick, continuous smoking. The more that it is smoked 
in this slow way the better will its color be. After it is 
nearly smoked enough give it hnother turn in the house oc- 
casionally until late in May. The smoke is the safest way 
to keep the bacon bug or "skippers" out of the house and 
the meat. It is also better for the meat to give it such an 
occasional smoking. 

Those who market their bacon and hams within a few 
weeks will rush the curing process through, but the meat is 
never so good for this haste. The more the bacon is 
snioked the better it will keep through suinmer. The hams 
will have to bo changed occasionally in the smokehouse. 

Hoes Becoming Valuable. 

The live stock market has been a source of perplexity 
and confusion to dealers daring the past year, so far as it 
relates to hog?. Notwithstanding the fact that receipts in 
1892 at Chicago were 7,700,000, being the second largest 
on record— the leading year was 1891, with 8,600,000— 
there has been during the past three months a scarcity 
without precedent for a term of years. The total for the 
year 1892 is 900,000 less than in 1891, but it is nearly 100,- 
000 larger than the previous largest receipts, excpt 1 891, 
over 600,000 larger than in 1880, when 7,059 355 arrived, 
which are the founh largest receipts on record. In 1889 
Chicago received less than 6,000,000 and in 1883 only 4,- 
921,712 arrived, so that receipts for 1892 are very large m 
comparison with average receipts since 1887. 

In the first three months of 1892 there was a decrease of 
57^.539. as compared with iZ<^\, with an advance in prices 
of about 35c per 100 lbs. The next three months there was 
a strong gain in receipts and the loss as compared with the 
first six months of 1891 was reduced to 236,000 head. 
Prices during the second quarter advanced 75c on choice 
heavy, only 30c on common mixed and light nr.d 65c on 
fancy light. By the end of the third quarter the loss in re- 
ceipts compared with 1891 had been entirely made up with 
.1 71303 hogs to spare, the September receipts alone increas- 
ing 112,000 head. In August prices reached the top price 
outside of the last month, $6.27^. being $1.55 above Janu- 
ary prices, bu» the liberal September receipts and the tra- 
ditional idea that prices must be broken badly just before 
the winter packing season, caused a decline of 57JC on 
best hogs, which bet;an to be more plenty, and little or no 
change on the common hogs, which had been dei-psrately 
low all year. The talk of country stock-shippers about 
November hogs being marketed in September, made little 
or no impression upon the general trade, but when October 
receipts fell off 137,000, the packers and tradeis were puz- 
zled and prices slowly crawled up about 25c during the 
month. The November decrease of 362,552 hogs was less 
sudden, but about as surprising as a thunder clap out of a 
clear sky; but the packers were so badly on the wrong side 
of the provision market that th'.y fought hard and quite 
successfully the advance in prices, which amounted to only 
about IOC for the month. In December, however, with a 
decrease in receipts of nearly 400,000 compared with ihe 
corresponding month in '91. hog prices w>ent up like a bal- 
loon dragging an insuffici nt anchor, and closed at the 
highest point of the year, $7, for prime hogs, being $2 95 
above the low point at the opening of the year. 

Receipts of hogs the l.tst three months of 1892 decreased 
over 900,000, and there are many in the trade that think 
the decrease the first three months of 1893 will be very 
heavy in comparison with the first half ot 1892. The un- 
varying strength and decided upward tendency ol prices 
indicates that this opinion prevails in the most effective 
places, viz., among buyers, and there seems to be every 
reason to expect a further advance in prices, even over 
present high quotations. 

<ShE 3E{lEbD. 

The Year in Napa County. 

Napa, Dec. 30, 1892. 

To THE Editor:— A retrospect of the old year, viewed 
from an agricultural standpoint, shows that the past twelve- 
month has been a prosperous one to very m^ny farmers of 
this county, and, of course, satisfactory to such. There are 
those whose affairs have not prospered as anticipated. 
There are those likewise situated in every portion of the 
State. But, on the whole, the year just passed has been one 
of advancement. Where judgment has been at fault in 
managing the farm, lessons should be learned that shall 
profit during the new year. Mistakes are made in one or 
another department of farm labor during any year, but they 
may be turned to good account if the experience gained, 
sometimes costly, is kept in mind during coming time. 

Of all our farmers probably fruitgrowers fared the best 
during 1892. With ftiir crops and excellent prices came 
satisfaction and the stimulus to enter upon planning and 
execution for the months to come. Farmers of this class 
are well satisfied with the outlook. Old orchards will be 
enlarged and new ones planted. Although considerable 
fruit was shipped from Napa and vicinity last season, the 
amount will undoubtedly increase from year to year. 

Grain and hay raisers had fair to good crops. With this 
little fault could be found. But prices for both products 
have thus far ruled low, and a large quantity is still held for 
higher figures than have thus far been oflTered. With the 
expense and hard work incident to raising hay and grain 
there is little cheer in having to dispose of them at prices 
that have for some time ruled. Still a large acreage has 
been sown this season and more will be planted. One 
season with another, farmers in general do fairly well, and 
they plant and sow and reap in hope. " Never say die " 
is 3 good motto for individuals of all classes who may for 
the time being be unsuccessful. 

Likewise there are many vineyardmen and winemakers 
who are not satisfied with the way things have turned the 
last season. The phylloxera has ceased not, day nor night, 
to ravage many a vineyard south of the Calistoga district, 
and the acreage will be reduced this spring. For this dis- 
ease — to check the spreading of these ravenous insects — 

January 14, 1893, 


there has been found no remedy. Then, again, the price 
of wine has been so low that many ccllarmen have been 
unwilling to dispose of vintages, waiting patiently the bet- 
ter times that scores are sanguine will soon come. 

The only salvation of vineyardists in this and other parts 
of the State is in planting anew with resistant vines. So 
far these have proved a success here as elsewhere. 

Quite a number of farms change hands from time to time 
in me county and now and then some of the larger tracts 
are divided. Newcomers from diflferent portions of our 
land, pleased with our climate, soil and location, settle 
here, bringing capital, new ideas, and make many improve- 
ments. We want more such. 

There is a great future for Berryessa valley, situated in 
the northeastern part of our county. A large tract of very 
fertile valley land, with much hill land adjoining, noted for 
the excellent pasture produced, is cut ofT from railroad cen- 
ters. The large amount of grain there produced must 
needs be hauled a long distance to Napa or to Winters at 
considerable expense. The land is still held, for the 
greater part, in large tracts. Excellent wheat is grown 
there and the location is well adapted to fruitgrowing. All 
that is needed to make this one of the most prosperous 
portions of the State is a railroad. 

The same may be said of many another location in this 
State. The time must come when small lines of railroad 
will tap these now isolated but fertile tracts, developing the 
resources of the State in a remarkable manner, adding 
much to its wealth and drawing from abroad a large and 
desirable population. How few of the residents of this 
State realize that within our borders we have an empire of 
our own ? 

The first heavy storm of the season damaged many of 
our mountain roads to considerable extent. Where the 
water was allowed to run for any distance in the road great 
gullies were formed and the repairing of these highways 
will entail much expense. Whether the new road law, 
which goes into effect with the new year, will lessen the 
burden of taxpayers and give us better roads remains to be 
seen. The workings of this law will be watched with much 
interest in all parts of the State. If this shall prove the 
road law we have so long been looking for it will bring re- 
lief in more ways than one. We shall see. 

Cutting & Co., of San Francisco, are preparing to plant 
two or three hundred acres of very good land to orchard, 
about four miles southwest of Napa. Soil and location 
will be in favor of the success of this enterprise; the fruit 
can be shipped to San Francisco or to eastern points by rail 
from Napa or to pomts in this State by water from Soscol. 

Here, at Soscol, is the large and well improved farm of 
Judge J. A. Stanley. Dairying forms a prominent feature 
of farm operations. At considerable expense a very com- 
plete plant has been erected and this is the best equipped 
dairy in the county. The judge has quite a large vmeyard 
of resistant vines that is doing well. It is no longer a mat- 
ter of doubt as to the success of planting resistants, particu- 
larly the Riparia, in this county. Vinifera, when grafted 
on such roots, grow thriftily, bear good crops and resist 
the attacks of the phylloxera. R. 

The Storm in Butte County. 

Yankee Hill, Butte Co., Cal., Jan. i, 1893. 

To THE Editor : — The greatest storm for years has 
just gone and passed, and left its many marks which will 
long be remembered. Such tremendous winds — leveling 
fences, uprooting gigantic trees; I never saw the like be- 
fore. I think that it must have attained a velocity of 60 or 
75 miles per hour. And the terrible rains! They tore out 
a great deal of late plowed and seeded ground. I should 
judge that in the last storm about 20 inches of water fell. 
By taking a look up the Sacramento valley you can see 
enough to form some idea of the amount, etc.; but it did 
some good after all. It took away all the frosty weather, 
and now the grain is just rushing forward finely and begins 
to look lovely. But the roads! O, gracious! All torn to 
pieces and no wonder, for our road officers have done 
nothing all fall to keep the water from v/ashing the road 
away every time it rained. That's the way the money 
goes, and the taxpayers have to foot the bills. It beats all, 
as the old woman said, how things work. 

Well, we shall soon have a new deal in regard to our 
road law, and it is to be hoped it will be a great improve- 
ment on the old system. But what can be expected if we 
only have a wooden man for officer ? Now, if the weather 
continues this fine for a few days, I think the pruning hooks 
and shears will have to be brought into requisition. We 
have had fine Muscatel grapes on the vines, but the last 
prolonged storm rather worsted them. When the long- 
looked-for and long-hoped-for railroad gets to running 
along the North Fork of El Rio Plumas we can get rid of 
our splendid fruits and nuts before such bad weather sets in. 

With many prayers for the new road, and wishing every- 
body a very Happy New Year, I remain (almost a 
Granger), Wm. H. Mullen. 

The European Hop Crop. 

Frank H. Mason, United States Consul-general at 
Frankfort, Germany, sends to Washington the following 
estimate of the hop crop in Germany and Europe for 1892. 
The statistics are in metric pounds, being one-tenth greater 
than American pounds: 

36,296,000 pounds in 1882 and a maximum crop of 
71,565,500 pounds in 1889, the annual average for the ten 
years being 52,542,100 oounds. The foregoing estimate, 
therefore, reckons the German crop of 1892 at 3,300,000 
pounds less than that of 1891 and 9,042,100 pounds below 
the average of the past ten years. 

Country, Quantity. 
Germany — Mat. lbs. 

Biva'ia 22,500,000 

Wurtemburg 6,000,000 

Baden 5,000,000 

Alsace-Lorraine 6,500,000 

Prussia 3.500.000 

Country. Quantity. 

Met. lbs. 

Austria-Hungary 15,500,000 

Belgium 9,000,000 

France 5,000,000 

Russia 2,500,000 

Great Britain *36,ooo,ooo 


The Orange Crop. 

Riverside, Cal., Dec. 31, 1892. 

To THE Editor: — I notice in your Christmas edition a 
statement that the output of oranges from southern Cali- 
fornia will be 7000 carloads this year. I think you are at 
least 2000 carloads too high in your estimate. 

Riverside is not expected to produce over 2000 carloads, 
and the balance of San Bernardino will not much exceed 
250 cars, and I feel confident all the rest of southern Cali- 
fornia will not exceed 2750 carloads. It is usual, at this 
season of the year, for buyers and interested parties to 
give out the idea that there is to be an immense output, 
and consequently prices will rule lower. The truth is good 
enough in California, and I am sure that you have not 
made this statement for any other purpose than an item of 
good news. After a regular reading of the Pacific Rural 
Press for over 17 years, I want to say that it stands at the 
head, in my estimation, in its effort to give facts as they 

Our crop this year is not as large as in former years, but 
the quality is very fine. Never before had Riverside so 
brilliant a prospect on January ist, as in the year 1893. A 
good crop, the fruit exceptionally smooth and of fine appear- 
ance. The little low temperature we had through Decem- 
ber was an advantage rather than a detriment. It caused 
the fruit to ripen earlier, and now the Navels have put on 
their rosy hue and are fast maturing to gratify the most 
esthetic palates. Indeed, contrary to the usual experience 
at this season, they are very sweet and juicy. 

The growers and packers of Riverside and San Bernar- 
dino county have concluded not to indulge in the pastime 
of Kilkenny cats, but are trying to formulate plans for the 
better distribution of our crop. It is the intention to stop 
all consignments and sell all the fruit f. o. b. Riverside, ex- 
cept, of course, culls and second-grade fruit. A uniform 
system of packing and uniform price will do much to place 
our fruit in the position it deserves. Indiscriminate con- 
signments demoralize any market. Some of the best com- 
mission men in San Francisco and other cities have fre- 
quently told me they would prefer to buy oranges if there 
were no consignments. The demand would then control 
the supply. While we do not expect exorbitant prices, by 
concerted action we can secure a fair price for a good arti- 
cle. Prices will be fixed every Saturday for the ensuing 
week, and by holding back the shipments, merchants never 
need fear the disastrous effects of a falling market. The 
Riverside Press has published the articles as agreed upon; 
but there will be some minor changes made to-day. The 
f. o. b. prices to day are Washington Navels $3. 50 and 
Seedlings $2.25 per box, which are very satisfactory. 

There is a growing feeling in Riverside for a permanent 
organization of every orange-grower in the city into a cor- 
poration, with a board o! trustees of say 1 1 of the most 
advanced, best-posted men. They are to elect a president 
and secretary, and thus pave the way to have all the fruit 
grown in Riverside manipulated by one agency. Hire a 
man who has the brains and business experience to manage 
it, if we have to pay the salary paid Mr. Leeds by the 
traffic Association, $10,000 a year. This would only be a 
trifle over iX cents a box for this year's output, and the 
expense would rest on the income. We can't jump into 
new things. We must take time to grow. We must edu- 
cate people by experience. We have had some experience 
on the wrong side of the ledger account. If our present 
movement proves somewhat satisfactory, it will encourage 
our people to pool their issues in some way to secure the 
best results. 

The rains have been very welcome, and the seeding of 
barley seems to be the business most in hand at present, 
trusting for the later rain to mature the crop. Feed has 
been high. Alfalfa-hay from $11 to $14 per ton during the 
past year. Rain means plenty of cheap feed and general 
prosperity all round. We are glad to see that the farmers 
in the northern citrus belt have had such copious showers. 
Their prosperity is ours. We are mutually dependent. 
Prosperity in one part of the State affects all other por- 
tions. D. W. McLeod. 

[As stated last week, the Rural Press did not estimate 
that the southern California orange output would be 7000 
carloads, and our correspondent labors under a misappre- 
hension. — Ed.] 

Total (or Germany. 43. 500,000 Total for Europe. .+101,500,000 
'Equal to 40,000,000 English pounds, +101,500 gross tons. 

The hop product of Germany has fluctuated from year 
to year during the past decade between a minimum crop of 

Large Area of New Orchards. 

The Pomona Progress has prepared a statement of the 
estimated planting of new orchards in southern California 
for the next four months and some formidable figures are 
developed. Reports from nurserymen in every locality in 
Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San Diego counties 
show that the demand for prune, apricot and peach trees 
for planting has never been as large at this season as this. 
In some places the stock of prune and apricot trees has 
already been contracted for by men who are going into de- 
ciduous fruit growing on an extensive scale. In Pomona, 
Santa Ana and San Jacinto valleys there are many acres 
which have heretofore been occupied by wheat and barley 
fields that are now to become orchards. 

In San Bernardino county the olive and prune are to be 
set out on several thousand acres near AUessandro and 
Rialto. In Orange county there are reports of a movement 
for planting olives on the soil that was formerly occupied 

by vineyards which the vine disease killed. The Progres s 
estimates that about 9000 acres will be planted to prunes 
alone in southern California this season, and says that the 
prosperity which has attended every form of deciduous 
fruit grown in this region during the past has given this 
unusual impetus to fruit-growing operations. The bringing 
of many thousand more acres of land under irrigation sys- 
tems and improved and easier methods of preparing fruit 
for market have also had their influence. The Progress 
says there is as yet no reliable estimate made on the extent 
of the planting of orange and lemon orchards in the south- 
ern counties. 

For Pernicious Scale and Lecaniums. 

Mr. R. Wilkin gives the Ventura Free Press a formula 
for spraying deciduous trees, which he says is the best 
wash yet used for destroying the San Jose scale: 

The orchardist should watch the weather, and as it only 
rains about once a month in southern California, he should 
spray his orchard as soon as possible after a rain, so the 
wash will have a longer time to stay on the trees. If a rain 
should follow soon after spraying, the trees should be 
sprayed again after the rain. Use a nozzle that will throw 
a fine spray and go around the tree and wet every particle 
of the bark Follow the directions exactly in preparing the 
wash and you will be successful. 

For Pernicious Scale and Lecaniums. — The follow- 
ing are the proportions of materials for the rosin wash for 
winter use upon deciduous trees: 

Rosin 30 pounds. 

Caustic soda (70 per cent) g pounds. 

Fiih oil n% pints. 

Directions for Preparing this Wash. — Place the rosin, 
caustic soda and fish oil in a large boiler, pouring over 
them about 20 gallons of water, and cook thoroughly over 
a brisk fire for at least three hours; then add hot water, a 
little occasionally, and stir well, until you have not less 
than 50 gallons of hot solution. Place this in the spray 
tank and add cold water to make 100 gallons altogether. 
Never add cold water when cooking. 

A. J. Cook's formula for kerosene emulsion for citrus 
trees, most successfully used in winter, is: Put X pound 
of laundry soap in two quarts of water and boil until the 
soap is dissolved; then add, while yet hot, i pint of kero- 
sene oil and vigorously stir until it is permanently mixed, 
that is, until when allowed to stand the oil will not rise lo 
the surface; when ready to use add water enought to make 
15 pints in all. Apply the emulsion with a spraying pump 
until every leaf and part of the tree is fully wet. 

Fruit-Raising Pays. 

A press dispatch from Pomona testifies to the extensive 
preparations going forward in Southern California to an 
enlargement of the fruit industry. It says: 

" Not in several years has there been such preparations 
for planting orchards in this region as this season. Thou- 
sands of acres that have heretofore grown barley or wheat 
in Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Orange counties are 
to be set out to young orchards before April or May. In 
every valley and locality in this part of California men are 
busy turning over the soil and surveying sections for 
orchards, and are getting the soil in readiness for planting. 
The nurserymen and dealers in farm implements unani- 
mously report a general activity in their "business. 

" The planting of new orange orchards in the warmer 
parts of Southern California will be as large as ever, but 
there is going to be ten times more lemons planted this 
season than ever before. 

" Olives and prunes have returned royal profits to all 
growers in this part of the State this year, and new 
orchards of these fruits are to be planted on an enormous 
scale in Los Angeles and Orange counties. Apricots and 
peaches will be set out to the amount of several hundred 
acres in Pomona valley, and in Ventura county more than 
in any section in five years, because of the money that has 
been derived from such fruits during the past year. 

" The Pomona Progress estimates that the fruit-planting 
operations in Southern California this winter will be fully 
$2,000,000 in value." 

To Amend the Irrigation Law. 

A meeting of delegates from various irrigation districts of 
the State was held in Sacramento last week to consider 
subjects upon which legislation may be deemed advisable 
by the present session. E. DeWitt, president of the State 
Association, presided at the meetings, and L. M. Holt, editor 
of the Orange Belt, at Rialto, officiated as secretary. 
Among other prominent persons in attendance were C. C. 
Wright author of the Wright irrigation law; W. 
W. S. Green, editor of the Colusa Sun; E. H. Tucker, of 
Selma. P. Y. Baker, P. L. Reed, A. J. Pilsbury. J. W. 
Mackey, and E. D. Vogelsang, of Tulare, D. Robinson 
and Samuel Merrill, of Rialto; T. A. Wells, of Kern 
county; E. T. Casper, of Poso, and R. B. Beaver, of Es- 

A number of amendments to the irrigation laws were dis- 
cussed and will be recommended for passage to the legis- 
lature. The Wright Irrigation Law, as originally adopted, 
was an excellent measure, but experience has demon- 
strated the advisability of some amendments. One of the 
amendments proposed is that the school fund of the State 
should be invested in irrigation district bonds. 

Other minor amendments of a corrective nature were dis- 
cussed and will be presented to the Legislature. 

Vinegar and pickle factories are increasing in this city. 
In 1 891 there were six of them, with an output of 970,000 
gallons of vinegar and 120,000 gallons of pickles, worth in 
all $200,000. Now there are fourteen factories, turning out 
over 1,000,000 gallons of vinegar, 1 50,000 gallons of pickles 
and the joint product is valued at $250,000. 



January 14, 1898. 

IIIhE JiojVlE QlRGbE. 

The Song of the Dairy. 

Written for the Rukal Pbkss by Isabsl Cabling. 
I pledge your health in a glass of white wine, 
Cool, creamy and sweet, 

White wine, 
The wine that is mine, 
Without tariff or duty, and sweet, 
O sweet with the sweetness of grass and of clover, 
And tinted with buttercups. Full, brimming over. 
The glasses are waiting of wine, 

White wine, 
The wine that is cool 

And pure as the depths of the forest-fed pool 
Tnat peeps at the sun and rimples 
With the merriest dimples. 
The daintiest twinkles. 
That somehow remind us of bells all a-tinkle 
Far oir on the hills. Fill the glasses again 
With wine that will bring us no sorrow nor pain, 
The wine that will cost you no license nor fine, 

White wine. 
Cool, creamy and sweet, and fit for a fairy. 
The wine of the dairy, 
The strength of the clover and grass. 
Come, fill up your glass 

With wine. 

White wine ! 

Last Year. 

Yo" thought, O Love, you loved me then, I know. — 
For that I bless you, now when Love is cold. 
Remembering how warm the tale you told 

When winds of autumn fitfu'ly did blow. 

And by the sea's perpetual ebb and flow 
We wandered on together to behold 
Noon's radiant splendor, or the sunset's gold. 

Or beauty of still nights, when moons hung low. 
Your voice grew tender as you called my name, — 
I heard that voice to day, — was it the same? — 

The old time's music trembles In it yet; 
Your touch thrilled through roe like a sudden 

And then a sweet and subtle madness came. 
And lips, cold now, my lips had quickly met. 

Ah, Love, you must remember, though, to-day. 
There is no spell to charm you in the past, — 
So dear the dream was that it could not last; 

Full soon our pleasant skies were changed to gray. 

The sun turned from our barren land away. 
And all the leaves swept by us on the blast. 
And all our hopes to that wild wind were cast, — 

For dead Love's soul there is no place to pray. 
But still the old time lives in each our thought, — 

In our regretful dreams the old suns rise, 
And, from their shining, memory hath caught 

Some lingering glory of the glad surprise 
When Love rose on us, like the sun and brought 
ur hearts their morning under last year's skies. 

Louise Chandler Moulton. 


Written for the Rcral Press by Augdsta K. Townsb. 

bord, an edge; a side. As the Anglo-Saxon 
table was formed "merely by placing a 
board on trestles at the time of eating,," the 
table simply being designated by the name 
of board, one can readily conceive of the 
transitions by which board should come to 
mean not only a flat piece of wood and to 
lay with boards, but a " table," " food," and 
"to live at a price." 

Some homonyms of this class are derived 
from different roots of the same language, as 

I-leet, a company of ships, from the Anglo-S ixon 
/Iota, oi jliet, a ship; and 

/•7«/, swift of pace, from the Anglo-Saxon Jleogan, 
to fly. 

" But, mamma, how did it all come 
about? How did it? What made them 
get words from other languages, and then 
go and spell them wrong — different ? Did 
the schoolma'am say they might? Did 
wise folks do it on purpose ?" 

"Say, is there a book where I can see 
how little boys and girls spelled things way 
back centuries ago? Was it always as 
hard? And—" 

To stop them I write out for their amuse- 
ment some of the sentences I learned when 
little; to illustrate that certain of these funny 
words have the same sound but different 

" While sitting at my bay window, which 
commands a view of the bay, I noticed that 
the bay trees had put forth many tender 
shoots. As I contrasted the green of the 
bay leaves with the blue of the bay, some 
hounds on a neighboring hill began to bay 
at a deer at bay, greatly to the terror of a 
fine bay feeding in the meadow to my left." 

" And then—" 

" The tender heir of Baron Eyre, of Ayr, 
ere (if e'er) he sallies forth to take the air, 
follows Dr. Hunter's maxim, and airs his 

There are many homonyms whose sep- 
arate derivation is shown by their difTerent 
spelling. But one is as curious as these 
children of mine to know by what gradation 
Knight came to be pronounced like night; 
knew like gnu and new; gneis like nice; 
know like no, etc. 

I have a friend who declares this tendency 
in our language to use the same sound for 
several ideas is all owing to those " miser- 
able punsters;" "that the inveterate punster 
and irrepressible conundrum-maker are 
ruining the language, that they may rejoice 
in chances to ply their craft, and soon our 
language will be like the ancient Arabic 
which had a hundred and fifty meanings for 
one sound." But my friend is something of 
a pessimist. I do not agree with him, yet I 
confess I am sometimes sorry for the dear 
little children learning to spell and define 
our " vaunted vernacular." 

jlOME of the little eccentricities 
of our mother tongue are re- 
ceiving considerable criti- 
cism at the hands of my 
youngest nowadays. En- 
glish, as she is spelled and 
pronounced, makes them " cross," they say. 
The homonyms, especially those that are 
spelled as well as pronounced alike, they 
decry, as though they were the invention of 
the arch-enemy specially to vex their ado- 
lescent minds, or, if not so bad as that, of 
some crazy, crotchety Cadmus who had be- 
witched the language. 

Laughing and sympathizing, I have been 
telling them about the many other languages 
which have contributed words to our lan- 
guage, and for their benefit, with aid of 
diciionaries, grammars, and so on, have 
been tracing some of these ridiculous homo- 
nyms to their source. Here are some I 
amused them with the other evening : 

Bay, an arm of the sea bending in, is from the 
Anglo-Saxon bugan, to bend. 

Bay, a color, is from the Latin baiden, brown, 
chestnut-colored (applied only to horses). 

Bay, the laurel, is from baion, the Greek name for 
a tree; and 

Bay, to bark, and bay to face pursuers, are from 
the French aboyer, to bark. 

Box, a case made of wood, is from the Anglo- 
Saxon, box. 

Box, a blow on the head or ears given by the 
hand, is from the Welch bach, the cheek; and 

Box, a tree, is from the Latin buxus. 

Gall, the bile, is from the Anglo Saxon gealla, 
the gall. 

Gall, to fret by rubbing the skin, to vex, is from 
the French galer, to scratch, to rub; and 

Gall, an excrescence on an oak tree, is from the 
La'in galla. 

Jar (noun), a discord, (verb) to quarrel, is from 
the Anglo-Sixon grre angry; and 

Jar, an earthen vessel, is from the French jam. 

Sap, the vital juice of plants, is from the Anglo- 
Saxon saep, juice; and 

Sap, to undermine, from the French saptr, and 
so on. 

Then there are a few homonyms derived 
from the same root which interest my little 
folks greatly, as 

Board (noun), a flat piece of wood; a table; food; 

Board (verb), to lay with boards; to live at a 

These are both from the Anglo-Saxon 

Two Remarkable Epitaphs. — The two 
most remarkable epitaphs in the United 
States are those of Daniel Barrow, formerly 
of Sacramento, Cal , and that of Hank Monk, 
Horace Greeley's stage-driver. The former 
reads as follows: "Here is laid Daniel 
Barrow, who was born in Sorrow and Bor- 
rowed little from nature except his name and 
his love to mankind and his hatred for red- 
skins: Who was nevertheless a gentleman 
and a dead shot, who through a long life 
never killed his man except in self-defense 
or by accident, and who, when he at last 
went under beneath the bullets of his cow- 
ardly enemies, in Jeff Morris' saloon, did so 
in the sure and certain hope of a glorious 
and everlasting morrow." Hank Monk's 
epitaph reads thus: " Sacred to the memory 
of Hank Monk, the whitest, biggest-hearted 
and best known stage-driver of the West, 
who was kind to all and thought ill of none. 
He lived in a strange era and was a hero, 
and the wheels of his coach are now ringing 
on the Golden Streets." 

Care of the Hair.— The hairbrush 
should have long, soft bristles that will 
go quite through the hair and remove every 
particle of dust, and must, above all things, 
ije immaculately clean. A comb is rarely 
necessary if the hair is well brushed, but 
when used should be a coarse one. A fine 
cnmb is apt to break and split the air. At 
night the hair should be braided loosely, 
tied with a soft ribbon and allowed to hang. 
In this way a complete rest is afforded it 
and it is prevented from breaking. Some 
care should be given to the selection of 
pins. Coarse, rough or sharply-pointed 
pins should be avoided, as they will 
eventually spoil the most beautiful hair. 
The best and safest pins ate those made of 
amber or tortoise shell. — Godey's Mag- 

Knew When fle -was Through. 

A farmer in Greene county, Pa., hired as 
his assistant during the busy season a re- 
cent importation from the Emerald Isle. 

The young man was engaged one evening, 
and at the breakfast table the next morning 
his employer said: 

" Well, Pat, have you had enough break- 
fast ?" 

" Oi have, sorr," replied Pat. 

" Then now pitch in and eat your dinner," 
said the farmer, "for we are going to work 
to-day at the far end of the farm and we 
won't have time to come to the house to eat 

Pat resumed his eating, and when he 
stopped his employer asked: 

" Have you had enough dinner?" 
"Yes, sorr." 

" Well, we must put in a good long day 
to-day. So you had better eat your supper, 
too. before we start." 

Pat went to work again at the eatables, 
and finally laid down his knife and fork. 

" Had enough supper ?" asked the farmer. 


" Then now we will go to work." 

"Worruk, is it?" asked Pat, in well- 
feigned surprise. 

" Of course," replied his employer. 

" Oh, no," replied Pat, with a shake of his 
head; "where I kim from we never worruk 
after supper, sorr." — Life. 

Happiness Defined. 

Wanting nothing and knowing it. 

The mental sunshine of content. 

A " will-o'-the-wisp" which eludes us even 
when we grasp it. 

Excelsior ! The ever-retreating summit 
on the hill of our ambition. 

The prize at the top of a greasy pole, which 
is continually slipping from one's grasp. 

The only thing a man continues to look for 
after he has found it. 

The bull's-eye on the target at which all 
the human race are shooting. 

The goal erected for the human race, 
which few reach, being too heavily handi- 

A wayside flower growing only by the 
path of duty. 

A bright and beautiful butterfly, which 
many chase but few capture. 

The interest we receive from capital in- 
vested in good works. 

The birthright of contentment. 

A treasure which we search for far and 
wide, though oittimes it is lying at our feet. 

The summer weather of the mind. 

The dancing of the heart to its own 
music. — London Tidbits. 

The Correct Name.— Old lady— "Oh 
dear, oh dear." Young woman— " What's 
the matter, auntie ?" Old lady— "Oh, there's 
lots of trouble ahead. I've been down town 
to the astrologer and he cast my horror- 
scope." — Judge, 

A Different Version of an Old Tale. 

The present Columbian times have re- 
called to public memory the biography of 
Christopher Columbus as it was written by 
a schoolboy in the Midlands, England, 20 
years ago. The master told the boys to 
write each a short essay on the great navi- 
gator, and the following is the only one that 
has withstood the ravages of the tooth of 
time. We give it complete : " Columbus 
was a man who could make an egg stand on 
end without breaking it. The King of 
Spain said to Columbus : ' Can you dis- 
cover America ?' ' Yes,' said Columbus, ' if 
you will give me a ship.' He had a ship 
and sailed over the sea in the direction 
where he thought America ought to be 
found. The sailors quarreled and said they 
believed there was no such place, but after 
many days the pilot called to him and said : 
'Columbus, I see land.' 'Then that is 
America,' said Columbus. When the ship 
got near, the land was full of black men. 
Columbus said : ' Is this America?' ' Yes, 
it is,' said they. ' I suppose you are the 
niggers?' ' Yes,' they said, 'we arc'; and 
the chief said : ' I suppose you are 
Columbus?' 'You're right,' said he. Then 
the chief turned to his men and said : 
'There is no help for it; we are discovered 
at last.'" — Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin. 

A Mail Contract for a Cent. — A 
man in Boonsboro, Washington county, 
Md., thinks the times are out of joint. He 
offered to carry the mails between Boons- 
boro and Keedysville daily, except Sunday, 
free of charge. The distance between the 
two towns is some three miles, and the 
bidder thought he was bidding low enough 
to secure the contract; but it was not 
awarded to him. Another man offered to 
do the work for an annual compensation of 
one cent, and to him the contract was 
awarded. Now the man who wanted to do 
the work free of charge is trying to find 
out why he was not permitted to do so. 

San Francisco Fashion Notes. 

VVritteu for the Rcbal Pbess. 
Dear Katie: Fashion changes so often, 
it is almost impossible to keep up with it; 
however, I will describe, as best I can, some 
of the latest styles in regard to dress gar- 

Fur is very much worn at present, not 
only as a trimming, but for complete man- 
tles. Shoulder capes made of black fur, 
with high standing collar, are both stylish 
and pretty. Many coats or jackets are 
trimmed with fur, having narrow pipings of 
the same on the collar and cuffs. A num- 
ber of three-quarter jackets are made with 
the Watteau plait, extending from the neck 
down the middle of the back, where the 
plait hangs loose and is fastened at the 
waist with a leather belt or one made of the 
coat material. 

Some of these coats have three small 
capes combined in one, attached to the 
jacket; each cape is trimmed with the fur. 
Large buttons on coats are still worn, but 
not so much as formerly, the fur having al- 
most entirely taken their place. Mantles of 
light cloth are pretty, made with high puffs 
on the shoulder, or having a smaller cape 
of the same trimmed in narrow fur, with a 
high, standing collar. For evening wear, 
mantles are made of the most delicate 
shades of fabric, and are trimmed in light 
fur or passementerie. 

Collarets of fur are quite fashionable, 
while the long ostrich boa seems to be in 
full sway. 

Hats of every size and description are 
worn, ranging from the small toque to the 
wide brimmed felt hat. Small hats are al- 
ways pretty and dressy, especially for even- 
ing wear. The old-fashioned turban is 
again coming into style. It is made of 
buckram, and is covered in velvet of differ- 
ent shades, having rosettes of the velvet, in 
place of a wing or feathers, to finish it, al- 
although many prefer the feathers or aigrette 
to the rosette; but either are pretty. For 
instance, a turban of brown velvet is 
trimmed in rosettes of pale blue. The hat 
is plain, with a fold of the velvet around the 
edge, having a rosette of the blue velvet in 
front, instead of a wing or feather. 

Toques are still worn, and are principally 
trimmed in velvet, and are completed by 
loops of ribbon velvet, or a bird or wing of 
some kind. Buckles are still in great de- 
mand, not only for hat trimmings, but also 
for dresses. Oval- shaped ones, with bril- 
liant stones, are used mostly for hats, and 
are put in the large butterfly bows which 
are worn so much on hats. Plaid ribbons 
are used a great deal now for trimming chil- 
dren's hats. The butterfly bow is the favor- 
ite mode for trimming. 

The high-crowned hat still continues to 
be worn. The trimmings are b'ought more 
to the sides than to the front, improving the 
looks of the wearer by taking away the 
broad, coarse look from the face. The dark 
felt hats are twisted into various shapes, be- 
ing broad in the front and narrow in the 
back. Some of these hats are very pretty 
when trimmed. A large white felt trimmed 
with black velvet, and tips to match, make 
a pretty combination. Another pretty and 
stylish hat is one made of dark green velvet 
trimmed with small feathers to match, hav- 
ing a few loops of velvet ribbon brought to 
the front, and is completed with either a 
pompon or a beautiful biid. 

The bell skirt is still worn, being made 
narrow at the top and wide at the foot, with 
hollow, flowing plaits. The widths are cut 
lengthwise or on the cross, according to the 
material. The new velvets in delicate colors 
are quite the success of the season. Cordu- 
roy is very stylish and is used a great deal. 

Street costumes of plain cloth, trimmed 
in shaded velvets, are very attractive; for 
instance, a dress of steel-gray lady's cloth, 
trimmed with velvet of a little darker shade, 
with silk to match. The skirt is made plain, 
having a fold of velvet round the edge as a 
border, which gives it a neat finish. The 
bodice consists of an Eaton jacket, with 
deep-turned back lapels of the velvet, and is 
completed by a vest of the silk, with a strap 
of the velvet reaching across the front of the 
waist to keep the vest in place. 

The train is no longer worn for the street, 
but continues to be fashionable for the 
house. Most evening dresses have long, 
square trains. For the street, dresses are 
made so that the skirt just touches the 
ground. Small checks are again coming 
into fashion. They are always pretty and 

Silk underskirts are all the rage, and are 
made principally of changeable silk. Some 
ladies, however, only stitch a silk ruffle in- 
side of the dress skirt, and this gives it the 
appearance of a whole silk underskirt' 

Among the novelties for footwear are 
many new kinds of slippers for the house. 
These are made of wools, different shades, 

January 14, 1893. 

and are trimmed with bows of wide «atin 
ribbon. Instead of using the bows, many 
prefer an edging made of the worsted itself, 
and fastened to the top of the slipper, which 
gives it a neat finish. Slippers of this kind 
are always comfortable to slip on after being 
out all day. The soles are very thin, and 
are made of leather lined with cotton bat- 

Owing to the recent rains, gossamers and 
umbrellas have been used to great ad- 
vantage. The newest gossamers are made 
of plaid silk rubber, more the style of a 
long ulster, with cape and sleeves to match. 
Many are made Japanese style with false 

Silk umbrellas with gold or oxidized han- 
dles are the height of fashion. Eliza H. 

California Women and the World's 

There has been set apart for the use of 
the women of California as headquarters 
and exhibition room, the northwest gallery 
in the State Building at Chicago, 120 feet 
in length by 19 feet in width, more than 2200 
feet of floor space and the adjacent wall 

In this is to be collected the very best of 
our woman's work. It is to be under the 
control of the State Board of Lady Man- 
agers, and they earnestly desire that the dis- 
play here made may be a credit to the State 
and reflect honor upon its refined and intel- 
ligent women. That this end may be at- 
tained, every woman who has anything iu 
the line of industrial, artistic and literary 
work, anything unique, historic or peculiarly 
Oalifornian of merit, is cordially invited to 
contribute by gift, or loan the same to en- 
hance the attractiveness of the space allotted 

In this department will be placed an art 
loan, comprising rare, beautiful and ex- 
pensive articles; a historical collection of 
interest to the student of history; a sou- 
venir exhibit that will bear testimony to the 
taste and skill of a large number of our 
women; a literary exhibit showing what 
women are doing in the line of literature; an 
industrial display embracing fine needle- 
work, domestic science, inventions, and 
every industry in which the women of Cali- 
fornia are engaged. The works of our 
skilled artists will adorn the walls; chairs, 
tables, picture-frames and panels will dis- 
play our woodcarvers' skill; skins of wild 
animals on the floors will afford a study of 
the fauna, and potted plants and shrubs the 
flora of California. Relics, curiosities, shells, 
mosses, fossils, stuffed bird";, anything of 
superior merit, and especially those things 
that are found and produced in this State 
are wanted. 

A careful oversight and safe return of all 
articles loaned is guaranteed as far as pos- 

Now that the matter of space is so ad- 
vantageously settled, no time should be lost 
in making the collection. The resources of 
the State are varied, and every county and 
almost every town has some striking article 
or production different from all others. The 
great variety of our products will prove one 
of the greatest charms of the exhibition. 
There is enough patriotism and womanly 
pride among us to make such a display of 
the products of hand and brain as will at- 
tract the attention of the world. 

This is the opportunity of the century — 
let no woman slight it. 

Flora M. Kimball. 

Do You Know 

That eggs covered when frying will cook 
much more even ? 

That if you heat your knife you can cut 
hot bread as smoothly as cold ? 

That camphor menthol is an excellent in- 
halant if one is suffering from catarrh ? 

That a little flour dredged over the top of 
a cake will keep the icing from running ? 

That the white of an egg, with a little 
sugar and water, is good for a child with an 
irritable stomach ? 

That clear, black coffee, diluted with water 
and containing a little ammonia, will cleanse 
and restore black clothes ? 

That a large slice of raw potato in the fat 
when frying doughnuts will prevent the 
black specks from appearing on their sur- 
face ? 

That by rubbing with a flannel cloth dip- 
ped in whiting, the brown discoloration may 
be taken off of cups which have been used 
for baking ? 

That a little powdered borax in baby's 
bath water prevents the little one's skin 
from chafing, and he is not so liable to 
"break out with the heat?— Ella B. SIM- 
MONS, in Good Housekeeping. 


*Y'0UNG KobKS' C(oi£>UMjM. 

Little Orphant Annie. 

Little Orphant Annie's come to our house to stay. 
An' wash the cups an' saucers up, an' brush the 

crumbs away, 
An' shoo the chickens off the porch, an' dust the 

hearth an' sweep, 
An' make the fire, an' bake the bread, an' earn her 

An' all us other children, when the supper things is 


We set around the kitchen fire an' has the mostest 

A-list'nin' to the witch-tales 'at Annie tells about. 
An' the Gobble-uns 'at gits you 
Ef you 


Onc't they was a little boy wouldn't say his prayers — 
An' when he went to bed at night, away up stairs, 
His mammy heerd him holler, an' his daddy heerd 
him bawl. 

An' when they turn't the kivvers down, he wasn't 
there at all I 

An' they seeked him in the rafter-room, an' cubby- 
hole an' press, 
An' seeked him up the chimbly-flue, and ever'- 

wheres, I guess; 
But all they ever found was thist his pants an' 

roundabout — 
An' the Gobble-uns '11 git you 
Ef you 


An' one time a little girl 'ud alius laugh an' grin. 
An' make fun for ever' one, an' all her blood and 

An' onc't when they was "company,'' an' ole 

folks was there. 
She mocked 'em an' shocked 'era, and said she 

didn't care I 

An' thist as she kicked her heels, an' turn't to run 
an' bide. 

They was two great big Black Things a-standin' 
by her side, 

An' they snatched her through the ceilin' 'fore she 

knowed what she's about I 
An' the Gobble-uns '11 git you 
Ef you 

Out I 

An' little Orphant Annie says, when the blaze is 

An' the lampwick sputters, an' the wind goes 
woo-oo I 

An' you hear the crickets quit, and the moon is 

An' the lightnin' bugs in dew is all squenched 
away — 

You better mind yer parents, an' yer teachers fond 
and dear, 

An' churish them 'at loves you, an' dry the 

orphant's tear. 
An' he'p the pore an' needy ones 'at clusters all 


Er the Gobble-uns '11 git you 
Ef you 

Out 1 

— James Whitcomb Riley. 

Study of Insects. 

Written for the Rural Press. 

ORTY-SEVEN years ago, in 
rai ^^^l/iO Wisconsin, two little 

K| ^^^llH boys, sons of a farmer, were 
TO I^^OS bemoaning the destruction of 
I^L-^^^ ^ their patch of young popcorn 
I ^,^^-^-,..^^1 cutworms. Their father 
suggested: " Catch some of the cutworms, 
put them into a glass jar, feed them, and 
learn all you can about them." The -advice 
was followed. The worms buried them- 
selves in the earth in the bottom of the jar, 
and in due time emerged as butterflies. 
"Army-worms," "span-worms," "tomato- 
worms," " wire-worms," and scores of other 
forms of insect life were experimented with 
in like manner. One of these boys is now 
raising fruit in Fresno county. The worms, 
bugs, and other insects are still his teachers. 
He has kept them till in the perfect butterfly 
form, then kept the butterflies till their brood 
of eggs was hatched, and counted the progeny 
of various kinds of them. The first San 
Jose scale he ever saw, he cut a piece of a 
branch containing them, and keeping it alive 
in water (to insure the health of the scale 
bugs during his experiments), inclosed it 
in a glass jar, and then noted the time and 
manner of the young bugs emerging from 
the old parent scales, their conduct, and life 
history, till they fastened themselves on the 
bark and covered themselves with scales. 

A month ago this student of nature was 
going with a lot of neighbor farmers to at- 
tend the county Farmers' Institute. As they 
crossed a big ditch, whose banks were 
thickly set with willow trees, one of the 
ladies called attention to the swarms of 
" curious looking butterflies." Our student 
farmer explained that these were the mothers 
of the tree borers. Since then several of 
these insects have been placed in closed 
jars, with pieces of wood suitable for deposit 
of their eggs and to serve as a home for the 


borers while they remain in the worm or 
borer state. Thus the little leaven has begun 
to work. Then the thought occurred: Why 
not write this for the Rural Press, so that 
the rural boys and girls all over our coast 
can be doing likewise ! To nobody else in 
the world is a knowledge of insects as valu- 
able and important as to the fruit raiser. 
Nobody else has as good an opportunity to 
study insects. How many of even fruit rais- 
ers' children, know the codlin moth by sight .'' 
How many know how long it remains in the 
pupa or worm state ? How many have ever 
kept a moth till its eggs were laid and then 
tried to learn how long it takes the eggs to 
hatch, and how many descendants from a 
single moth? What boys and girls have 
begun to learn these things ? Who will begin 
now, and ever after continue to learn, and 
give the world the benefit of their knowledge ? 

Uncle Fresno. 


"Johnny," said his mother, "do you 
know who ate those cookies I left in the 
pantry ?" 

" I do, mamma," replied the noble boy, 
his eyes filling with tears, "but it would not 
be manly for me to tell." 

And that is how it came that Johnny's 
brother received two undeserved spankings 
— one for the cakes he did not steal and an- 
other for his truthful denial. — Indianapolis 

The Charm of Pleasantness. 

Every woman has an inherent longing to 
be attractive, and if she has not, she should 
have. For what would this chaos, doubt and 
strife of our daily warfare become were it 
not that sweet woman interfuses into it her 
calming, cheering influences ? 

And the natural tribute men pay to wo- 
man's attractive qualities is admiration. If 
a woman is incapable of appreciating the 
homage of man, and treats man's highest 
gift as though it were vanity, she makes a 
serious mistake. 

But how can a girl best gain the love and 
respect of others ? This is an all-important 
query, and it is best answered by a concrete 
illustration drawn from real life. Miss A is 
beautiful. Her statuesque form and magnifi- 
cent face are always the same, with a cold, 
distant aspect which even her undoubted 
beauty does not redeem from reproach. Miss 
B is neither so talented nor yet so lovely, but 
she meets one heart to heart, and her con- 
tinued pleasantness has a charm which 
draws around her a devoted circle of appre- 
ciative friends. She is her father's confi- 
dante, her mother's joy, the recipient of her 
brother Jack's love trouble and sister Nel- 
lie's struggles with French. 

Ah, girls, the snowiest skin will some day 
be sallow. The flush of youth will disappear, 
the bright eyes grow dim and the nervy limb 
be uncertain and feeble. But this inward 
loveliness, this beauty of spirit, is born of 
heaven and knows no death. The tender 
ministries of Miss B will creep into any true 
heart sooner than Miss A's icy beauty. Such 
a woman in any home is a glimpse of God's 
sunshine. Beauty and genius are the gifts 
of Providence, but a good heart all can cul- 
tivate. — The Rural Home. 

A Hornet and Wasp Battle. — While 
in the kitchen getting dinner, I noticed a 
hornet and a wasp chasing each other. 
Suddenly the former caught the latter 
and they commenced stinging each other. 
The battle raged so fiercely they did not 
know they were caught in a glass. The 
wasp soon received its death blow, and the 
hornet started to fly away with his prize. 
He flew around the top of the glass, and, 
finding he could not get away, decided to 
lighten his burden. Biting off the wings 
and legs, he started off again. Still too 
heavy ! So the head came ofT next, with no 
better success. Trying again, he separated 
the body, taking that part which corresponds 
to our chest. Now, realizing that he was a 
prisoner, he flew around and around the 
glass, trying to find a place of escape. 
Five other yellow-jackets were put in about 
this time. Three of these he killed; the 
other two were set free. The hornet, finding 
he was alone, died shortly after, whether of 
grief or of poison it is hard to tell. — Claribel 
M. Hoit, Vaughn, Wash. 

Cushion for Baby. — Give the baby a 
cushion of his own. Make a case of 
strong cotton of any kind, fill with straw, 
husks, feathers, or even paper strips, if 
nothing else is at hand. Make of any size 
or shape convenient, and cover with calico, 
denim, or anything that will wash. Then 
let him drag it where he likes. No matter 
if his heels are on it oftener than his head, 
he will enjoy it all the same. 

Tested Recipes. 

Written for the Rukal Pbkss by Ada Tayloe Segbet. 

Cracker Puddins;.—Ov\z quart milk, one 
cup sugar, six Boston crackers rolled fine, 
one teaspoonful baking powder, two well- 
beaten eggs, a little salt, a tablespoonful 
butter; flavor to taste and eat with a sweet 

Chocolate Pudding. — Let one pint of milk 
come to a boiling point; add one large spoon- 
ful cornstarch (wet in a little cold milk), one- 
half cup sugar, one teaspoonful of butter 
and three heaping tablespoonfuls of grated 
chocolate, having been melted in a little 
boiling water; boil until thickened; pour into 
a mold and place on ice; serve with flavored 
sugar and cream. 

Charlotte Russe.—Mak^ a sponge cake by 
the following rule: Six eggs, one cup sugar, 
one cup flour, one teaspoonful baking pow- 
der, a little salt, and lemon extract; beat the 
yolks light and mix thoroughly with the 
sugar, then add half the flour (with baking 
powder sifted through it) and half of the 
well-beaten whites; beat well and add rest 
of flour and eggs; bake to a golden brown. 
Beat one pint sweet cream and the whites 
of three eggs to a stiff froth; sweeten and 
flavor the cream to taste. The cream and 
eggs must first be beaten separately; blanch 
and split two dozen almonds and place 
them on the cake; then pour over the cream 
and eggs. The cake may be soaked in 
wine, if liked. 

Cocoanut Pie. — Line a pie tin with rich 
pufif paste; take a small pint of milk and let 
it come to a boil; thicken with a little corn- 
starch dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of 
cold milk; remove from the fire and add two 
well-beaten eggs that have been mixed with 
one small cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of 
butter and one small cup of freshly-grated 
cocoanut; fill the pie tin and bake; beat the 
whites of three eggs to a stiff froth; add half 
a cup of sugar and half a cup of cocoanut; 
spread over the pie and return to the oven, 
but do not let it brown. 

Walnut Cake. — One cup of sugar, one- 
half cup butter, one-half cup sweet milk, 
three eggs, two cups flour, two teaspoonfuls 
baking powder, one cup stoned raisins and 
one cup chopped walnuts. Flour the nuts 
and raisins before putting them in the cake. 

Bulwer and Tennyson. 

Nearly half a century ago Lord Lytton 
wrote a satire on Tennyson, soon after the 
laureate had accepted a pension of £200 a 
year from Sir Robert Peel. Lytton made 
merry over what he described as 
The jingling medley of purloined conceits, 
Out-babying Wordsworth and out-glittering Keats. 

Tennyson retorted under the name of 
" Alcibiades " in the pages of Punchy in 
verses which cleverly caught the weaknesses 
of the dandy author of " Pelham." 
What profits now to understand 
The merits of a spotless shirt, 
A dapper boot, a little hand. 
If half the little soul be dirt. 

" Mamma," said the little Boston Spring 
Chicken, "did you lie those eggs?" "My 
dear child," cackled the hen, " will you never 
cackle English? Hens do not lie they lay." 


Absolutely Pure. 

A cream of tartar baking powder. High- 
est of all in leavening strength. — Latest U. 
S. Government Food Report. 
RovAL Baking Powder Co., 106 Wall St., N. Y. 



January 14, 1893 


From the Worthy Master. 

Santa Rosa, Jan. 9, 1893: 
Not a few of the Granges in California 
have already installed officers for 1893. 
This is as it should be, and is an indication 
of life and healthy interest. Let all subor- 
dinates get to work as early as possible. 
The aim has been to have each master in- 
stalled supplied with the new word. If any 
have failed to obtain it, who are justly en- 
titled, they can get it from the secretary of 
the State Grange. 

The executive committee want to make a 
thorough and successful campaign in 1893. 
Can you assist them in the work? If so, 
what will you do ? When, where and how 
will you do that work ? Something definite 
and specific is what the committee want. 
" Flock shots " will not bring the results. 
We must aim right at the mark, and then 
fire. With the aid of the Press, there 
ought to he a big gain in Oranfl^e member- 
ship in 1893. The Farm and Orchard AnA 
the 7ree and Vine ay also good workers in 
the Grange cause. With well-directed and 
well-prepared lecture work there is no 
reason why the Grange should not prosper 
almost beyond measure this year. 

County deputies will soon be named. If 
any one to whom an appointment is given 
feels that he or she cannot give enough time 
and work to the Grange to make a success 
of it in such county, the master will be 
obliged, if said deputy will decline to serve 
and will return the certificate of appoint- 
ment. The county deputy is a most impor- 
tant officer. His duty is one that no other 
officer can perform. In all counties where 
the deputy has shown great interest in his 
work, the Grange is growing in numbers 
and has an influence which can not be over- 
estimated. The zealous county deputy will 
find plenty of work, both in the organization 
of new Granges and the visitation and in- 
spection of old Granges. The executive 
committee hope to be able to find some 
plan of paying the county deputy a small 
sum for each Grange visited and for all 
Grange work done. But, after all. Grange 
work is self compensatory, if we would only 
admit the truth. Which one of us would 
sell, for the dollars and cents they have 
cost, the many valuable suggestions, the 
many happy hours, the hundreds of true 
friends that have come through the Grange.' 
Live deputies and live membership make a 
live Order. 

The legislature is organized, and no doubt 
the flood of bills to be introduced will far 
surpass the flood of wa:er which now covers 
the plains of the great Sacramento valley. 
How many of these bills will be in the inter- 
est of the people.' Keep an eye on your 
senator and on your assemblyman, and no- 
tice his bills and his votes. See if they are 
in accord with your interests. Bennett Val- 
ley Grange has requested of the senator and 
the assemblyman representing them, a copy 
of each bill introduced in the legislature. 
The object is a good one and ought to prove 
beneficial both to the legislators and the 
Patrons of Bennett Valley Grange. Each 
can thus be able to advise the other, and 
thereby prove of great assistance. A mutual 
understanding will surely do no h^rm. It 
would not be a bad idea for each Grange in 
California to ask its representative in the 
present legislature to do as has Bennett 
Valley Grange asked of its representatives. 

A kind word costs but little and it usually 
pays big interest on the cost. 

Have you as much confidence in your 
neighbor as you expect him to have in you ? 

Do you want the Grange to revive and 
prosper ? If so, what will you do to help it ? 

Name the master or past master you want 
for county deputy during 1893. 

Get a practical education. It will pay 
you in the end. Remember practice makes 
perfect. Theory and practice make a safe 

Geo. B. Horton has been elected master 
of Michigan State Grange. The retiring 
master, Thos. B. Mars, was a true and 
worthy Patron. He had many friends in 
the National Grange. He always intelli- 
gently spoke and voted on the issues affect- 
ing the Grange. We know all will regret 
the absence of Brother and Sister Mars, 
hut feel sure they will gladly welcome 
Brother Horton. 

The Committee on Woman's Work has 
much to do. Won't it suggest some plan 
whereby the subordinates will raise a snug 
sum of money for the construction of a Na- 
tional Grange Home ? A Temple to Ceres 

ought to be built. Let the sisters take the 
matter in hand. Which subordinate Grange 
in California will give the greatest number 
of social entertainments, and which one will 
raise the best fund 7 Now is the accepted 

Arrange in your subordinate Grange for a 
course of family and Grange readings. It 
will pay you well. 

The Grange is not dead, nor sleeping. 
There are several members of the Order in 
the present legislature. See how they vote. 

Farmers' Institutes ought to be held all 
over the State. Where is the legislator who 
will get an appropriation for that purpose ? 

Yuba City (irange. 

Yuba City, Jan. 9, 1893. 

To THE Editor :— Yuba City Grange held an 
interesting meeting on Saturday last. It was in- 
stallation day, and, as rarely occurs, every officer- 
elect was present and entered into the spirit of the 
occasion with zest and good-will, presaging an 
active and successful campaign in Grange matters 
during the present year. The installation was 
"private," or rather with closed doors, and our in- 
stalling officer was our young and talented Past 
Master W. D. Woodwortb, assisted by another 
young Past Master, W. J. Hardy. The work was 
so well done that the Grange tendered them a vote 
of thanks at the close of the ceremony. Brief re- 
marks were elicited from the new officers as they 
look their respective positions. 

This work concluded, Past Master W. J. Hardy 
introduced the following, which was adopted unani- 
mously and relates to 


Whereas, Hydraulic-mining having filled and 
choked our streams, covered large areas of the most 
fertile agricultural land with debris, and has seri- 
ously crippled the navigability of our rivers; and 

Whkkeas, Said process of mining having been 
interdicted by Congress, and by both State and 
Federal courts; and 

Whereas. Notwithstanding these decisions and 
the solemn promises by theminer^to yield obedience 
to the decrees, the State Anti-Debris Association 
feels called upon to doub e the force of watchmen to 
prevent illicit mining; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, By Yuba City Grange, Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, that we will oppose and di=countenance 
any aid by Congress or ih» State of Calilornia look- 
ing to the rehabilitation of this system of mining 
until there shall be a complete compliance with law 
and the terms of their own making. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions \x fur- 
nished the press and a copy be forwarded to our 
official organ for publication, and we request all the 
Granges in this jurisdiction to act upon the same 
and forward their conclusions to this Granp" for 
transmission to our legislative committees in Wash- 
ington and Sacramento. 

In view of the recent floods and disasters to 
levees, railroads, bridges, and flooded lands gener- 
ally, more or less occasioned by filled and choked 
river channels, the result of mining bv the hydraulic 
process, it is little wonder that this question comes 
once more to the surface in the shape of resolutions. 

A year ago, at the first Miners' State Convention, 
held at Sacramento, that body acknowledged the 
injury, admitted the cause, and conceded the jusiice 
of the prohibitive decrees, and promised fealty to 
authority, yet scarcely less mischief was perpetrated 
than before. While the valley people are loth to 
hold the Executive Committee of the Miners' Asso- 
ciation responsible (or the bad faith shown, they 
are inclined to think so much could not have been 
done without their knowledge. 

Yuba City Grange is therefore right in demand- 
ing entire cessation of hostilities as a prelude to an 
armistice and a rfquest for federal or State aid. 

A number of other important matters were touched 
upon, but the day being far gone and many mem- 
bers having come quite a distance, the meeting ad- 
journed to meet again in two weeks pt the usual 
hour. Geokgb Ohleyer. 

San Jose Grange. 

San Jose, Jan. 9. 1893. 
The following officers were installed Saturday, 
January 7th, M., Philo Hersey; O., R. P. Mc- 
Glincy; L., Ella I. Saunders; S,, Wm. Beauchamp; 
A. S., G. W. Worthen; C, Mrs. M. Wingate; 
Treas., G. W. Tarllon; Sec, Mrs. M. J. Worthen; 
G. K., Miss Alice H. Phelps; Ceres, Mrs. Jennie 
M. Tarlton; Pomona, Miss Lottie Holland; Flora, 
Mrs. Arabella Hersey; L. A. S., Miss Lizzie Webb; 
Organist, Miss Nellie Jefferds; Trustee, Hiram 

The installation was witnessed by one of the State 
officers, who pronounced the ceremony as most 
ably performed. Bro. Cyrus Jones urged each 
member to bring into the Grange at least one new 
member during the coming year, and showed his 
good faith before the close of the meeting by se- 
curing an applicant for membership. 

A beautiful cliair was p'esented by the Grange to 
the retiring secretary, S. P. Saunders, and nothing 
but prai'e was heard of the work of this most efJi- 
cient officer. 

A bountiful Harvest Feast was followed by a 
program prepared by the young ladies of the Grange. 
Program— Trio, Miss Webb, Miss Ella Saunders 
and Mr. Worthen; recitation, Grace Mitchell; in- 
strumental so'o. Miss Ross; recitation, Janie Saun- 
ders; "iong. Master Joseph Mitchell; vocal solo, 
Miss Webb; poem. Mr. G. W. Worthen; reading, 
Mrs. Holland; remarks by retiring Master Pellet; 
closing song by the Grange. 

M. J. Worthen, Sec'y. 

The Secretary's Column. 

By A. T, Dbwbv, Secretary State Gr»n|;a of California. 

E. W. Davis, W. M. S. G., will install 
the officers of Santa Rosa Grange, and A. 
P. Martin, deputy lecturer, those of Peta- 
luma Grange on the 14th. 

Installations to be Held. — Jan. 13, 
Washington Grange; Jan. 14, North Butte, 
Magnolia, Petaluma, Sacramento, American 
River, Santa Rosa. South Sutter, Sacramento 
Pomona; Feb. 4, Lockeford and Alhambra. 

A Hint. — Mrs. May Taylor, of Hale, 
Missonri, writes this oiffice to know if we 
have Farmers' Institutes in California. She 
suggests that ladies contribute essays for the 
benefit of poultry-raising women for final 
publication in poultry jtjurnals. 


The committee met at Sacramento Jan. 
5th. The following legislative committee 
was appointed: Thos. McConnell (chair- 
man), J. H. McKune, E. Greer, G. Doty, 
Geo. Ohleyer. R. P. McGlincy was re- 
quested to act as representative for the 
Grange before committees, etc. Next meet- 
ing of the executive committee will be held 
in San Francisco Feb. 7th. (Further report 
next week.) 


One of the proverbially good Harvest 
Feasts of the sisters of Temescal Grange 
was heartily enjoyed last Saturday by a 
goodly number of Patrons of Eden and 
Temescal Granges. Worthy Master Ren- 
wick presided. Judge Blackwood of Eden 
Grange gave a lively description of old-time 
Christmas doings on the Atlantic side some 
50 years ago. Worthy Master Munson, 
Bros. Sewell and Payne gave further testi- 
mony of " Ye Olden Times." 

During intermission, an informal meeting 
of the members of the Patrons' Relief Asso- 
ciation was held. Those present favored 
the continuation of the ors'anization. The 
annual meeting occurs January 12th. 

An open afternoon session was held, and 
the following program rendered: Piano 
solo, Miss Anita M. Dewey; reading, Mrs. 
L. Shuey; vocal solo. Miss Stella Lufkin; 
recitation. Miss Bessie Ballard; violin solo, 
Alfred H. Dewey. 

Past Master A. T. Perkins of Temescal 
Grange, assisted by Past Master Perham of 
Eden Grange, installed the officers of the 
two Granges in a very able and satisfactory 

Past Master Perkins made a short and 
eloquent address showing the Grange to 
possess high and elevating social features 
in comparison with some other organizations. 
He made excellent points in various direc- 
tions. Appropriate remarks were also made 
by Bros. Hollister, Dewey and others. A 
vote of thanks was tendered the installing 
officers. Bro. H. H. Stevens, who is well 
posted on the subject, was invited and will 
speak on Silver Coinage, etc., at the 
next meeting, to be held at 2 p. M., Satur- 
day, January 14th. His address will b'^ fol- 
lowed with a discussion on the Silver Ques- 


[Secretaries are requested to send us as early reportb 
as possible for publication under this head.] 

Alhambra Grange. — Election Dpc. 3; 
officers chosen: Harry C. Raap, M.; B R. 
Holliday, O.; L. Messec, L.; Elam B. Bar- 
ber, S ; Jas. Kelly, A. S. ; Alexander Boss, 
C; Henry Raap, T.; Mrs. M. B. Lander, 
Sec; Mrs. Lena Raap, G. K.; Mrs. Kate 
Cou5in=, Ceres; Mrs. Harriet Bent, P.; Mrs. 
Laura Ripp, F.; Mrs. Elitha Boss, L. A. S.; 
James Kelly, Trustee. Date of installation, 
first Saturday in February, 1893. 

Independent Grange. — Election Dec. 
14; officers chosen: W. S. Eliat, M.; Chas. 
Harrison, O.; Mrs. D. Harrison, L.; F. N. 
Fisher, S.; Thos. F. Prather, A. S.; Mrs. J. 
Drace, 0.; Chas. Perryman. T. ; E. F. 
Davis, Sec; A. B. Spencer, G. K. ; Mrs. 
Watkins, Ceres; Miss Maud Spencer, P.; 
Miss M. T. Fine. F.; Miss Annie Watkins, 
L. A. S,; E. J. Mclntire, Trustee. ^ 

Sacramento Grange. — Election Dec. 
31; officers chosen: Lewis Schelmyer, M.; 
S. H. Jackman, O ; A. M. Jackman, L.; 
Daniel Flint, S.; Carl Halverson, A. S.; 
Sister M. Mullen, C; M. Sprague, T. ; A. 
A. Krull, Sec; Charley Hull, G. K.; Atle 
Plummer, P.; Sister David Reese, F.; Sister 
.Schelmver, Ceres; Sister Jongman, L. A. S ; 
Delia Krull, Organist. Installation Jan. 14, 
at 10 A. m., to which all Patrons in good 
standing are cordially invited. 

South Sutter Grange. — Election Dec. 
31; officers chosen: John W. Jones, M.; 
W. W. Decker,©.; Lucy E. Purinton, L.; 
Louis Whitlock, S.; Geo. DufT, A. S.; Mary 
E. Donaldson, C. ; J. J. Grunewald, T ; 
May Donaldson, Sec; Champ Hirks, G. K ; 
Edna P. Jackson, Ceres; Mattie Scott, P.; 

Willie F. Sankey, F.; Frances F. Purinton, 
L. A. S.; J. J. Grunewald, Trustee. Date 
of installation, Jan. 14, 1893. 

San Antonio Grange.— Election Dec. 
3; officers chosen: W. L. Earl, Jr., M.; 
Mrs. L. Fleming. O.; N. Paulsen. L.; ]. O. 
Earl, S.: J. M. De Long, A. S.; Mrs. E. R. 
Smith, C; W. L. Earl, Sr.. T.; Mrs. S. S. 
Paulsen, Sec: S. S. Hill, G. K.; Mrs. M. 
Pinkerton, Ceres; Miss L. Zoffman, P.; 
Mrs. J. Dodge, F.; Miss T. McDonough, L. 
A. S. 

San Jose Grange.— Election Dec. 10; 
officers chosen: Philo Hersey, M. ; R. P. 
McGlincey, O.; Miss Ella I. Saunders, L.; 
Wm. Beauchamp, S.; G. W. Worthen, A. 
S.; Mrs. M. Wingate, C; G. W. Tarleton, 
T.; Mrs. M. J. Worthen. Sec; Miss Alice 
H, Phelps, G. K.; Mrs. Jennie M. Tarleton, 
Ceres; Mi'ss Lottie Holland, P.: Mrs. Philo 
Hersey, F.; Miss Lizzie Webb, L. A. S. ; 
Hiram Pomeroy, Trustee. 

Sacramento Pomona Orange. 

Sacramento Pomona Grange proposes to 
take an active part in legislative matters. 
At its last meeting it appointed a legislative 
committee to attend upon the doings of the 
legislature; and resolutions were adopted, 
with but one dissenting vote, declaring it as 
the sense of the farmers of that county that 
they are decidedly opposed to the scheme to 
get a bill through the legislature to create 
another superior judge for Sacramento 
coupty, for several reasons: 

" First — That the county is heavily in 
debt already, and that the creation of an- 
other superior judge would be an excuse for 
building another courthouse, and thus add 
to our debts and increase our burdens of 

" Second — That we do not believe that 
there is any necessity for having a third 
superior judge for this county at this time. 
We are led to this conclusion by our ex-^ 
perience, and the knowledge we have gained 
by attending the sessions of the courts in 
question as jurors of said courts. We are 
well aware of the fact that the reason given 
for the need of another superior judge is 
that the business of the courts is accumu- 
lating on the calendars of the caurts. This 
we are willing to admit is true; but at the 
same time we, as farmers who have to think, 
plan, and act for ourselves in the manage- 
ment of our farms, believe we can see how 
the accumulation of cases on our court cal- 
endars can be avoided, and we don't believe 
there is any necessity of their doing so. 

"Third — We are more than satisfied with 
the amount of taxes we are paying now, and 
are opposed to having our burdens in- 
creased to fee officials that we don't believe 
we need." 

The Grange passed a further motion, as 
the sense of the farmers, "that we are op- 
posed to the repeal of the State poll lax of 
$2, for the good reason that all (less the cost 
of collection) of said $2 goes into the school 
fund, and to this extent compels hundreds 
of men to pay this small sum toward the 
education of the rising generation, who 
would otherwise spend this amount in the 
saloon, at the gaming table or at other 
places less reputable." 

Woodbridge Grange InHtallation. 

Secretary H. C. Shattuck, of Woodbridge 
Grange (Lodi), writes under date of 4thinst: 
Yesterday, Jan. 3d, was a grand day with 
Woodbridge Grange. The first on the pro- 
gram was a Harvest Feast, to which the 
members and several invited guests did am- 
ple justice; after which Past Master James 
Perrott, assisted by Sister Alice Ash'ey, in- 
stalled the officers of Woodbridge Grange 
for the ensuing year. The following is the 
list of officers: H.M.Woods, M.; G. H. 
Ashley, O ; Miss Melaney Mcintosh, L.; 
John Thompson, S.; Oito Spenker. A. S.; 
Mrs. G. H. Ashley, C ; Ezra Fiske, T.; H. 
C. Shattuck, Secy.; James Perrott, G. K.; 
Miss Cassie Ellis, P.; Miss Belle Thomp- 
son, F.; Miss Etta Williams, Ceres; Miss 
Jeonie Williams, L. A. S.; E. G. Williams, 

The Recognized Standard of Modern 
Piano Manufacture. 


22 24 E Baltimore St, 148 Fitth Avenut. 

WASHINGTON, 817 PennBylvanla Ave. 

January 14, 1893 ' 






The members of the Kern County Land Company have a national reputa- 
tion for wealth, business and financial ability. These facts set the matter of 
reliability at rest. The company's capital stock is $10,000,000. 

They have 400,000 acres of arable, irrigable lands upon which the sun shines 
almost constantly; and their enormous irrigation system renders them in- 
dependent of the annual rainfall. 

A clear title; rotation, variety and certainty of crops; easy terms; availability 
to persons in moderate circumstances; ground ready for the plow — no stones 
nor thistles; good society; schools; churches, etc., are a few notable attractions 
of this region of country. 

Kern is the largest county in the San Joaquin Valley. It has the finest 
climate for curing and drying fruits, etc. 

The 400,000-acre territory of the Kern County Land Company is the pick 
of the county. 

Its area is 5,184,000 acres. 

H as the largest irrigation system in America. 

The home of the peach, French prune, pear and raisin grape. 

Planting and harvesting can be carried on every month in the year. 

N o rocks, hills or stumps on the land. 

A. failure of crops is unknown on irrigated lands. 

Kern county fhiits take the first prize at the State Fair. 

Land can be made to pay for itself in less than three years. 

(jrows more alfalfa than any other county in California. 





The advantages of good soil and plenty of sun, which occur in the Eern 
Valley, would huve been of little avail but for the third and all-important 
one of an abundance of water from never-failing sources. 

Through 300 miles of main canals, and 1,100 miles of laterals, the great Kern 
river furnishes enough moisture to slake the thirst of the 400,000 acres al- 
ready referred to. 

IDrought is out of the question. 

T^he system has been constructed in the most careful and scientific manner. 
Some of the canals are 125 feet wide and six feet deep. 

Kern County 
Land Company 

Bakersfleld, - - - California. 

Ball Bearings "KEYSTONE" 

make light draft 
aud don't wear out. 


Double Levers 

adjust each gang, 
independently. The 
best for hillside or 

Square Shaft 

square hole discs 
square hole spools 
one piece, square 

hole washers. No . , - . . . r ^ - ^ » - 

loosening orturnine casted, etc. Made 4-fr-r>-,-S feet wide, 

on the shaft for free book "THB REASON WHY.' 

„^ ^, Pulverizes fall plowing, spring plowlBS, 

square hole spools stubble, breaking. 

one piece square Useful spring, summer, fall. Of ten saves all 
hole washers No Plowing. Turns under manure, grain broad- 
— ■ ' - - " Send 




adjusted by drivers or ST. LOUIS. KANSAS CITY. 
Soot and rigid ornot COUNCIL BLUFFS, COLUMBUS, O. 
as you wish. (Mention this paper.) 


O G 





Plants Beans, Peas, Ensllaee, Etc. Distributes FertlUzers. 

ASPINWALL MANUFACTURING CO., Jackson, Mich., Three m^^^ mioh. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco and Fresno, Ag^ents for the Pacific Coast 

Send lor Price Lists 


And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 








Harvesting and Hay-Making Machinery. 
Write for Catalogue. Address: 

BYRON JACKSON, 625 Sixth St . San Francisco. Cal. 


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Machinery and Information 
for Irrigating Plants 
of All Sizes. 


Address Works, Firit & Stevenson Sta. 


Send or book sbowlDg cheap Irrigation, mailed 

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January 14, 1893. 

jJgricultural J^OTES. 



Oroville Mercury : D. K. Perkins showed the 
Mercury some splendid samples of olive oil pro- 
duced bv J. G. Curtis at his olive farm above 
Pentz, that was intended for exhibition at the 
citrus fair. It would be difficult to find clearer 
and better oil than this produced at an 
elevation of 1250 feet. 

Contra Costa. 

Oazette: W. Z. Stone, of Danville, has 400 
almond trees, four years old, from which he 
gathered this season 4548 pounds of almonds. 
The crop brought him $50,3.02, the price he re- 
ceived for the crop being Hi cents per pound. 


Merced Star : A Fresno farmer of long ex- 
perience says that one acre of alfalfa in good 
heavy land will feed ten sheep, and that on 20 
acres 200 lambs can be raised every year. If 
sold at the proper time, they will sell for $4 per 
head, at which figure the demand is practically 

The Madera Mercury relates Mr. W. J. 
Deater's experience with figs : He was inter- 
ested in, a peach and pear orchard of 30 acres 
this year. Among the trees were nearlv a 
hundred fie. They were heavily loaded with 
fruit, but Mr. Deater hadn't much faith in figs, 
and did not " waste time " with them. He put 
up a few boxes for his own use, packed half a 
dozen boxes for friends in Iowa and Illinois, 
and by accident rather than design packed a 
couple dozen boxes more than he knew what 
to do with. Therefore, when he shipped the 
figs to his Illinois friends, he sent all the sur- 
plus along, with instructions to sell them and 
thereby recoup for expense of shipment. The 
draft was the return. He realized ten cents a 
pound net on the surplus figs. Now he laments 
his determination to not " waste time " on figs. 

Expositor : There is now in and around 
Fresno a regularly organized gang of turkey 
and chicken thieves. While these fellows seem 
to give preference to fat or lean fowls, they are 
not averse to taking anything which is in 
sight. Within the three months Dr. 
Esbelman has lost 60 fine turkey gobblers by 
thieves. .Since most of his turkeys are gone, 
the thieves have now commenced on his chick- 
ens. The thieves, whoever they are, have a 
very peculiar and successful device for catching 
chickens and turkeys, especially when they 
roost very high. They carry long poles with a 
noose attached to the end of each, and they can 
lasso a gobbler and bring him down from the 
tallest tree in the valley. Several unsuccessful 
efforts have been made to capture these thieves, 
while turkeys and chickens are missed almost 
every night" in some adjoining neighborhood. 


Willows Journal : It is said that the damage 
sustained by .Tohn Boggs, on account of the 
recent high water, will aggregate $30,000. He 
lost nearly all of his chickens, the chicken 
ranch being a total wreck, about 200 fine bucks, 
several hundred fine hoes and quite a number 
of cattle. 


Humboldt Advocate: Foster Evans proposes 
to test the adaptability of climate i.nd soil of 
the Blue Lake valley to the production of 
superior apples, pears, prunes, peaches, quinces 
and cherries. He has just received from Biggs, 
Butte county, a consignment of young fruit 
trees embracing the above-mentioned varieties 
and sufficient for a two-acre orchard. 


Miller & Lux, says the San Benito Advance, 
have at this time, on their great ranch in Kern 
county, 28,000 sheep, 35,000 cattle, 6000 hogs, 
12,000 tons of alfalfa-hay, 28,000 sacks of barley, 
12,000 sacks of wheat, 5000 sacks of oats; also 
3000 acres of Egyptian corn, which will pro- 
duce yearly 6000 tons of cereal food. 

Kern County Echo: It is estimated that there 
will be shipped from the packing house in Rose- 
dale this year, including those of smaller 
growers who do not patronize the packing 
house, $7000 worth of raisins. This does not 
include the larger vineyardis's who pack their 
own raisins. This is the crop of the second 
year, as very few vineyards have reached their 
third year. It is also estimated that next year's 
crop will be double that of this. The orchards 
will be a large factor in next year's valuation. 

Los Angeles. 

Orange growers are getting $3.25 per box, de- 
livered at the depot at Loa Angeles, which is a 
very good figure. 

Oroum Vista: An exchange says that a mix- 
ture of copperas and glue is probably one of 
the very best that can be used for keeping 
rabbits from gnawing at trees. Apply in good 

Inspector W. H. Payne, who has recently 
completed an inspection of the nursery stock in 
Monrovia, reports that there are nearly one 
and a quarter million young citrus trees, enough 
10 plant out 12,000 acres. 

Express: At the meeting of the Board of 
Supervisors yesterday, Deputy Clerk Kutz was 
directed to destroy the 272 coyote scalps re- 
ceived during the quarter ending December 31st 
last, and the same were duly consigned to the 
flames in the furnaces of the courthouse engine- 

Covina Argus: The orange crop of Covina 
this year will amount to a good many thousand 
dollars. The upper San Gabriel valley, as a 
whole, will sell enough oranges to make a dozen 
men rich this season. The groves are all young, 
but the treee are all well loaded with the fine 

quality of fruit which will bring the best 
prices going. 

A large party went to Elyaian Park Thurs- 
day to hunt some lions that had been reported 
prowling about there. After a hunt of several 
hours, and finding no lions, nor trace of them, 
the party separated. Notwithstanding the ill- 
success of the hunters, Mr. McOrea says that 
the lions and coyotes are so numerous and de- 
structive about there that four months ago he 
lost 100 pigs and as many turkeys and hens. 
He and his neighbors have recently captured 
four coyotes and five wildcats. 


The Merced Express says that ten carloads of 
settlers from Nebraska are coming to locate on 
Miller & Lux's colony land at the West Side. 

The mystery surrounding the killing of La- 
fayette Steele at his ranch, while plowing, 
Tuesday afternoon of last week, has probably 
been cleared up. At the inquest. Fred Rey- 
nolds, a neighboring farmer, testified that at 
about the time of the killing he had fired at a 
hawk in a tree, distant over half a mile, with a 
Winchester rifle, and had missed the mark, 
the bullet in Steele's heart and the one used in 
the rifle correspond in every particular. The 
killing being the result of an accident, no ar- 
rests will probably be made. 


Pajaronian: The beans in the prize jar at 
Blackburn & Co.'s were counted on New Year's 
day, and were found to contain ll,571i. Most 
of "the guesses were over the mark. The first 
prize, $50, was awarded to Louis Waters, who 
guessed within a half-bean, the second prize, 
$25, went to Mrs. Frank Mauk, of Pajaro, the 
third, $15, to Miss Jennie Linscott, and the 
fourth, $10, to D. Maheu. 

Watsonville Pajaronian: The beet trains on 
the narrow gauge are doing their best this week 
to reduce the crop at the Moro Cojo ranch, and 
with fair weather it is expected that two weeks 
more will be sufficient to finish the job. The 
yield of beets is far ahead of the expectations 
of Mr. Gaflfey. All of the fields in that section, 
except a part of the Martin ranch and the 
Moro Cojo, have been harvested. 


Santa Ana Blade: S. J. Murdock of West- 
minster shipped 50,000 cal^bage plants to El 
Monte to-day. Mr. Murdock is largely en- 
gaged in raising cabbages and supplying the 
market with cabbage plants. 

Santa Ana Blade: In a talk with one of the 
principal fruit and grain dealers of Santa Ana, 
a Blade reporter was informed that the Santa 
Ana valley is now being overrun with grain, 
fruit and vegetable buyers. At present there 
seems to be a demand for every product of the 
valley, and that, too, at good prices. This is 
the first time in the history of the valley that 
cabbages have been shipped from here in De- 

Anaheim Journal: Theo. Staley of Placentia 
brought to this office a load of good things, 
which is an example of what can be done in 
this glorious climate. Among the collection 
are raspberries and strawberries in bloom, green 
ones and the ripe, luscious fruit ready for the 
table. The collection of flowers consisted of 
the following varieties: Hibiscus, anemone 
jnponica, blue dawn flower, chrysanthemum, 
violets, calla, pansy, geranium, rose, verbena, 
phlox, loquat, nasturtium, ageratum, canna 
and the coral bell; to complete the display, a 
huge watermelon and some ripe tomatoes. All 
the above were picked December 3l8t out of 

Anaheim Oazette: Wm. Schumacher, who 
probably kills more eame for the market than 
any one hunter in this section, tells us that 
birds are unusually scarce down at the Bolsas 
this season, owing principally to the barbarity 
of the night hunters, who shoot into the roosts, 
killing a few birds, wounding many more and 
frightening the others away. Last year the 
birds were plentiful, and one day Schumacher 
killed 19 ducks with both barrels. The next 
day he brought down 33 at two shots, and the 
following day he broke the record, killing 47 
with both barrels, a total of 99 birds with six 
shots, all of them on the wing. 


The Sacramento Record-Union says: "En- 
gineer Brown of Indiana reported to the Road 
Congress that the 40,000 miles of roads in the 
Hoosier State can be put in good condition for 
$800 a mile. Yet in Indiana the ground freezes, 
snow falls, there are frequent rains and much 
clayey soil. What, then, onght good roads to 
cost us in California where the climatic condi- 
tions all favor cheapness." 

San Bernardino. 

Capt. J. S. Garcia of Ontario reports sales of 
five acres of prunes at $2000. 

Mr. N. Colborn of Pomona sold his apricot 
crop from 300 trees for $800, or a little over $270 
per acre. 

Edward Dunham of La Canada reports sell- 
ing his ten-acre prune crop on the trees at $50 
per ton, or $2000 for the lot. 

The Enterprise gives the rainfall at Riverside 
during the late Storm at .98 inches, making a 
total of nearly two inches for the season. 

E. B. Collingridge of Compton reports that 
from three and one-half acres of apples his sales 
for the past three years have amounted to 

The great crop of almonds on 325 acres of 
trees of Hatch & Rock this year produced about 
66 tons of fruit, which will bring the company 
over $10,000. 

Ontario Record: A Rincon farmer owns a'20- 
acre ranch, two acres of which are planted to 
trees and 18 to 'alfalfa. From the 18 acres of 
alfalfa he has fed 20 head of cattle and horses 

and cut and sold, during the last 11 months, 
200 tons of hay at $12 per ton. He still has a 
large rick of hay of this season's cutting yet un- 
sold, and has another crop which he will har- 
vest within 30 days. 

N. B. Smith of Ventura reports that the re- 
turns from the sale of his crop of English wal- 
nuts, gathered from seven acres, 12 years old, 
brought $1300. 

The Chino sugar factory announces an in- 
crease in the price of beets the coming season. 
Three thousand acres have already been con- 
tracted for planting. 

Orange Belt: M. B. Fasset of Ontario reports 
the sales from three acres of apricots at $1100. 
The price sold for was 25 per cent less than his 
neighbor received, he having contracted his 
early in the season. 

Redlands Facts: The Bear Valley Irrigation 
Company has purchased of the Russ Lumber 
Company 750,000 feet of redwood and Oregon 
pine for use in the construction of a flume in 
the Santa Ana canyon in prosecuting their im- 
mense water developments. 

San DIeeo. 

The weather on the Colorado Desert is re- 
markable. Spring has already begun. The 
coldest weather was Christmas week, when the 
thermometer went down to 28 degrees. Since 
Christmas day the coldest morning has been 50 
degrees. Planting is to be vigorously pushed 
and a large acreage will be put into oranges 
this year. 

San Luis Obispo. 

Tribune: Mr. Winchester is putting 1000 
acres into grain on the Godfrey ranch. The 
land is in one compact body, and it is no ex- 
aggeration to add that for the purpose of rais- 
ing cereals and all deciduous fruits no finer 
land lies out of doors. 


The Anderson News says there have been 
shipped East from that" place since July 1st, 
1892, 288,000 pounds of green fruit, which 
netted $16,000, besides 240,000 pounds of dried 
fruit, which netted $24,000. Bearing trees have 
averaged $300 per acre in fruit to the owners. 
At the present time, in the immediate vicinity 
of Anderson there are 3000 acres planted to 
trees, and this season there will be about 700 
acres planted. Good land favorable for culti- 
vation is worth from $20 to $100 per acre. 


Journal: Jesse D. Carr has purchased 1200 
tons of hay from the Edson Bros, at Gazelle, 
payine $6 per ton. It is to be used in feeding 
beef cattle driven from his ranches in Modoc 
county and southern Oregon. 


Santa Rosa Republican: The Bennett valley 
farmers are taking a step in the right direction". 
They are taking up an enterprise that can be 
made very profitable by them — the establish- 
ment and operation of a creamery, in which a 
considerable number of people will be inter- 

Sebastopol Times: Some time ago Burroughs 
& Sons secured a pumpkin weighing 130 lbs. 
and forthwith announced that every purchaser 
of one dollar's worth of goods would" be entitled 
to guess how many seeds the pumpkin con- 
tained. Last Monday the pumpkin was opene>l 
and found to contain 651 seeds. 


The farmers of Stanislaus county are doing 
their utmost to put in a large acreage of wheat. 
The early seeding on summer-fallow is promis- 

Modesto Herald: Henry Hnghson is sowing 
to wheat 3360 acres of summer-fallowed land, 
employing 80 mules, 10 plowmen and a cook. 
As Mr. Hughson let his land " rest " last year, 
he should have an immense crop this year. 

Newman Banner: The Wilmans Bros., of 
Woodside stock farm, have bought from Timo- 
thy Paige the property known as theOrestimba 
Colony, comprising nearly 1400 acres, adjoining 
the Woodside stock farm. The terms of the 
sale are private, but, we learn, aggregate over 


Charles Mensce, who came up from the scene 
of the Rideout break, says that when walking 
up the levee he ran across five buck deer that 
had become exhausted by swimming, and were 
lying on the levee. Two of them raised and 
struck at him with their feet as he passed. The 
others laid still and he passed close enough to 
put his hands on them. 


Henry Hunsaker has already sown 2400 acres 
to grain and is running seven teams. He will 
continue seeding till the first of February. 

The Visalia creamery closed doors Thursday, 
owing to a lack of patronage. This institution 
was established at a cost of $5000, and now it is 

Visalia Times : D. K. Zumwalt has bought 
the necessary machinery and in a short time 
will have a cheese factory in operation on his 
place between Visalia and Tulare, on the motor 

Hanford Journal : Charles Dewey, who is 
farming a tract of 1200 acres just north of the 
Grant, has been in Hanford several days. He 
has 400 acres seeded to wheat and has two 8- 
horse plow teams running. 

Visalia Delta : Thomas Jacob, the Kaweah 
fruitgrower, who has purchased the old gas- 
tank and wooden reservoir from the electric 
light company, is busily engaged in getting 
them out. The wooden reservoir, which is 12 
feet deep and will contain 78.000 gallons of wa- 
ter, will be taken to his lemon ranch in Yo- 
kohl valley, and will be tised for storing water 
for irrigatiOD. 

Visalia Tim^ : This is the busy plowing sea- 
son in Tulare county, and hundreds of laborers 
are at work getting the ground ready for seed- 
ing, which continues in this county until 
March. The oldest farmers say that grain 
planted early enough to get the heavy rains of 
the winter, does far better than that planted 

Hanford Journal: N. W. Motheral, horticul- 
tural inspector for this district, thinks that all 
Osage orange trees in this county should be de- 
stroyed, as they are great breeders of disease. 
He brought to Hanford a branch oflf of an 
Osage orange tree growing on James Manasse's 
farm near Armona. The twig was literally 
alive with scale, ranging in size from those 
which could hardly be seen with the naked eye 
to those that were nearly as large as an ordi- 
nary shoe button. Of the smaller scale some 
were of a light color and some were dark, while 
the full-grown scale were nearly black. 

Visalia Times : As an instance of what thor- 
otigh cultivation will do for lands in this val- 
ley that are comparatively dry, the attention of 
the Times has been called to results obtained in 
the orchard of Captain Arthur Hutchinson at 
Lindsay. His orchard land, which has been 
plowed several times but not irrigated this sea- 
son, is thoroughly moist now, no dry soil be- 
ing found at a depth of several feet, while in 
the grain field, which has received the same 
quantity of rain, the earth is damp to a depth 
of 10 or 12 inches only. Cultivation counts, 
and it should be generally resorted to by our 
farmers, no matter what kind of a crop they in- 
tend to raise. 

Tulare Register: The following figures re- 
garding the Alexander orchard, just east of 
town, are obtained from original sources and 
can be relied upon. There are 170 acres in the 
place, but of this 60 acres are in alfalfa, used 
chiefly for pasturage, about three acres in yards 
and building spots, and 107 are in orchard and 
vineyard. Of this, again, only 21 acres are in 
bearing, 4i acres being in prunes and 16i in 
peaches and nectarines. The remaining acre- 
age is all too young to bear, but is coming 
along splendidly and will soon rival the older 
portion in productiveness. Now for the 21 
acres; the 4 J acres of prunes sold for $2261.52, 
and the 16^ acres of peaches and nectarines 
yielded $.3582 96. making a gross return for the 
21 acres of $5844.48, or almost .$280 per acre. 
The expense attendant upon niarketine this 
product cannot be segregated from the expense 
of taking care of the whole place, and a good 
deal had to be expended this year for cars, 
tracks, dry-houses, trays and other things 
needful to get ready for the fruit business, but 
it has been a profitable season and the pro- 
prietor, Mr. J. M. Alexnnder, of Oakland, is 
more than ever pleased with his Tulare inter- 
ests. , 

Ventura Free Press : One of the necessities of 
this county is a fruit cannery, and the company 
which first enters the field will meet with grati- 
fying success. The gentleman who recently 
came here to look about with that object in 
view did not investigate the subject very thor- 
oughly, or else was called away before his mis- 
sion was fully carried out. A cooperative 
company would be a good move, it would 


Gibraltar, the famous Nevada trotting 
stallion, which in 1879 held the world's record, 
died at Sweeney's ranch, near Carson, Nev., 
after having been fed some frost-bitten alfnlfa. 
Many of this famous horse's progeny have held 
high places in the records made on this coast. 

The soil all over the mountains is saturated 
with water, but it is not frozen. There is just 
enough snow on the ground to keep otit the 
fiost. Unless the snow melts, gives the ground 
a chance to freeze and a fresh installment of 
snow comes, there will be an early spring. 
Snow will not lie on unfrozen ground later 
than March or April. 

Reno Journal : Ben Curler relates that while 
out on his recent deer-hunting trip he wit- 
nessed the manner in which coyotes catch a 
rabbit. He was sitting on a pile of rocks over- 
looking a little valley, possibly a mile across, 
stalking a drove of deer which was expected to 
issue through a narrow ravine near by, wben 
his attention was attracted to two little objects 
which dashed over the brow of a hill »nd into 
the valley nearly a mile away. Looking 
through his field glass he descried thetu to be 
coyotes in full chase of a jackrabbit. The rab- 
bit was about 50 yards in the lead and was 
covering the earth as only a jackrabbit can — 
excepting a coyot<>. By and by one of the 
coyotes laid down. The other followed the 
fleeing hare, and in the course of time succeed- 
ed in turning him back on his course toward 
the one lying down. When the rabbit came 
near, this one raised up and took up the chase 
while the other laid down. The unfortunate 
rabbit was again successfully turned back, and 
the first coyote again gave chase. The third 
time worked the charm, and bunny, conscious 
only of the foe pursuing, passed so near his 
crouching antagonist that he was seized. 


A big hunt for points was enjoyed by Nimrods 
of southern Oreeon the other day. It resulted 
in a total of 15,080 points, the count being so 
close that tbe hunt was declared a tie. The 
game killed included four deer, one coyote, 
nund-eds of rabbits, scores of quail and in- 
numerable jaybirds and woodpeckers. 


A Spokane dispatch says: The Great North- 
ern passenger train which arrived from the East 
to-day ran into a large herd of antelope near 
Blackfoot, Mont. The herd numbered more 
lhau 100, of which seven were killed. The en- 
gine was disabled by the collision, and another 
engine had to be obtained before the train could 

January 14, 1893. 



^eeds, Mapt3, tic. 





The Two Best Sblpptng Varieties for 




Nuraeries at Napa, near R. R. Depot, M. J. CROW, 
MaQa{;er; residence on Second Street, one block from 



The Earliest Yellow Freestone Known. 


The Best Peach Known for Early Ship- 
ment East. 

Reasooable prices to dealers and canvassers. For 
particulars apply to 

W. W. SMITH, Taoaville, 
A. T. FOSTKB, Dixon, 
Or, I. H. THOSIA8 & SON, Tlsalla. 

3E3. J. BO W JbiJlSr, 


Orass, Clover, Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 
Onion 8et8. 



Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalogue for 
1893 mailed free lo all applicants. Address 


815 A 817 Sansome Street, San Francisco, 
or 65 Front Street, Portland, Or. 



A large stock of 

Bartlett Pear Trees and French Prunes 

On Myrobolan Stocks, at Low Rates. 

Also, a general assortment of Apple, Pear, Peach, 
Nectarine, Plum, Cherry, Quince, etc., grown In sandy 
loam, without irrigation, which gives a fine proportion 
of roots. I offer no trees but what are grown in my own 
grounds and known to be true to label and free from 
scale bugs. Address: W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma, Cal. 

Owing to age and poor health, I will sell ^my place and 
business at a bargain. Place consists of 260 acres of land, 
good buildings. 60 acres in orchard, and a large Nursery 
iStock, together with horses, wagons and .implements, 
complete, for carrying on the business A good oppor- 
tunity tor enterprising men with capital to step into a 
good-paying business. For further particulars address, 
as above. 



Robe de Sargent Prunes, 
French Prunes on Peach, Almond, 

Pears, Peaches and Apricots, 

Leading Varieties, in large quantities. 

A General Assortment of Decidaoos Fruits 

All our stock is grown without irrigation and is guar- 
anteed Drop us a "Card," and we will send you our 
price list. 


San Ramon Valley Nursery, 

Danville, Cal. 


We Have on Hand and For Sale 

FRENCH PRUNES on Peach and Myrobolan, 1 Year Old. 
CHERRIES, PEACHES and APPLES 1 and 2 Years Old. 
Also a very Largo and Complete Stock of SHADE AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES. The Finest Stock of ROSES in 
California. Write for Prices. B. QILL, 

28th Strbet, near San Pablo Ave.. Oaklavd. Cal. 



For S'^le In lots to suit. Write for prices delivered on 
wharf In San Francisco. For large orders we have special 
inducements. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Petalnma, Oal. 

20,000 June Buds on Almond Roots. 

IXL, Ne Plus Ultr» and Noupariel. 
JAS.O'HARA, Brentwood, Contra Costa Co 


The New Yellow Freestone Peach. 


RIPKNS IBIiaEDIATBLT AFTER THE AI.EXANDEB (White Cling), which Is the earliest 
peach in market. 

Fruit is roujd, of medium size, VERY HIGHLY COLORED, flesh firm and sweet. 

Is no D«w, untried variety. 

Tree healthy, stiong grower, and heavy bearer, never having missed a crop. 

A limited number of yearling trees for sale this season. Apply early before stock Is exhaosted, 



Tulare County customers can obtain stock from above Company at Farmersville, Tulare Co. 

1,000,000 TREES, 


Fruit & Ornamental Trees & Plants, Shrubs, Roses, Etc. 



640 ACRES. 





500,000 G-Zl^PJE] VinSTEIS. 


Free from Pests and Guaranteed to be Oalifornia Grown. 


Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Prise List. 

GEO. C. BOEDING, Manager. 





Apples, Almonds, Apricot, Pear, Prune, Plum, Peach and Cherry. Also fine stock Olives, Oranges, Lemons, 
Nut Trees and Small Fruits; Magnolias, Camellias, Palms. Large stock of Roses, Clematis, Etc., Etc, 


Catalogues Mailed Free. Address 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 






New American Grape, " The Pierce' 

Olives, Oranges, Lemons and Figs. 

New California Orange, "The Joppa. 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Climbing Plants, Etc. 

Send for our New Catalogue. 






FXl.XI]>irO]S FZl.XTN'ZSS on Myrobolan, Peach and Almond Roots. 
T=» A •n'FT.Tg'l"!' t=*tn A •»=» w , Apricots. Cherries, Olives, Walnuts, Btc. 
Correspondence Respectfully Solicited. 
T^-F^ TTTVr B-1 1 I T .T ■ c*3 BEEBE!, 


For the season of 1892-93 we are prepared to furnish a com- 
plete line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Vines, Figs, Small Fruits, 

etc,, on short notice and at reasonable living prices. Our stock is 
free from insect pests, and for strength and health of root growth is 
not excelled, as we give this special attention. 

Nurseries are at Acampo on Stockton R. R., and we have an 
office and tree yard in Sacramento from the ist of December to 
the 15th of April. VAN GELDER & WYLIE, Prop's, 





Also Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Palms, Roses and Carnatiobi. 


Correspondence Solicited, 


AL]VrO]> J33 T REES. 

California Paper-Shell, Nonpareil, Ne Plus Ultra and 

I. X. li. 

A pamphlet on Almonds mailed free of charge on application. A large supply of the GOLDEN PEACH and 
FRENOH.PRDNE. All kinds of leading fruit trees for gale. No charges mads for baling trees. Address 

Daviaville Nurseries. 

Davisville, Oal. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc., Conlinued on Pages 38 and 89, 



Jsnaary 14, 1898 

Ethnology of the Eskimos. 

A clear and pleasant account of the Eski- 
mos appears in recent numbers of Das 
Ausland, from the pen of Fridhjof Nansen, 
the celebrated explorer of Greenland. 

From their close similarity wherever 
found, and from the slight diffsrences in 
their dialects, he believes them to have de- 
veloped from some small and homogeneous 
stem in comparatively recent times and to 
have spread along the coasts of the icy sea. 
He expresses some doubt as to whether they 
occupied the southern extremity of Green- 
land when it was first discovered by the 
Northmen. The point from which they 
spread he believes to have been somewhere 
on the shores of Behring Sea or Behring 
Straits. In this he differs from Dr. Rink, 
who places their earliest assignable abode in 
the interior of Alaska, and still further from 
Mr. Murdoch, who, with greater probability, 
would locate it about Hudson Bay. 

Nansen's description of the appearance, 
habits, and arts of the East Coast Eskimos 
is both amusing and instructive. He found 
them, in spite of many nasty habits, attrac- 
tive in character and ot good mental ability 
— all the better, the less they had been sub- 
jected to the influence of European instruc- 
tion and religion. One of their curious su- 
perstitions is that they will not touch their 
hair, in the care of which they take great 
pride, with any object made of iron, not even 
to trim it. This recalls similar objections to 
that metal in the rites of ancient Rome and 
Egypt. Physically he describes them as a 
well-made race, quite of the average Euro- 
pean height, the young women sometimes 
good-looking. The general tone of this 
article is highly favorable to the stock. 
— Science. 

The Language ot the World, 

Some interesting statistics have been com- 
piled by a Frenchman respecting the differ- 
ent languages spoken in various parts of the 
world. He states that the language in which 
Shakespeare and Milton wrote was then that 
of less than six millions of human beings. 
French was the mother tongue of at least 
thirty million people at a time when English 
was spoken by less than sixteen million, and 
fifty millions of French-speaking people 
were living when the revolution broke out in 
1789. Between 40 and 50 years ago the 
English language equaled the German in 
the number of those who spoke it, and now 
the latter is left far behind. 

German is now spoken by 10,000,000 per- 
sons in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, by 
46,000.000 in the German Empire, by 40,- 
000,000 in Belgium, and by about 2,000,000 
in Switzerland. German is also spoken by 
about 2,000,000 persons in the United States 
and Canada, giving a total of about 60,000,- 
000 who use the German language. French 
is spoken by the 38,000,000 inhabitants of 
France, by 2,500,000 people in Belgium, by 
200,000 in Alsace-Lorraine, by 600,000 in 
Switzerland, by 1,500,000 in the United 
States and Canada, by 600,000 in Hayii, and 
by 1,500,000 in Algiers, India, the West 
Indies and Africa, in all about 45,000,000. 
English is spoken by 37,000,000 persons in 
the British Isles, by probably 57,000,000 
of the 60,000,000 inhabitants of the United 
States, by 4,000,000 persons in Canada, by 
3,000,000 in Australia, by 3,700,000 West 
Indians, and by 1,000,000 in India and other 
British colonies, bringing the total of the En- 
glish-speaking race to over 100,000,000. 

Boxwood. — Boxwood, imported into 
England from Turkey and Asia Minor, and 
used by engravers and for the manufacture 
of rules, mathematical instruments, shuttles, 
etc., has risen in price so rapidly, owing to 
the exhaustion of the eastern forests, that 
dealers are searching in every direction for 
a substitute. For engravers' use no substi- 
tute has as yet been found, but for the man- 
ufacture of shuttles, which consumes vast 
quantities of timber in the weaving districts 
of England, American dogwood and per- 
simmon are beginning to And considerable 
favor, and the trade in these woods, if 
fostered, bids fair to assume considerable 
proportions. The American consul at 
Manchester, Mr. Grinnell, writes as follows 
concerning it : "The best wood from the 
United States to supersede boxwood is dog- 
wood (cornel, as it is more commonly called 
here), which, owing to its relatively moderate 
price ($18 to $20 per ton), may, it is thought, 
if more carefully selected, ultimately replace 
the more expensive boxwood for the purpose 
in question. The pieces should not be less 
than five or six inches in diameter, in length 
as long as convenient, say 12 feet, to be cut 
here into 13 or i4-inch lengths for working 
up. Of course, the wood should not be 

split, and the greater the diameter the 
better, if the heart is sound and it is free 
from other fault. It is again urged upon the 
shipper, as vital to the interests of himself 
and the trade, to reject all pieces doubtful 
or bad." 

Horticulture at Chicago. 

The display of all plant and vegetable life and 
products at the Columbian Exposition is sure to \x. 
typical of the highest attainments in gardening, 
and all who go, or desire to go, must feel the com- 
ing year a special interest in that "Art which doth 
mend Nature. " We are led to consider this from a 
view ol advance pages of Vaughan s Gardening 
Illustrated lor 1893. This beautiful annual aims to 
fully cover all gardening affairs; a mirror of Ameri- 
can Horticulture 10 date. It is published by J. C. 
Vaughan, Chicago and New York. A superb floral 
cover, with a glimpse of the World's Fair buildings, 
gives us a hint of the magnificent displays to be ex- 
pected there. Adjoining Fair grounds this firm has 
arranged to grow many new and rare plants in 
order to show them in best possible condition in the 
Horticulture Building. This Chicago establish- 
ment is from four to five days nearer all Pacific 
coast points than any similar firm, and our readers 
who send for Ibis magnificent book for 1893 will find 
it worthy of the great Columbian year. 

A New Bit. 

The attention of horse owners has been attracted 
by the merits of the "Common Sense" bit just 
patented by the Racine Malleable Iron Co.. of Ra- 
cine, Wis., the makers of the famous "Jay Eye 
See " bit. 

TTie new bit is in principle and embodies 
many improvements on old-style bits. It can be 
adjusted for mild or severe use, and is well calcu- 
lated to meet with universal favor among horsemen 
and farmers. Although new to the market, the de- 
mand has already reached good proportions and the 
trade is anticipating a very large sale. For the 
benefit ol those who are interested in such matters, 
the manufacturers issue a descriptive catalogue 
which they send without charge to any one making 
application to their address. 

Unitarian Literature 

Bent tiae by the CBAinrnie AtnoLiuT of the Tint CnlU- 
rlan Church, cor. 0«»ry and Franklin Bts , San Fran- 
Iko. Address Iflra S. A. Hobe, as above. 



IRJd-bJ U -M" A.TIS]V>>fl:, 


A copy of the "OflScial Portfolio of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, descriptive of Buildings and 
Grounds, beautifully illustrated, in water color effects, will 
be sent to any address upon receipt of 10c. in postage 
Baltimore, Md. 


TONGUELESS, Self Gyiding. 


^pending on size of plow3 
and kind of work. 

Weight of furrows, 
frame and pluwni;in 
earn 0(1 on three greased spindles." 
Draft reduced to 

lowest poimlble limit . v.. m... 

Foot brake prevents (lang runnlngon team. Levers and tumlngilevice in easy reach. Can be turned in tt.e 
lenKth of itself. Easier DrlTlngr. I ICIITER IIRACT ^"y l»"nK In Amerira. Adluntable 
8TKAIOIITF.R Furrow., aod Llttll I CII UIIAr I frameican be narrowed i.r widened at will 
Made with stubble, sod and stubble, or breaker Ixjttoms, In steel or chilled metal. Tenor twelve Inch cut. 

10 ACBE8 

Inatejid of 
Iniiteiid of tlire«« 
One wheel Inndslde resists 
pressure of three furrows. 
No bottom or side friction. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., So. Bend, Ind., or Stanton, Thomson & Go., Sacramento. 

VfJ Special price* and time for trial ulveo on Hrst orders from points where wo have no aueuto. 




Opens January 10, 1893. 

Closes February 11, 1893. 


A mone which will be the Annual Ezhtbltloa of the Northern California Cltrua Fair 
Association, a Grand Display of Natural Products of Various Counties of the State, the 
Larcrest Collection Kver Seen In This Olty of Valuable Statuary and Paintings, an Or- 
cbestra of fifty Musicians, InoiUdinK Noted Sololstd and Miss May Cook, the Young 
California Cornetlst, Six Liarge Aquariums, Machinery la Motion, Objects of Art, Indus- 
try and Manufacture. 

Adult's single admission in daytime, 26c.: evening, 60c Child's single admission, djytime. 16c.; evening, 
26c. Season t'ckets isriued only to members ot the Hechanics' lastituta. Double season licliet, $2.60; single tea- 
son tlcliet, $1.60. 

Season tickets may be obtained by non-members at the following rates: Double season, %h- 
single season, t^, which Includes membership in the lastitutr, subject to coofirnution by the management and 
dues for the present quarter. IRWIN O- S iUOrtP. President. 




It Is the Cheapest. Best and 
Most Powerful Grubbing Ma- 
chine In the world. and has 
established and miilntained 
Its reputation lor superiority 

^nfthe^as^''sixCnths^ GIANTS were sold to Miniiesota and Wisconsin farm 

'r« -iJone Where the LITTLE Gl*NT i» known the f:irni.T will buy no other. One man and i 
chunk ol a boy can do the work ot i. „ men. For illustrated Catalogue, prices, teriiis, referenc 

es, etc., address Mohland &. Co., Sifijoumey, Iowa- 

ca-o TO 

When you can learn It AT BOMB wltboat a 

Teacher within 100 hours. Bend for partlculan. 

H. K. 8TABK WBATHBB CO., MO Sanaome St., 8.F. 

Durham, Devon & Polled Angus 

Recorded and guaranteed pure brtd, FOR SALE, single 
or In carload lots. Prices very reasonable. Address: 
Oak wood Park Stock Farm, 
DANVILLE Contra Costa Co.,C»I. 


We o*a send you ooe of our 


Which Is the result of years of figuring to make the best 
harness ever known tor the money. It is made from oak 
stock, hand stitched and finished by skillful mecbanlos, 
haudsome full nickel or Davis hard rubber trlnunings. 

Jaat the Harneu for an Klegant TnrDoat. 

They sell ere lor $36.00, and harness not as good Is 
often sold for (36.00 In retail shops. If harness Is not as 
represented, money will be refooded. 

Liebold Harness Co. 

110 MoAlUat«r St., San Franciaoo. 

Collar and Hames. Instead of Breast Collar, 
9 a 00 extra. 

Please state If yon want single strap Bameaa, or folded 
style Harness, with traces double throughout 

Vl A T^TiiT B-1 ■ who have 
X A. JlrlTXX^X&lS used the 


U HARROW ^^ZW^ '"Closed crops. 


Send for Special 
|DeicrlptiTe Circular. 



New York- ufflce, IM CHIT St., New York City. 


General Agenta for Horthern California. 


(Sticoeeeon to THOMSON k ETANS), 

110 and lia Beale Street, 8. W. 

Steam Pumps, Steam Enginot 

and all kinds ot UACHINERT. 


ored Views 
HiilldlniCK. r 

Guide to I'liici 

Chicago's won- 
dpr8 at a glance. 
UeiiutlfuT C'ol- 

s. Illustrated Orent Kxpoaltirn 
HiilldlnicK. Parka. l.,ake. Indexed Map and 
f Interest and Amusement. How 

(jtUlUe lO I uii;t:B v^i niivix:!fK niiu jau. ....... v. .*vj.. 

to Save Mimcv and Enjoy the Attractions. Scenery, 
UlsUiry. I' the Home Urc-Slde. (Latest, 
rfftecial Souvenir work Pub.) Mailed for. tOc . or 3 for 
11.00. AKonls wanted at once. Address, 

MsDtlou tins I'uper. Chicago, III. 

Bowens Academy, 

University Ave., Berkeley. 


For Boys and Toung Men. 
Special university preparation, depending not on time 

but on progress In studies. 
T. 8 BOWBNS, M. A., - Head Master. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 
Open All Year. 
A. VAN DER NAILLKN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, tSS; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon Assay, 
|3S; Blowpipe Assay, tlO. Pnil course of assaj-lng, |60, 
ESTABMSnKD 18« «»■ Send tor drcniar 

M A C H ' Y ^" 

Ul/Cl I III HUH I Mining. Ditching, Pumping, 

WW 11 I Wind and Sleam; Heating Boilert. Ao. Will 
■ ■ ^mpay you to sentf 25c. for Encyclopedia, of 

ISOO Engrauinga. The American Well Works. Aurora, IlL 
also, Chicago, IlL; Dallas, Tex.; Sydney, N. S. W. 

BOTNTON BRf >S , Holilster, Cal., A. & C C. Bull 
Calves ol beit for sale Write f -r particulars 

A. aOHEtio, Aoorn Nurreiy & Poultry Ifaids, timnU 
Rosa. Floe trees and pure bred poultry. Price list free. 

Januaiy 14, 1893. 


breeders* directory. 

six lines or lees Id this directory at 60c per line per month. 


J. I. PARSONS. Santa Rosa, Cal. Shire Stallion, 
pure-bred, rej;istered, coming four years old; war- 
ranted a breeder, (or sele; or will trade (or yearling 
cattle, town lots or land. 

F, H. BOBKB, 828 Market St., S. F.; Retrfstered 
Holeteios; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any herd on the Coast 
Pare resristered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

jaBSBYS— The beat A J. C. C. Resrlstsred Herd Is 
owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals (or sale. 

i*. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co , Importer SlBreeder 
leglstered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls (or sale, 

JOHN tiYNOH, Petaluma, breeder o( thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock (or sale. 

CHARLES B. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cel., Im- 
porter and Breeder o( Recorded Holstein-Frieslan 
Cattle. Catalogues on application, 

M. D. HO>"KlNS, Petaluma, Breeder o( Shorthorns. 
Dealer in fresh Cows, Beet Cattle and Sheep, 

PBROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, or sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

H. MUKPHY, Perkins, Sao. Co. , Cal. , Importer and 
Breeder o( Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

?I1TBR SAXB A SON, Lick House, Bad FranolsGO, 
Okl Importers and Breeders, for past 21 years, ot 
•very variety ot Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

Li. V. WiLliITS, Watsonvilie, Cal., Black Perch- 
erons. Registered Stallions for sale. 

VlLiLilAM NILiES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. None batter. 


Cal., send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, tree. 

JOHN McFARLTNO, Callstoga, Cal. , Importer and 
Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send (or Clrcnfar. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

S. Q. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
tnd Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 

O. BLOI^, St. Helena, Brown Leghorns a specialty. 


B. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Oal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Uissourl. 

H. J PHll.POTT. Niles, Cal., importer and breeder 
o( Tecumseh and other choice strains o( Begistered 
Poland- China Hogs. 

J. P ASHLKY. Linden, Oal., breeder and importer 
ot Thoroughbred Swine. Small Yorkshire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China. Superior stock, low prices. 

WILLIAM NILl!;S,Los Angeles, 'Jai. Thoroughbred 
Poland-Chlua and Berkshire Pigs. Clrcolais (ree. 

TYLKiB BEAOH, Sao Jose, Cal., 

ih^'en^hhred BerkRhtre and Rasey Kosr* 


Importers and Dealers 
Direct from Europe, 
EnellBb Shire Draft, 

Gleveland B»y 
and German Coach 

189 £i$;;hteenth St., 
Lo( /^ngoles, Oalifornia 
Write for Catalogue. 



One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 

Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properl). 

Rates Very Reasonable. 


» O. Box >4R San r.eaodro. a«l. 



ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary Cm- 
tributor to the " Pacific Rural Press." The diseases ot 
,^11 Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the conntrv promrilly »tl!snded to. Telephone 
w.<. MOT 


A number ot pure-bred Angora Qoats in lots t ) suit. 
This is the stock o goats formerly owned by Julius 
Wsyand and will he sold cheap for cash. Address 

KRNB8T WBTAND. Oolnsa. Oal. 




—Only' want to fence it in 


and best 
in the 
90 lbs. to 
100 rods. 

With the 






Parsons & Griffith, 

Sonoma Co., - - Cal. 


SMre Horses. 

Our stocli is of the very best, 
having won nearly every prize 
competed fir at the State and 
County Fairs the lajt three 

Parties desiring to purcliaie 



Should no fall to see our 
stock and get our prices and 
terms before buying as we are 
prepared to and will sell at 
prices that defy competition. 

Mann's Green Bone Cutter 


Patented June 16, 1886; August 20, 1S89. Canada Patent, June 12, ItiSO. 

WE WABBANT this machine to cut Dry or Oreen Bones, meat, gristle and 
all by Hand Power, without clog or difficulty, or MONEY REFUNDED. 

will malie them 26 per cent more fertile, and increase the vigor of the whole flock. 

These Cutters are endorsed by all the leading California poultrymen. Send tor a 
Catalogue describing all sizes of Cutters and containing vaulable information in relation 
to feeding green out bonea 


Pacific Ooast Aftents. PETALUMA, CAL. 

HO»Ij^T33I3Nr-F':Fl.i:E2SI^INr 0-A.TTPXj.E3. 

7.~r Registered Herd Book Stock of the Aaggie,Netherland,Nep- 

'. ■ , tune ,Clifden, Artis aud other families. None better. 

Of the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland-Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. 

3E»OTJXjT3E=S."V— Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition POrLTKY & STOCK BOOK, 50 cents 
i_. - * y mail postpaid. Thirteen years experience on this coast. 

X^JVt. NIT alp:& ete CO.. ^axeroles. 



Exceedingly Fine Breeding Stock For Sale at Reasonable Figures. 


The Boss of Winter Layers. 

IWXXSS F'OJF^SXSS. - Bos 251a, - GXtry , OaI. 



I Genuine only with P.ED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Gold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo St Co., etc., etc. 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
healthy. For mlloh oows; 
it Increases and enriches 
their mlllc. 

6X8 Howard St., San 



Incorporated April, 18T4. 

DEWEY & 00. n^t^'^^^^o^i.''') PATENT AGENTS. 

A.nthorise<I Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid np and Reserve Viind 800,000 
DiTldenda paid to Stookholdera„ . 730,000 

A. D. LOGAN Prasideat 

.C. STEELE Viee-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEB Cashier and Manager 


General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on wheat and 
country produce a speolalty. 

JanoarT 1. 1892. A UONTPBLUKR. tfacager 


Dettrered tA ram H. a> Sitaooa and ample time. «» 
bnilding uni ttscmg vucvtedl txs'ort uxxpUafM 

OSGOOD & THOMPSOJS. iimgf,r,mmn * 

Iwenty-five per cent cheaper than any other on the 
market. Send for Catalogue. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, Agent, 


Calves, Yearlings and 2-year-olds 

Baden Station, San Mateo County, Os 
Only three-'ourths mile from the terminus of 
the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road. 

MONEY Hake Some f 

By using the Pacific Incubator 
and Breeder, which will liatch any 
I<ind of eggs better than a ben. In uni- 
versal use. Gold Medal wherever ex- 
hibited. Thoroughbred Ponltr j 
arid Ponltry 4 p(illaiiceg. Send 
8 cts. in stamps for 82- page catalogue, 
with 30 full-sized colored outs of thor- 
oughbred fowls, to Pacific IncDba 
tor Co. 1307 Castro St. Oakland, Cal . 


Can show better results 

Over GO in successful opera- 
tion at Decatur, Ills., alone. 
The greatest hatch ever ac- 
COmpliBhed, 228 chicks hatch-, 
ed atone time, with a 2: Ocapa-' 
city Reliable Incubator. 
Hundreds o £ testimonials. 

|^"Incl09e 4 cents in Ptampa 

for new illus trate d catalogue. tSfAddress Thd 

Belxa^li: Incxtbatob & Bboodeb Co.. Quimot. Tt-v 

IH12 nrrUe Street, WaklaMd €aa. 

Send Stamp for Olrcular. 


Golden Ital- 
ian Queene. 
Tested, $2.C0 

each; untested, $1.00 each. T. Hivf s, 81 90 each. R<'Ot's 
V groove sections, $5 y et 1000. Dadant's comb founda- 
tion, 58c and 65c a pound. Smol<ers $1 each. Globe 
veils. $1 each e'c. WM. STYAN & SON, San Miteo, Cal. 


PILES and all Ke<^tal Die- 
from 30 to 60 days, with- 

»ND Urikart Troijblks CURED. No charge unless cure 
Is effi^cted. Consultation free. Call or aduress tor pam- 
phlet. DRS. PORTKRFIELD & LOSEY, 838 Mariiet St. 
San Francisco. Cal. 


WUtewasli yonr Barns and Fescesl 

Do Klth»r SaoceBifnlly. 

Catalogue and teettmunlals sent by mall. 
R Rr>Bw Ri-.r««i-. San Franclnno. Gal 






All Kiriil» ih.n clst- 
whi-re. Before vou buy, 
irnil ttamp for cataloifue to 

The Powells Clement Co. 

186 Bala Hb, CU.iauU,0. 



January 14, 1893 


Prepared Expressly for Killing Squirrels, Gophers, Rats, Etc. 

FOR FI'TEEN VKARS this remedy has atond in comnetition with other exterminators, all of which have 
gone down before it. U has never varied In STRENGTH or EFFICIENCY. 

A liquid which evaporates quickly. It fills the burr w with its vapor and kills ever>- occupant of the hole 
without iDjiirine anythioK outside. It ha* no effect on the operator— is not poisonous or Injurious to the skin or 

Sold by the Trade and by the Manufacturer, J. H. WHEEI^EB, Melrose, Alameda Co., Cal. 





Tbis Is the Standard Work on tbe Raleln Industry In California. It has be«n 
approTed by Prof. Hllgrard, Prof. Wlckson, Mr. Ohas. A. Wetmore and a multitude of 
Practical Raisin Orowars. 

Sold only by the DEWBT PUBLISHING CO. or Its ARents at Ibe uniform price of 
ItS.OO, postage prepaid. Orders sbould be addressed: 


220 Market 8t . San Francieco. 



Fence Posts will be preserved and you will have 
the laugh on old Boreas by painting them with 

Treat your Mudsills and all exposed Timbers to a 
coat of CARBOLilNEUM, saving both bother and 

Let us post you on the merits of CARBOLINEUM. 






Try it It makes light, sweet and delicious 
bread. You can have ISOO barrels every day. 




Prioe $66, Delivered Anywhere in the 

United States. 
Ttaerc Scales have STEEL BFJIBINOS, Not Wood— 

Fr om 25 to 60 per cent cheaper than any other 
Soalea of like quality. All slzeB and kinds 
of Scales always in stock. 

Truman, Hooker: ftl Co., San Franoiaoo 


10, 13 and 14 ft. 

Cheaper than any 
FIrst-Claas MIU to 
the market. 
KTery One 


No bearings, no 
sprln)(8, no wheels 
to get out of order. 
The simplest mill in 
the world. 

lO-foot t40 00 

12 foot BO 00 

U foot 60 00 

Agent* Wanted 
— aDDusa — 




If you are handling Wi.nd 
Mills you cannot afford to do 
so longer without having our 
prices. If you want a Wiml 
Mill for your own use you will 
lose money if you purchase be- 
fore seeing our line. 


HIMU aiLLS ari- tht most 





Fairbanks, Morse & Co^ 

Olention this pap»'r.) 





IndlcestloH. BlMoniineM, Ileadache* €onstl- 

RRtton, Uyspepfila* Chronic Liver Troubleft, 
IzElneM, Bad romplezlon, l>ysenterr« 
ItfTetiiilTe Breath, and all dlitorders or the 
Slomaob. Liver and Uowels. 

Rlpans Tabiiles contain nothing Injurioufl to 
the most delicate conHtltutlon. Pleaaant to take, 
Bafe, effectual. Give immediate relief. 

Sold by druggists. A trial bottle eent by mail 
on receipt of 16 cents. Address 

tmmm |(erchapt$. 


Commission Merchants, 

A»D DiaUIRr » 


Qreen and Dried Frnita, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Polatoes 

Advaooee made on OooslKnmenta. 
808 * 810 Davia St., San FranolMo 

(P. O. Box 1988.1 
M*Oontlgnmanla 8olIdl«d. 


BOI, 608, 60S. B07 Si 600 Front St., 
And 800 Waahlngton St, SAN FRANCISCO 



AND wool.. 


Commis sitn Me rchants. 



418, 416 A 417 Waoblnffton St., 
(P. 0. Box 1090.) SAN FRANOiaOO. 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 Oallfornla St.. S. F. 
Uembera of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 


17 Spear Street, 

San Franclaeo. 


Send lor prices on Sewer Pipe for culrerta, for roada, 
and for draining lands. 


" Greenbank " Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Insecticide. 

Sole A<ents, 

(To. B MABKBT ST., - San Franoleoo. 

CVPersonal attention given to sales and liberal advance, 
made on Gonslgnmeota at low rates of Interest. 

InTAJLIBHaD 1864. J 




Se Olay Street and ae Oommerclal Street, 
Bam FkiNcisoo, Cau 



And Dealers Id Fruit, Produce. Poultry-, Game, Kgg 
Hidee, Pelts, Tallow, eta, 422 Front St., and 221, 2a, 
226 and 327 Washington St., San Francisco, Cal. 





People who have been annoyed by the unpleas- 
antness caused by leaky roofs, draughty rooms, and 
the like, enjoy undisturbed bliss after using our well- 
known products. Those who are as yet ignorant of 
their many merits can be enlightened by writing for 
samples and descriptive circulars, furnished free by 





FIj- Wheel Walking Beam for Pamping Iiarge Qaantltleslof Water 
Sand for Catalograe and Frtoe Llat 

January 14, 1898. 


Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan, ii, 1893 
Features in the local markets during the week 
just closed have been the firmness of potatoes, 
poultry, game, and salted and smoked meats, all of 
which have experienced general advances of prices, 
and all of which are surrounded by much the same 
conditions of light receipts and excellent demand 
In other commodities and staples about the same 
state prevailed as during the previous week. Or- 
anges and other fruits move off very slowly. The 
grain market shows no substantial change. Dried 
fruits are at a standstill. Vegetables are generally 
the same. Eggs, butter and cheese rule weaker, 
with no modification of quotations. 

The Advance In Pork. 

The leading feature ol the provision market is 
the unvarying upward tendency of pork, and the 
general expectation that prices will rule still higher. 
Local quotations have for eastern meats shown an 
advance of one-half cent per day for the past four 
days, while the California product shares in the 
general upward feeling, though offjrings of the 
the home article are very light. Speaking of the 
feverish condition of the market, Arthur Whitney, 
of the firm of C. E. Whitney & Co., says: 

" From November ist to January ist, ordinarily 
the two heaviest packing months of the year, and 
the time at which a large part of the season's stock 
is laid away by the heavy packers, the receipts at 
the main packmg centers were 40 per cent short in 
numbers and 25 per cent below the average per 
capita in weight, This makes a total shortage in 
pounds of SS cent. The demand for cured 
meats and lard is very heavy, and is but poorly met 
even at the rapidly advancing prices, while no stocks 
are being put away, as is usual at this time of the 
year, for summer use. The stocks of pork pred- 
icts, as far as known, in the world's market are the 
lowest for ten years past and 50 per cent below the 
average for the same time. 1 he supposition during 
the early part of the packing season was that as 
prices for live hogs were advanced, the supply 
would increase, but such has not been the case, for 
though prices have been steadily advancing for the 
past three months, and are now 62% per cent higher 
than at this time last year, the supply has not in- 
creased at all. It is now evident that the shortage 
is genuine, and that prices will continue advancing 
until they become so high as to cut down the con- 
sumption to an equality with the supply. This idea 
has been gradually developing, and has at last be- 
come the controlling one with all the heavy dealers, 
to such an extent that prices are advancing, not, as 
heretofore, one, but ten points at a time, with no 
prospect of easing off. Green hams are selling in 
Chicago at ii'Ac per lb., which would, with curing, 
freight, shrinkage and smoking, make a laid-down 
cost, in carload lots, of 17c, as against iic a year 
ago. Prices of side meats and lard show a similar 
increase over the figures ruling in January, 1892. 
While the present prices seem excessively high, they 
are so only by comparison with those ruling for the 
past few years, which have been excessively low. " 

It is oi course very hard to say when the climax 
of high prices will be reached, but there are the 
soundest of reasons to expect that the end is not 
yet by any means in sight, and that an active season 
in pork products is ahead. 

The Grain Market. 

There has been during the week an advance in 
wheat quotations, home and abroad, though yester- 
day and to-day there was a slight reaction. No de- 
velopments in the general situation are to be noted. 
A salient feature of the local market is disclosed by 
our tonnage tables, showing the very large number 
of idle vessels in port. Five only have so lar cleared 
during January, The amount of tonnage on the 
engaged list yesterday was 32,900 tons, as against 
94.200 tons on the same date a year ago. The dis- 
engaged tonnage here, and at adjacent points, was 
125,500 tons, against only 35,300 tons a year ago. 
The engaged tonnage yesterday was a little more 
than one-third, and the disengaged was over three 
times as much as in 1892. Millers have large stocks 
of flour on hand, which they say they are not 
anxious to sell at ruling prices. They are not using 
a great amount of wheat. 

One thing of some encouragment is to be noted. 
The visible wheat supply is not increasing materially. 
The items of increase from week to week, on the con- 
trary, have been growing less. The reported in- 
crease over last week is 494,000 bushels, whereas 
the increase of last week over the previous week was 
1,460,000 bushels. The amount of wheat and flour 
on passaee to the United Kingdom is 44,000 quar- 
ters less than a week since, and a decrease of 75,000 
quarters is reported on the continent. Flour, how- 
ever, has increased heavily in the United Kingdom, 
being 63,000 barrels more than one week since. 

Birlcy has developed a stronger tendency in the 
local markets, and quotations have experienced a 
small advance. Feed receipts are small. There is 
no export of brewing, and local requirements are 

The inquiry for oats of good grade is strong. 

A material advance in all kinds of poultry has 
taken p'ace, under light receipts. The market is 
very stiff. The ent re range of quotations has been 
advanced. Two carloads of poultry are due this 
week. One has already been wholly sold, and it is 
not likely that a drop in quotations will be a conse- 
quence of their arrival. 


Under small supplies, game is in great demand, 
and prices rule much higher. Hunters complain of 
scarcity of game. Mallirds sold as high last week 
as $7 and $7.50 per dozen, though quotations have 
since dropped. 


Oranges are in poor demand, largely owing to 
cold weather, and receipts are large. Prices are 
lower. Mandarins are in small supply, which 
ought 10 help the native fruit a little. Lemons hold 
fairly well. Apples come in freely, though the 
quality is generally inferior. Choice are scarce and 
sell well. Camarinos & Co. received a small con- 
signment of grapes this week from Santa Cruz, 

which sold first at $1 per box, but dropped to 65 

Dried fruits show no special change, though the 
tone of the market is better and firmer. Dealers 
say they do not expect any developments till Feb- 
ruary. The better tone is particularly noticeable in 


There is a decided stiffness in potatoes. Choice 
lots sell readily above quotations. Sweets even 
share the general firmness. New vegetables show 
no change. Receipts are small. 

Bayo and red beans are up, and firm. They have 
been the subject of speculation on 'Change during 
the week, owing largely to reduction in rates of 
overland shipments. 

There is no change in onions. The market is 
firm at quotations. 

Dairy Produce. 

The cold weather has a tendency to hold up 
fresh butter, but otherwise the market is soft. 
Cheese is plentiful and weak, though a choice article 
brings good prices. 

Stocks of eastern eggs are light, making a better 
demand for the domestic product. 


A'monds are in light receipts and quotations 
are higher. Chestnuts are lower. 

There is nothing to report in wool and hops. 

The live-stock market shows a healthy tone. Hogs 
are firm. Mutton is strong, with small supplies of 
choice, Beef is in fair demand. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce from all Bourceg at this port for 7 
days endiDg January 11, 1893, were as follows : 

Flour, qr. sks 48,284IWool, bdls 60 

Wheat, ctlg 40!),771:Hay, ton 3,307 

Barley, " 7,383 Straw, " 158 

Rye, " 896!Wine, gala 296,360 

Oats, " 7,36( Brandy, " 56,360 

Corn, ■■ 2,344;Rai8in8, bxa 7,645 

Butter," 431 Honey, eg A,,.. 

tCheese, ctls 633;Peanut8,3kB 

do bxs Walnuts " 

Eggs, doz 45,200 Almonds " 

Beans, sks 22,379 Muataid " 8 

Potatoes, ska 27,796 Flax " 624 

Onions, " 2,944 Popcorn " 

Bran, ska 9, 7lJ Broom corn, bbla 

Buckwheat " Leather, rolla 588 

Middlings " 2,688 Tal ow, otls 81 

Chicory, bbia Hidea 2,290 

Hopj, bdls 70 Pelts 6bl 

Local Tonnage Statistics. 

The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage here and on the way to this and 
neighboring ports yesterday morning: 


18!).^. 1892. 

Chartered for grain 32,886 77,678 

Miscellaneous charters 12,535 18,145 

Disengaged 125,654 72,798 

Totals 170,975 168,619 

At neighboring potts- 
Total tons for 1893 23,046 

Total tons for 1892 45,691 


1893. 1892. 

To San Francisco 266,576 239,237 

ToSan Pedro 9,400 4,981 

To San Diego 11,673 16,938 

Totals 287,549 261,076 

The disengaged list consists of 66 vessels. 
The list ol vessels in port chartered for Grain num- 
bers IS, of which 14 are British, 1 is Swedish, 1 Is 
Italiau and 2 are German. 

The vessels chartered to load wheat have a total 
carrying capacity of about 52 000 tons. At this time 
last year the tonnage under engagement for grain 
loading amounted to 77,678 tons, with a carrying 
capacity of about 124,300. 

Potatoes and Onions. 
The receipts of potatoes and onions at this port in 
1892 were as follows; 

California, sks 










Butter and Cheese. 

The receipts of butter and cheese at this port in 
1892 were as follows: 

Sources— Butter. Cheese. 

California, fts 13,054,300 4,964,900 

Eastern 1,200.700 2,297,100 

Oregon 422,300 135,900 

Totals 14,677,300 

1891 12,881,950 


Increase 1,796,350 860,:.00 


The receipts of eggs at this port in 1892 were as 

Sources— Dozen. 

California 1,866 558 

Eastern 3,444,490 

Oregon 7,860 

Total 5,308,908 

1891 5,070,668 


Tonnage Summary. 


The arrivals and departures at and from San Fran- 
cisco of fail and steam tonnage combined during the 
past month compare as follows with 1891: 

, — Arrived , , — -Departed — , 

December. No. Tons. No. Tons. 

1892 81 107,413 87 110,569 

1891 82 114,137 117 134,020 

Decrease 1 6,724 30 23,451 

The total amount of deep-water tonnage, sail and 
steam combined, inward and outward, during the 
month of December was as foUowt : 

No. Tons. 

Inward 81 107,413 

Outward 87 110,569 

Totals 16.S 2I7,98i 

Classified as follows : 

Sail 112 129,273 

Steam 56 88,709 

Totals 168 217,982 

The total movement in December, arrivals and de- 
partures, included 107 American vessels (or number 
of trips madel. representing an aggregate of 114,703 
tons of tonnage. 

Wheat and Flour Exports Combined. 

The following is a recapitulation of the Wheat and 
Flour shipments from this port during the year 1892. 
Flour being reduced to Wheat centaU: 

Centals. Value. 

Wheat 9,762,816 814,254,905 

Flour 3,345,801 4,680,704 

Totals 13,108,617 $18,935,609 

1891 20,643,896 33,105,541 

1890 16.585,977 22,114,382 

1889 15,507,925 21,395 783 

1888 14,237,401 20,788,084 

The total amount of Wheat and Flour exported in 
1892 was equivalent to 655,430 short tons, as against 
1,032,194 in 1891, or a comparative decrease of 376,764 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the closing prices paid for wheat options 
per ctl. for the paat week: 

Jan. Feb. Mar April. May. June 
Thureday.... SslOJd SsIOJd 6*00 d eeOlJd 6802 d 6s SJd 

Friday 5809ld 5slOW 6slljd BsOlJd BsCCJl 6s02Jd 

Saturday.. .. 6s 114d EslOM fisOO d 6801 d 6s02 d 68,ijd 

Monday 5s09Jd 5slo|d S-sUid 6s004d esllSd 6s0lsd 

Tuesday 6809id 58l0id 68lljd SsOOJd 6s014d 6s02}d 

The following are the prices for California cargoes for off 
coast, nearly due and prompt siiipments for ihe past week: 
O. O. P a. N. D. Market for P. S 

31s3d Quiet 

3U3d Firmer 


3Is0d Quiet but s eady 

3089d Slow 

To-day s cablegram Is as f ollow? : 
Liverpool, Jan. 11.— Wheat -More disposition to buy. 
CaliforLia spot lots, 6s 3d; off coast, SOs 6d: jutt shipped, 
31b 6d; near) y due 30s 6d; caigotsoff coast, quitt; on pas- 
page, red firmly held and white very, dull: Mark Lane wheat, 
firmlv held; weather in Lugland, has tliawed but again 

Eastern Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices per bushel of wheat 
for the past week at 

New York. 

Jan. March 

Thursday... 31s3d 

Friday 31s3d 


Monday 3l83d 

Tuesday.... 30s9d 
















The followiag Is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 
New York, Jan. 11.— Wheat, 80Jc for March, 83j! for 

May and 83ic for June. 


Day. Jan. May. July 

Thursday 724 78J 76i 

Friday 72J 78! 77S 

Saturday 723 78| 77i 

Monday 72l 784 77J 

Tuesday 7?| 79S 77i 

The following is to-day's telegram— per bushel: 

Chicago, Jan. 11— Wheat, 80 Jc for M»y. 

San Francisco. 


Jan. Miy 

Thursday, hlghfat ♦$! 35 SI 34 

lowest '1 32J 1 33 

Friday, highest *1 28! 1 33i 

" lowest •! 17J 1 3'} 

Saturday, highest 1 33«; 

" lowest 1 33S 

Monday, highest 1 331 

" lowest 1 32J 

Tuesday, highest "l 33} 1 33J 

" lowest '1 30 1 33 

''Sample market- choice mllliug. 
The following are to-day'a recorded sales on Call: 
Wheat— Morning -Informal -May, ICO tons, $1,333; 400, 
.S1.33J; too, $1.34 is ctl. R-gular Sojsiou : May, 600 tons 
S;1.34i: 600 81.312; 600, SI.34S; llOn, S1.3I per ctl. After- 
noon SessioD : May, 300 tuns, $IMI: 500, 2200, ijl.Sii 
per ctL 


Jan . May 

Thursday, highest *974 846 

" lowest *90 84 j 

Friday, highest *97* 8fi 

" lowest *9U 85 

Saturday, highest 81} 86 

lowest 81} Sii 

Monday, highest 86^ 

lowest 86 

Tuesday, highest *97J 85S 

lowest '90 8S} 

*Sample market- choice brewing. 
The following are to-day'a recorded aalea on Call; 
Barley— Regular Sesaion ; May, 100 tons, 8Eic; SCO, 853c 
per ctl. Afternoon Session : May, 200 tons, 8, ic, 100, 853c; 
100, 85Sc per ctl. 

Markets by Telegrapb. 

British Grain Trade. 

London, Jan. 9.— The Mark Lane Express says 
English wheat has risen 5d in London and Is in sev- 
eral of the country markets. Stocks have been re- 
duced by 115,000 quarters, and a continuance of this 
demand would greatly help trade out of the de- 
spondent staenation that has prevailed. The de- 
crease in shioments from America and an increase 
in the continental demand for Indian wheat have 
helped the market since New Year's day. The 
chief feature of stocks is the enormous increase in 
the supply of foreign flour. In January, 1892, the 
stock of such flour was 595,000 quarters; it is now 
1,530,000 quarters. 

The Wool Trade. 

New Yokk, Jan. 6.— In its annual review of the 
wool trade of the United States the Boston Coinnier- 
cial Bulletin BtLys: The number of the sheep iu the 
country increased from 43 430,000 to 44,938,000. The 
United Slates clip increased from 307,401,077 pounds 
to 333,018,605 pounds. The stock of domestic wool on 
hand December 31st in Boston increased from 28,705,- 
339 pounds to 30,650,500 pounds. The stock of for- 
eign wool in Boston increased from 1,609,300 pounds to 
4,341,000 pounds. The sales for the year in Boston 
increased 32 292,141 pounds over tho^e of 1891. Bos- 
ton increased her sales by 6,000.000 more pounds than 
the entire increase of the domestic clip. The total 
stock in the country is but 68 354,000 pounds of do- 
mestic and 18,388,875 pounds of foreign against 18.- 
991,400 pounds of domestic and 21,164,866 pounds 
foreign on December 31, 1891. The consumption of 
all grades of wool by American mills shows an in- 
crease of 59.000 000 pounds over 1891. 

Visible Supply of Grain. 

New YoBK, Jan. 9.— The visible grain supply is as 
follows: Wheat, 81,788,000 bushel", an increase of 
434.000; corn, 11,240 000 bushels, an increase ot 414,000; 
oats, 6,111,000 bushels, a decrease of 239.000; rye, 
1.113,C00 bushels, a decrease of 77,000; barley, 2,157,- 
000 bushels, a decrease of 46 000. 

California Products at Chicago. 

Chicago, Jan. 10.— California Green Fruits— There 
is but a very light trade.- Pears— Winter Nelis, fi 
box, 83; Easter Beurre, $2.50; Glout Morceau, .?3@4; 
Japanese Persimmons, trays, 14@18 lbs, 75c®$l; Cali- 
fornia Oranges, Seedlings, 1? box, *2.25@2.50; Navels, 
$31*3.50; Redland, fancy, 83.60@4. 

California Dried Fruits— Arrivals are decreasing 
and are now very moderate. The feeling of weak- 
ness so evident in some lines some time ago, is dis- 
appearing. There has been no essential change in 
prices, but raisins are now steadv. Peaches are now 
stronger, while prunes and apricots keep up their 

late firmness. Raisins— London layers, 3-crown, ft 
box, 81; do 3-crown, fancy, 81.75@1.85; loose Musca- 
tels, 3-crown, Sl@1.25; 4-crown. sks, Ifi fi), 4@5c: 3- 
crown, 4@4»^c, 2-crown S^^aSii; seedless, sacks, 
4@4% cents. Prunes— 40 to 50 to the B) in sacks, 
14c; 50 to 60, 12KC; 60 to 70, 12e; 70 to 80, ll^C; 80 to 90 
11c; 90 to 100, lOJ^o; 100 to 120, 9%c. Apricots— New, 
choice to fancy, sacks, 15@16c; fair to good, 14@14}^c, 
Peaches— Peeled. 25-8) boxes, 20@22o; peeled, sacks, 
19@20c; nnpeeled, 10@i3c; Nectarines, red, sacks. 
* lb 9@113^c; white, lU@12>^c. 

General Produce. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. January 11, 1892. 

BEANS AND PEAS. Do country m'ls.3 90 @ — 

Bayo, ctl 2 60 (a 2 60 Superfine 2 60 to S 00 

Butter 2 75 @ 3 to NUTS- Jobbing. 

Pea 2 60 @ 2 76 Wahiuts, hard 

Red 2 76 (a 3 00 shell. Cal. lb.. 

Pink 2 25 (g 2 50 IDo soft shell . . . 

Small White... 2 60 @ 2 75 Do paper-shell.. 
Large White... 2 40 @ 2 60 Almonds, sftsh'l 

Lima 2 90 @ 3 00 Paper shell ... 13 « 

Fid Peaa,blk eye 1 10 w 1 66 j Hard shell 7 @ 

10 @ 
12 @ 





_ 34 

27ia - 
- & 35 
ism - 

20 la 
20 @ 
24 (SS 


Do green 2 00 @ 2 26 

Split 4 50 @ 5 60 

Cal., poor to 

fair, lb 15 @ — 

Do g'd to choice 22S@ 
Do Giltedged... 
Do Creamery. . . 
Do do Giltedge. 
Eastt-m, lad.e. . 
Cal. Pickled ... 

Cil. Keg 

East'rn Cr- am'y 

Oal. choice 


Do fair to good. 
Do Giltedged.. 

Do Skim 

Young America 

CaV "aa is," doz _ 

Do shaky 16 (<2 

Uo candled 30 @ 

Do choice 32iO> 

Do fresh laid... — @ 
Do do s'lcd whte — @ 
Eastern cold- 
storage 25 @ 

Do fresh 28J^» 

Do selected — @ 

10 (ft 
14 ca 
5 @ 

' 20 @ 

Brazil 10 _ 

Pecans, small.. 8@ 10 

Do large 14 @ 16 

Peanuts 3hQi 4 

Filberts 10 @ 12 

Hickory 7 @ 8 

Chestnuta ]J @ 124 


Sllverskin 1 00 (a 1 10 

River Reds.. . 45 @ 65 
Early Rose, ctl. 65 (g 75 

Peerless 80 @ 90 

Burbank Seed's 75 85 
Do do Salinas. . 1 16 (g 1 25 
Dodo Oregon.. 1 15 (a 1 25 

Sweet 50 @ 75 

Extra choice sell for more 


Hens, doz 6 50 (» 8 00 

Roosters, old.. . 6 60 ^ 7 tO 

Do young 7 00 @ 8 00 

Broilers, small. 4 Ou @ 4 60 

Do large 5 00 ^ 6 00 

Fryers 6 60 @ 6 50 

Ducks 5 00 @ 6 60 

Do large 7 60 ftc 8 60 

Geese, pair 1 76 @ 2 25 


Turkeys, gobl'r. 19 i_ 
Turkeys, hens.. 19 @ 


- _ 20 

Outside prices for selected' Do dressed . . 20 @ 22 
large eggs and inside pricesj All kinds of poultry, if poor 
for mixed sizes— small eggs or small, sell at lees tha^a 
quoted; if large and in good 

condition, they sell for more 
than quoted. 

Manhattan Egg 
Food (Red Ball 
Brand) in 100- 
Ib. Cabinets. . . 


are hard to sell 


Bran, ton 13 00@ 14 00 

Feedmeal 25 00@ 26 00 

Gr'd Bariey .... 19 OOra 19 50 

Middlings @ 21 00 

uil Cake Meal. . @ 36 00 

Maohatan Horse 
Food (Red Ball 
Brand) in 100- 
tt). Cabinets... - @ 8 00 

HAY. Do Mal'd ^ doz 4 00 S 5 CO 

Compressed ... . 7 00 @10 00 iDo Sprig 2 50 @ 3 00 

Wheat, per ton. 9 00C<? — Do Teal 75 @ 2 00 

Do choice @ 13 60 !Do Widgeon 2 00 @ — 

Wheat and oats 8 00® 11 50 Do small 1 50 @ — 

Wild Oats 7 00@ 9 uO Gray Geese 3 00 @ — 

Cultivated do . 6 00® 9 00 Do White 1 60 @ — 

Barley 6 OOca 9 00 : Do Brant 1 25 @ 1 75 

Alfalfa 8 00(ui 10 60 Snipe 2 00 @ 

@n 60 

Quail, per doz.. 1 00 @ 1 25 

Ducks . 

Clover 8 00@ 10 00 

Straw, bale 35@ 60 

Barley, teed, ctl 80 (g 81} 

Do good 80 

Do choice 8l!}(c§ -. 

Do brewing 93 @ 93 

Do do choice... 933@ 

Do do Giltedge 97m 

Do Ohevalier. . . 80 @ 

Do do Giltedge. 1 15 @ 

Buckwheat 2 25 @ 

Corn, white.... 1 02J@ 1 07i 
Yellow, large... 1 02J(a 105 

Do small 1 05 @ 1 07i 

Oats, milling...! 36 O 1 37J 

Feed, choice 1 37^(0. 

Do good 1 34 (8 

Do fair 1 30 @ 

Uo common....! 26 (c^ 

Surprise 1 45 (j? 

Black feed 1 05 @ 1 15 

Do seed 1 175(ff 1 30 

Gray 1 3D @ 

Rye 1 12i(a 

•Wheat, milling 
Gi'ttdged.....! 274(3 

Do choice 1 263(a 

Do fair to good.l 25j(3 

Shipping.choicel 26}(§ 

Do good 1 25 (a 

Do fair 1 22i(a 

Common 1 20 (a 

Sunora 1 20 (g 1 30 


1892, fair 17 (g — 

G )od 18 (g — 

Choice 19 @ — 

Eitra,city mills 3 90 (B — 


Do iSngllsh, doz 1 50 @ 2 00 
Do Jack, per doz 75 O 1 25 
Hare, ler doz.. 1 25 (& 1 60 
Rabbits, large.. 1 25 @ 1 60 
Do small . , . . 1 00 @ — 

Cal. bacon, 
heavy, per lb. 12 (g — 

Medium 12 (g — 

Light 14 (g 

Lard !0i(g 

Cal sm'k'd beef . 11. @ 
Hams, Cal salt'd 15 ® — 

Do Eastern 16 @ — 


Alfalfa 9i(g 10 

Clover, Red 15 (g — 

White 30 — 

Flaxseed 2 25 ® — 

Hemp 4J(g — 

Mustard, yellow 7 (g — 

Do brown 5 (g 64 

Fall 1892 
1 174 S Joaquin, plain 64(8 10 
Do mountain... 8@ 11 

Do lamb 8 @ 10 

Northern Choice 14 to — 
Do Defective... 1! to — 

Do Lamb 10 9 14 

HONEY -1892 Crop. 
White c (, m b, 

2-Ib frame 

Do do 1-lt frame 
Wliite extracted 

Amber do 

Dark do 

Beeswax, lb.... 

1 324 

py-uits and Vegetables. 

Oboloe selected, in good paokagee, (etoh an advance on the 
q lotatlona, while very pooi grades sell leas than the lower 

q aotationa. 
Limes, Mex .... 6 00 @ 7 00 

Do Cal — m - 

Lemons, box. .. 2 60 (9) 3 00 
Do Sicily choice 5 '50 (g 6 00 

Apples 35 ® 65 

Do Choice 75 @i 1 25 

Do Extra choice 1 50 @ 1 75 

Pears 26 @ 1 00 

do Winter Nelis 1 00 (g 1 60 

Persimmoos 60 (@ 1 00 

Oranges, pr bx- 
Navels,Kiver'de 1 50 @ 2 50 
Do, Butte Co. . . 3 00 @ 3 .50 
leedl'g.River'de 2 00 (g 2 25 

Do, Fresno 2 00 ® 2 60 

Do, Butts Co... 2 01 @ 2 25 
Extra choice fruit for special 
purposes sells at an advance 
on outside quotations 
Beeta, sk — @ 75 

January 11, 1892. 

Okra, dry, &>.... 

30 @ 


8 ® 


Paranlpa, otl. . . . 

1 00 @ 

1 50 

Peppers, dry, 11> 

7 @ 


Turnips, ctl 

- ® 


Cabbagn. 100 lbs 

40 & 


Garlic, V tti 



Mar'fat Squash, 


5 00 to 

8 00 

40 @ 


50 @ 


Mushrooms,^ lb 

Do, Common. . . 



Do, Button 

20 (g 


Tomatoes, box. 

1 00 (00 

1 25 

String Beani. . . 



6 @ 


Green Peas 

8 (a 

10 & 

A Useful Preparation, 

When the Red Seal Granulated 98% Lye 
is as well known in the Pacific Slates as it is 
east of the Rocky mountains, it will rapidly take 
the place ot all other alkaline preparations, soaps, 
etc., both for household purposes and as a safe antl 
effective insecticide for the use of orchardists and 
florists. While its superior qualities arid the many 
uses to which it may be applied are well known, its 
small cost is also an item greatly in its favor and 
commends it especially to those who require it in 
large quantities. 

1 be " Red Seal " is packed in patent sifting-top 
cans, making it convenient to use in small quantities, 
and by replacing the cover preserving what is left 
from exposure to the air. 

Attention is called to an advertisement in another 
column, and any further particulars may be had by 
addressing M. Lovell, No. 116 California street, San 


January 14, 1893 

Poison Oak. 

Arroyo Grande. Jan. 9, 1893. 
Dewty Publishing Co., San Frarciico— Gents: 
I notice in your issue of 7th inst. an article on 
Poison Oak, by F. H. Billings of Cl^tremont, Los 
Angeles Co. The Newsom's Arroyo Grande Warm 
Springs, situate two miles east of the town of Ar- 
royo Grande, San Luis Obispo Co., is a sure cure 
for Poison Oak in all stages of the poisoning. 

A Subscriber. 

Are Ton Going East? 

T»ke the Santa Fe route. You will find it to yout 
ioteiest to call on or address the undersigned before 
purchaDini' tickets. Ko other line crossine the conti- 
nent can cfftr you a trip conihinlnt' equal comfort and 
pleasure. The only line runninif Pullman palace and 
tourist sleeping cars throush to Ohicago on the same 
train every day without ohinRe. Personally conducted 
eKcursio"" throueh to Boston leave every Tuesday. 
W. A BISSELL, 650 Market street, Chronicle Building. 
San Francisco. 


We have a larje sum of money to loan at a low rate 
of interest on mortgage on ranches. Write to us for 
full particulars. Buy, sell and exchange lands and Im- 
proved farms. Holcom & Howe, Rooms 6 & 7, Sixth 
floor Mills building, San Francisco. 



rate of Interest on approved security In Farming Lands 
A. SCaULLER, Boom 8, 420 California Street. San 

Politics or farming have no place in a 
lumber journal, but now that the election is 
over we are free to say that the worst 
scheme ever proposed for the farmer was 
VVanamaker's free delivery for them. In 
the name of the late lamented Bill Nye 
what on earth has the farmer got to live for 
if he can't go to town after his mail, or what 
excuse has he for getting away from home 
if his mail is brought to his door. He 
can't have his tires set nor his horses shod 
every day or two. — West Coast Lumberman. 

Fruit Tracts 


Near Saratoga Santa Clara County. 


40 Acres— a splendid piece $75.00 per acre 

40 Acres— 15 acres In prunes 86.00 " 

190 Acres— one halt cleared, all good 

soil 30.00 " 

SO Acres— all in fruit, mostly prunes, 

15 acres full bearing. 225.00 ' ' 

16 Acres— Good house and baro, 10 acres full 

bearing trees; price 35,000 00 

Apply at once. 

4\i Market Street San FranciBco. 


Can save big Money by ordering from a CASH HOUSE and paying " spot cash " for 
everything. Take what you want. Cartage free. Must Reduce Stock. 

High graile Table readies, 1.500 dozen ; closinj; quickly at $1 •V.'j 

Finest Sugar Corn, guaranteed, 2000 dozen . $1.26. $1.35, 1.50 

Eastern .String Beans, just arrived by sail, will go at . 1.00 

Pine Apple, put up in California, full syrup, $1.75 ; Eastern outputs 81 .Tii, 2.25 

Pie Blackberries, 1 gallon tins, $4.00.'$4.25 ; Plums, Grapes, Apples, Peaches, all very cheap. 

.Tarns, in 1 pound glass jars, fine Eastern pack, $3. GO : Jellies, nice varietv 1.85 

Brown Sugar (until advanced), in 100 lb. sacks, $3. 7 5, Gold. C,$4, Ex. C,84."25, White, $4.90, 5.00 

Syrup, choice family grade, bbls., 31 gals., 17c. ; 5 gal. kegs, $1.40; 1 gal. cans 35 

Oysters, we have only the leading packs; standard Is $1.00, or 2s (new) 3.00 

Clams, wo offer fine Eastern Is at $1.35, or 2s at $1.7.5. They will please 

Sardines, finest brands of imported, overstock, by sea, say $I.:i5, $1 .40, Sl.iiO, 1 , 60 

There is nothing in general use for housekeeping, or family 
keeping, or storekeeping that we cannot furnish you and save 
you a nice profit to begin the new year. Try it. Send for our 
general list, free, or add 10 cents for postage on a 72-page book of useful 

JSmltli's O-A-SH store. 

Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 





— L'Sg — 

One poan<1 to 5 gallons of water. 

Thousands of Orchardists testify to its 
value, using it in preference to all other 
preparations. Where Red Seal Is ap' 
piled it kills the insects and at the same 
time forms a coating through which 
others cannot penetrate, while it is 


Put up in SIFTINO-TOP CANS so that 
any quantity may be used and the bal- 
ance preserved uninjured. 


110 California St , San Franclico 

^€0 aJ' 

P.C.TOMSOhJacn fm\pt 




The Red Seal Lye is indispensable. 

USED AS DIRECTED It will take the 
place, and at 7SX less cost, of all other 
alkaline preparations, soacs, etc.. now on 
the market. ONE CAN will make I O to 
IS Iba. of Hard Soap, or SOO Ibi. 
of Soft Soap. 

It cleans floors, kills roaches and bugs 
of all kinds, cleans milk vessels, tin or 
wood; keeps farming Implements bright 
and free from rust; Is a perfect disinfect 
ant; sottena water, washes dishes and 
clothes; and can be put to a thousand 
uses in place of soap or other prepara- 

P. C. TOMSON & CO., 

Uanufacturers Philadelphia, Pa. 



It Will Cost You 
No More Than 
Other Makes. 

Was Awarded the Premium at State Fair Sacramento, OVER ALL OTHERS. 


Please note that an 8i-loot mill has 6^ feet more wind surface than an 8-foot m 
EVERY MILL GUARANTEED. P»rt.^bjk« by storms that do no^ 

Any.'MlU that doea not worK eatlefactory (may be returned to us and we will 
pay the (relerht both ways. 

405 & 407 Market Street, - - San Francisco, Oal. 


"Rjo B qnito Nurseries, 




Apples, Bartlett Pears, French 
Prunes, Olives. 



=»:E31^&I.^N Soft Slaell ^STST^TLmNTJT. 








BIGGS, Butte Co., 


Oa.1x.1a.xxc1. 0£Q.oe. 

Oakland, ... Oal. 


[commission Merchantsl 

406 & 408 DAVIS S.F. 


24 POST ST.. S. P. 

College Instructs In Shorthand, Tj pe Writing, Book' 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
tor six full months. We hare sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual Instruction to all our pupils. Our school hai 
Its graduates In every part of the State. 
tW Sum FOR CncuLaB. 

K. P. HKALD, PreaMent. 

C. 8. ELALET, Secretary. 


T iforuia Street. For the half vear ending Dec. 31, 
1892, a dividend has been declared at rbe rate o' five 
and one-tenth (51-10 per cent per annum on Term 
Deposits, and four and one-quarter (4 1-4) per cent per 
annum on Ordinary Deposits, pa] able on and alter 
Tuesday, Jan 3, 1&93. 

OEO. TOURNY, Secretary 


Vitus CalifornicaSeedlings, 

Two years old. 
Ten Dollars per Tbonsand, 

C. MOTriBR.SBox 8. fMiddletown, 
Lake OouDty, California. 




Seed Merchants. 

Warehouee, 409 and 411 Davis St. 



Red and White Clover. Alsyke Clover, 

Eeparcet or Sainfoin Olovr, 
Timothy and Orchard Ora°g, Assorted Rve Orass, Red 
Top Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, Heequite Grass, 
Onion Set> and Top Onions. MaDgle and 
Sugar Beets aod Carrots for Cattle 
Feed. A Iso, All Kinds of 


Write for Prlcea 

Palm and Citrus Nursery 



And all Citius Trees in variety. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, best adapted to California and 
its anbtropi :al sectionp. 

.A l>r),'e stock of ClIKRIMOYA (Custard Apple) and 

The J AVA plum (Eugenia Jambolaua), a handsome 
trult-beariog tree from Java, mailed free tor 50 j. 



Santa Barbara California. 


2129 Tenth St., Sacramento, 


Grown in the open ground, namely: HANZANILLO or 



Leading varieties of PRUNES, PRAriHES and 
AI.MONnS. Clean and healthy stock. For partloii- 
lars address HXRIWAN XOHW^RZ 

SSth & O 8tt., Sacramento, Cal. 

^January 14, 1893. 



Kings River 



General Nursery Stock. 


Some choice Orange and Lemon land planted and 
caied tor, at oedrock pricca. 







Freight paid on 600 or over of above surplus stock. 

A fine lot of PRUHES on Myrobolan and 

Mair Orange (Uag and other PEACHES. 
All first ilais and raised without Irrigation. 

New price list free on application. 




W. W. WILL, Proprietor, 


Trees at Wholesale and Retail. 

I have to offer the coming planting season 

the fallowing stock: 



My treea are warranted Free from Insect Pests of any 
kind, and are raised on well-drained foothill soil by 
myself. Correspondence solicited. 


A Large and Extra Choice Stock of 

Fruit, Shade and Evergreen Trees 
and Flowering Shrubs. 


The Largest and Best Stock of Camellias, 
Azaleas and Uhododendrons, consist- 
log of the Best European Sorts. 

Nuiaerles at Millbrae. Greenhouses and Office and 
Saleayard at Baker and Lombard Sts., San Francisco. 


F. LUDBMANN, Pacific Nursery, 

Baker & Lombard Sts., San ITranclsco, tial. 

Send for Price List. 




Growers and Dealers in 



Please Send for Catalogue. 

HULBBRT BROS., Proprietors, 

ail Third St.. Santa Bos*. 

Oak Mound Nurseries. 


At Prices which Dtfy Competition. 


BOB'T F. K.40HUS, Laksport. T^ake Co., Cal. 


For Kare new Tropical fruit 
and ornamental plants and 
trees. Palms, Ferna, Orange 
Trees, Pineapples, Bamboos, 
Aquatics, Etc 

Plants safely shipped every 
where. Send stamp for new 
and full catalrgue which tells 
all about this subject. 

Oneoo, Fla. 



It contains description and price of Grass, Clover and Field SEEDS, Australian Tree and Shrub 
SEEDS, Native California Tree, Shrub and Flower SEEDS (the largest assortment of Vegetable and 
Flower SEEDS, offered in the United States), new varieties of Forage Plants, Grasses and Clovers 
especially recommended for the Pacific Coast. Holland, Jipan and California Bulbs. Large assortment 
ol Palm SEEDS, new and rare Plants, new Fruit Our stock of Fruit Treea consiats of the best varieties 
of Prune, Plum, Apricot, Apple, Peach, Cherry, Olive, Fig and Nut Trees, Grape Tines and Small Fruits. 



Succosso s to THOMAS A. COX & CO., 

411, 413 & 415 Sansome Street, - San Francisco, Cal. 


BDDDED ORANGE AND LEMON TREES of all Varieties One and Two-Year Buds 

SEEDLING ORANGE TREES, Sweet Stock One to Four Years Old 


All Clean, Healthy and Home-grown Stock. No Pests or Scale of any kind. 

Orchard and Nnrsery at THEBMALITO, BUTTE COUNTY, CAI.. 

For Prices and Terms, address 



SEBDLBSS SULTANA and other rooted vines. 

ALMONDS, June Buds of the leadingr varieties, 

WHITE ADRIATIO PIG TREES at very low figures. 


Correspondence solicited, fend for Catalogue. 

TLmONGt cfc OO., 

F». O. ^ox. X56X. IT-JFlJESHNrO. O ATt. 

To introduce our Northern Grown Veg- 
etable Se*:d8 we have decided to give away 

..Opnckagesof seed. OS we l>elievethi8th© 

best way toBdvertiseour suierior ntocks. To every reader of this papersending us Iflc. (silver or 
postal notel actual cosl ofpostage and packing, we will send postpaid the wonderful Cream Ool- 
I.ECTlONoFVEGETABLESEEDS.preciselvtliesameaswe have always sold for 40c. The collection 
consisusof the fnl lowing four rare novelties: Queen of the Market Kadish, an extra early scar- 
let variety. Early Rubt Tomato, absolutely tlie earliest in cultivation; New Oheam Lettuce. 
very fine flavor and exceedingly handsome; Kvebgreen OUOUMBEU, new and desirable, either 
for" cucumbers or piclcliug purposes. 

In addition to tliis we will mail free our catalogue of new and choice 
Seeds, Plants, Bulbs, and .Small Fruits for 1893, which contains thousands 
of illustrations, colored plates, pictures of Horticultural and Agricul- 
tural HaU at the Worlds Fair, and a 25c. certificate. 
Don't Fail to Take Advantage of This Offer. Address. 

/Aay ?c CO-. 





Are The Only Firm 

Giving to customers cash discounts on orders. We are the 
only Firm distributing among: patrons a year's subscrip- 
tion to loo agricultural papers without exacting any 
equivalent. No other Seed Catalogue, of America 
or Europe, contains so great a variety of several of 
thestandard vegetables, and, in addition, are many 
choice varieties peculiarly our own. Though great- 
ly enlarged in both the vegetable and flower seed depart- 
.nents, wescnd ourcatalogue FKBE to all. The three 
warrants still hold good, and our customers may rely upon it, 
that the well earned reputation of our seed for freshness and 
purity will continue to be guarded as a most precious part of our 
capital. J. J. H. GREGORY & SON. Marblehead, Mass. 


^ Common-Sense 



For 1893 

OPUT POPF Plages, 200 Fine Engravings. Full of, 
OC/r# rnuC. useful and Instructive Information. ^ 

One of the Most Reliable Cataloeuea published. < 
All kinds of Guaranteed Garden, Flower and Field' 
Seeds, Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Small Fruits.' 

The Great FREEMAN POTATO Given Away!| 

Choice Roses, Flowering Plants and Bulbs. 
German Hares, &c., Jkc. Address 

SAMUEL WILSON, Seed Grower, Mechanicsville, Pa. 


Eleven years experience has taught me how to 
PROPBRLT root the Olive. Mo artiScial heat used. 

Uontecito F. 0., Santa Barbara Co., Cal. 


For sale at bed-rock prices. We ate again in the mar- 
ket with Clean, Healthy stock, grown entirely without 

Canada Nursery, Redwood City, Cal. 


Illustrated = 
=? Catalogue 

3f O H 18 9 3 

Is now ready and has been mailed K^t* 
to our regular customers. Others can **-*l<JC< 

receive a CODY by remitting twenty cents, which may 
be deducted from the first order sent amounting to 
one dollar. 

^hePWood |IaII Co. 


100,000 EXTRA PINE 


Apple, Pear, Plum. Oherrv, Peach, Apricot, 
Nectarine, Quince, Orape Vines 
and Small Fruits. 

500,000 FRUIT TREES I 

Oranse, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and all kinds of Nut-Bearing 
Trees Shade and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 


Ask for Prices. 

James T. Bogue, Marysvilie, Cal. 


Importers and Growers, 
Standard Fruits, Shade Trees, Shrubs 
and Ornamentals, 

No Irrigation. Free from Pests. 

Write for prices and catalogue to 

DUANB BROS., Martinez, Oal. 

The Sower 

Has no sprond chance. The 
tirst supplit-s liis needs — if he 
takfia llie wise precaution of 
planting . 

Ferry's Seed^ 

Ferry's .Seed Annual, for imw, 
T oontiiiiLS all the latest and best 
information about Gardens and 
Gardening. It is a recognized 
aiilbority. Kvery planter should 
havpit. Sent free iiM request. , 
D. M. PKKRY A CO., Itetrolt, MIeh. 



Nursery Stock. 

Send and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona, Oal. 


In Variety. 

Prices and a Pamphlet on Olive 
Culture in California Mailed Free. 



Pomona, - L"s Angeles Co., CaL 

^^y)\S^OC>j4'^^ ^"^^ quHiiiy can ever 

hap you kuow u. By freight, prepaid if 
preferred, we ship safely 4, 5, or 6-fr. trees, 
2- vr. Roses of rare excellence — everything! 
You actually pay less than for the puny 
stuff. 1000 acres Nurseries. 20,000 acres 
Orchards. Exact information about trees 
and fruits. Stark Bros., Louisiana, Mo. 


Timr* P'^S^^> bound. Sent postpaid 
I III IIIKH *■''■ reduced price of 76 cte. per copy. 
UUkI Ullk DKWKY PUB. OO.,2i0 Market,!. . 

A l^actlcal Treatise by T. A. Uaiey 
pving the results of long ext;erl- 
enoe in Southern California. 190 
pages, cloth bound. Sent postpaid 



January 14, 1893. 

BUGGIES, all sizes, 
PHJITONS, - - - 
SURREYS, - - - 

$75 to $150, 
$95 to $150, 
$125 to $175, 
$48 to $60. 


All Our Vehicles are Warranted. 

CARTS OF ALL KINDS. $1 5 to $20. 



- - We Ship to all parts of the Pacific Coast, - - 




Palo Alto Stock Fatim. 


Electioneer, Qen. Benton, Piedmont, Eros, Fallis, 
Hambletonian 725, Kentucky Prince, Messenger, 
Duroc, Sultan, Arthurton, Del Sur, Mohawk Chief, 
Norway, Mambrino 1 789, etc., etc. 


Nephew; Azmoor, 2:20yi; Electricity, 2:\1%\ 
Whips. 2:21%; Piedmont; Alban, 2:24; 
Langton, 2:26 j<; Good Gift; Lottery; 
Hugo, 2:27 >4; Sport, 2:22%:. 

The sale will take place at 11 A. M , FRIDAY, JANUARY 97. at our 

jty Ostslogaes are being preparad and wUl be forwarded upon application to the 


KILLIP & CO., • - Live Stock Auctioneers. 




Operated by one small Boy. No Man required. 










— WITH — 









It will give you many susseatlons for 
maklns your home more beautlfal, more 





117-123 GEARY ST., 


(N. P. OOLE & OOJ X.X.X. 



-I'.'Mrl -'ill 1 1.. Ill lllf IVlltlT. 

The Paclflo Spadnr and Vlaayard fnltlTator 

does more »ork In one stroke than a Disc Harrow in ten. 
Sizes, 6} 10 12 feet. 


San Francisco and Fresno. 


No 6 D- 6|. foot Spader 16-lnch Blades 

No. 6D— 7 ■' " 16 ■• 

No. lOD— 6J " " 20 " 

No. 14D- 7 " " 20 " 

No. 16D— 8 " " 20 " 

No. anO-lO " •' 20 " 

No. 24D-12 " ■■ 20 " 


Especially adapted to pulverizing " battouu "—one 
maD and a small bay can operate it. 

Linden, Cal . , Nov. 26, 1892. 
Messrs. Truman, Hooker & Co., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Gentlemen:-! was induced by your agent, Mr. I. 
0. Fowler, to purchase one of your PACIFIC SPADERS, 
which I have tested on some very hard 1 and and mus t 
say it does its work to perfection. I will say to 
all who contemplate purchasing a Cultivator to take 
the Pacific Spader every time. I remain 

Yours very truly, 

C. V. Webb. 




Warehouse and Wharf at Port Oosta. 


Money advanced on Qraln In Store at lowest Dosslble rates of Interest. 
Pull Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements. Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

> B. VAN BVBBY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 

DEWEY & OO. {''"°BjfA!SfiVi^oS.'1 PATENT AGENTS. 


Vol. XLV. No. 3. 


Office, 220 Market St. 

City MUk. 

Discussion of the occurrence and dangerous character of 
milk from tuberculous cows is now more active than ever. 
In all cities where there is public milk inspection the 
opinion is growing stronger that much of the human phthi- 
sit) comes from the use of such milk, containing tha bacil- 
lus tuberculosis. One authority even claims that all 
humau consumption comes from bovine consumption, and 
that in countries 
where the cow is not 
patronized for milk, 
consumption among 
the people is not 
known. This is a 
stronger statement 
than we ever saw be- 
fore on this subject. 
We give it as we 
find it. 

But even if one 
should hesitate t o 
charge the cow with 
sole agency in the dis- 
semination of this 
dread disease, there 
can he no question 
that milk from dis- 
eased cows is a lead- 
ing source of human 
ills. We have often 
alluded to this fact 
before when urging 
that a city situated 
like San Francisco 
should have in abun- 
dance the purest milk. 
It is a shame tbat a 
city should receive 
food from the filthy 
corrals and sheds in 
which herds of cows 
are kept within the 
city limits, when we 
are so near to abun- 
dant pastures where 
conditions favor health 
and vigor in the milk- 
ing animal instead of 

imbecility and disease. This line of argument has also 
been taken up from time to time by the city dailies, and 
facts fit to make a city writhe in nausea have been set 
forth. Still, the city authorities take no adequate meas- 
ures to remedy the evil, and the milkmen soon wipe their 
eyes and draw other water to debase their milk. Mean- 
while, the corrals and sheds lapse into their former filth 
and neglect. 

The Call has just raised the shout anew upon bad milk. 
It has had analyses and examinations made of six samples 
of city milk taken at random. Several were found to be 
adulterated in some way or other, and two of the six con- 
tained the germs of consumption, the tubercular bacilli. 
Following from this examination, it appears that the 
patrons of the common milk joints of the city are almost 
sure to get something either poor or bad, and one out of 
every three of the people is drinking consumption germs. 
It is enough to make a city resident squirm, and yet the 
supervisors do not make adequate provision for such milk 
inspection, as nearly all the large cities of the country 
have found imperative. 

The California Fruit Union. 

As we go to press, the stockholders of the California 
Fruit Union are holding their annual meeting, of which 
we shall give fuller information in later issues. The re- 
port of the secretary shows that the Union has had a 
fairly successful year. The total carloads of green decidu- 
ous fruit shipped East during the season of 1892 were over 
1800, as contrasted to 1387 carloads in 1891, 1373 in 1890, 


991 in 1889 and 851 in 1888. Taking all fruit packages 
together and striking a general average, it is found the 
average price received per package during the past season 
was $1.64, an advance of 27 cents over the average price 
received last year. A similar averaging with freight bills 
shows a slight increase in freight paid per package. The 
expedited fruit-train service from Sacramento eastward 
did not work well, and the railroad people will be asked 
to better the service during the coming season. 

The Pomological Society of Southern California has 
issued an address to the people and press of the State, 
asking cooperation in an effort to secure equalization of 
orchard-tax assessments and exemption of fruit trees from 
taxation permanently, or for a term of years prior to full 
bearing. The Rural Press will publish the address next 
week. The legislature has already begun consideration 
of the measure. The Assembly Committee on Constitu- 
tional Amendments has decided to report favorably on 
Alvord's bill exempting nonbearing fruit trees and vines 
from taxation. 

A Splendid Citrus Display. 

An adequate idea of the arrangement and character of 
citrus-fruit exhibits at the present fair in this city is con- 
tained in engravings which appear on the first and third 
pages of this is^ue of the Roral Press. The accompany- 
ing general view was taken from the top of the Placer 
county triumphal arch, and discloses all the principal 
orange creatioDs, except the arch, which is presented in 

another illustration. 

The designation and 
title of the various 
exhibits may be so 
clearly obtained from 
the illustrations that 
further description 
seems almost super- 
fluous. On the right 
appears Yuba county, 
represented by a wind- 
mill and a World's 
Fair building, the 
summit of which only 
is shown. At the 
rear is Butte county, 
with its Rock of Ages 
and sea of oranges, 
market arcade (with 
clock), and pavilion, 
which appears in the 
farther right-hand 
corner. The fruit and 
grain palace is ob- 
scured by the wind- 
mill. On the left is 
the Sacramento coun- 
ty locomotive. 

The figure in the 
center is " California," 
with shield and flag 
in her left hand and 
olive-branch in her 
right. In the center 
appears the musicians' 

Under the gallery 
and to the right are 
the agricultural and 
general exhibits of 
Placer, Sacramento, Sonoma and Humboldt counties. To 
the left and in the forward corner are Alameda and San 
Luis Obispo counties. These are of necessity not shown 
in the illustration. 

On our third page (page number 43) appear the Placer 
county arch and the Tulare county exhibit, the latter in 
the lower right-hand corner. A corner of the Yuba county 
World's Fair miniature projects into the view from the 
left. Several minor displays are also shown. 

The Rural Press contains this week a complete de- 
scription of the citrus display at the fair, beginning on 
page 52. A thorough article on the northern citrus belt is 
also to be found on pages 43 and 44. 

The photographs from which these illustrations were 
made are by Knight, of San Franciaoo. 

It appears that there never was serious foundation for 
the proposal to place the citrus exhibits of northern and 
southern California in contest at the present fair in 
this city. The scheme ought never to have been men- 



January 21, 1893 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market Si.; Elevator. 12 J'Von/ St., San FrancUco., Col. 

Annual SriwcRiPTioN Eatk Three Dollars s ye»r. While this notice 
appears, »U (uljicribers paying $3 In »dv»nce will receive 15 months' (one year 
and 13 weokn) credit. For *2 In advance, 10 months. For 81 in advance, Bve 
moctbs. Trial BUbsoriptionB tor three months, paid In advance, each 60 cente. 

1 Week. I Month. 3 MmtKt. I Year. 

Pe, Line (agate) «.25 « .60 « 1.20 « 4.00 

Half Inch (1 square l.OO 2.50 6.60 22.00 

One Inch '-60 5.00 13.00 42.00 

Lante adTerttaementa at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, legal 
a Ivertisenionts, notices appearing In extraordinary type, or In particular parts 
of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Begia'ered at 8. F. Poet Office as second-class mall matter. 

ANY subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the Rubal Prbss, with 
a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. The answer wlU be given as promptly as practicable. 

ALFRED HOLMAN General Manager 

San Francisco, January 21, 1893. 

ILLDSTRATIONS.— Citrus Display at the Mechanics' Institute Fair, 

41. Placer County's Triumphal Arch. 4S. 
KDITORIALS.— A rtplendld Citrus Display; City Milk; Miscellaneous, 
41 The Week; The Citrus Fair; California Fruit Union; From an 
Independent Standpoint, 42. The Northern Citrus Belt, 4S. 
MISCELLANEOUS.— The Petaluma Poultry Show, 44. Science in Medi- 
cine: Facial Expressions, 60 

HORTICULTURE.— The Almond; California Products in Boston, 4B. 
THE FIELD.— Agricultural Siatistlcs. 45 

THE 3T0(;K yard.- Market Wnnted for All-Purpose Horses; Live 

Stock Note.1, 45. 
SWINE YAKI).— Improved Method of Slaughtering Hogs, 46. 

THE IRRIGATIONIST.— Irrigation in California, 48. The Big Citrus 
Show, 62. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Fate's Frustrated Joke; In a Cathedral; What is 

a Friend; The Wile's Strike; Five Public Men, 66. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— The Step-Mother; I Once Had a Doll; Bill; 

Mother at Prayer, 67 „. _ ^ ^ „ ^ 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Lemon Sauce; Ginger Pound Cake; Cranberry 

Sauce: Israel Cske. 67. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From Worthy Master Davis; San .lose 

Orange; The Secretary's Column; Joint Installation by Eden and 

Temesc'al (iranges; The Grangers' Bank, 68. 



A'sessment Notice— Grangers' Bank of California. 

Agricultural Machinery, etc,- G. G. Wickson <Sc Co. 

Agricultural Implements— Allison. Neft & Co. 

Agricultural Implements— D. M. Osborne & Co. 

Agricultural Implements, etc.— Truman, Hooker & Co. 

Buggies— Columbus Buggy Co. 

Dividend Nntice- Grangers' Bank of California. 

Eggf— Frank A. Brush. Santa Rosa. 

Fertilizers -H. M. Newhall &Ci. 

Gas Engines- Adam Schilling & Son. 

Flour, Etc — Sperry Flour Co. 

Home Knowledge and Supnly Association. 

Horsef— M W. Dunham, Wayne, 111. 

Hogs and Poultry— Thos Waite, Perkins. Cal. 

Irrigating Machinery— Pelton Water Wheel CO- 

Iron Pipe— W. W. Montague & "^'o. 

Ladder— John F Logue, Sacramento, Cal. 

Nur ery siock -The Dingee. Conard Co, West Grove, Pa. 

Nursery Stock— Hatch & Rf^ok. 

Nursery Stock— Lock Box 9'J4, Winters, Cal. 

Nursery Slock— G. W. Hinclav, Winters Cal. 

Nur»ery Slock— F. B*iteldes & Co., Lawrence, Kansas. 

Nursery Stock— Alneer Bros, Rockford, 111. 

Plows— Oliver Plow Co. 

Pumping Machinery— ''erkins, Brandt <& Co. 

Pumps— H. P. Gregory i Co. 

Pacific Coast Home Supply Association. 

Hheep Dip— J. W. Grace & Co. 

8emiatiu\ial statement— Grangers' Bank of California. 
Spraying Machinery- R. -i. ( hapman. 
Sheep Din— Cation, BelliSt(M. 
Wngnns, Eic— Studebaker Bros. 
Windmills and Pumjs- F. W. Krogh &l Co. 

See Advertising Columiui. 

Tne Week. 

The rains of last Sunday were (juite acceptable ao far 
88 their area extended. The run of rather cold, dry 
weather had repressed growth, and something warm and 
moist has given the grass and grain a new start. The 
weight of precipitation fell upon the upper end of the 
State, with light rains in the central regions which did not 
long interfere with fieldwork. So far the season has pro- 
grfssed favorably. The absence of killing frosts, except 
ou lower areas, and the abundance of moisture for present 
needs, gives general confidence in the seasons. With fair 
treatment from the clouds during the balance of the win- 
ter, a very productive year is assured. 

The longer days are very acceptable to all outdoor work- 
ers at least. The early worker does not run as much risk 
of snipping off a finger with his pruning shears. But the 
days which are long even to weariness will come soon 
enough. But a few weeks remain in which to lay in the 
summer's supply of sleep. Make good use of them. 

The State Floral Society last Friday elected the follow- 
ing officers for the ensuing year : E. J. Wickson, presi- 
dent; Mrs. Hodgkins, vice-president; 0. S. Aiken, sec- 
retary; Mi«8 C. D. Rixford, accountant; John Henderson, 
treasurer; Captain Kellner and Mrs. Harris, directors; J 
F. Sims, Mrs J. F. Sims, Mr. and Mrs. Maybeck, Q. M. 
Stratton and G. Cr. Park were initiated as members of the 
society. The secretary's report showed the membership to 
be 185, all in good standing, and the accountant's report 
showed a deficit of $114.19, the year's receipts being 
$824.19. The deficit was the result of the heavy ex- 
pense entailed during the flower shows of the past year. 
In an address, the president congratulated the members 
on the excellent work accomplished during the past year. 

The Citrus Fair. 

The citrus fair of the northern district of California is 
now in progress in the Mechanics' Pavilion, the largest 
place of assembly in San Francisco. Our reports upon 
other pages give a good idea of the variety of the products 
displayed, and the acceptable style on which they are 
set forth lor public contemplation. The affair is the 
greatest of current agricultural events and naturally com- 
mands much of our space this week. 

One who has seen all the citrus fairs of California 
gives the present one preeminence in several popular 
features. It is greatest in its spectacular characters, largest 
in the dimensions of its architecti-horticultural creations, 
most ornate in their embellishment, and most costly in ap- 
pliances for scenic effect. It adds the tableau, the interior 
use of electric lights, the movement of operative parts of 
exhibits to what have been the exhibitors elements in 
earlier shows. These novelties add of course largely to 
the taking qualities of the fair, and as the idea of the 
citrus fair is quite as much to attract the attention of 
those who are not horticultural experts as to gratify those 
who pursue scientific fruit points, the new features which 
we note are legitimate and appropriate. To the calcula- 
ting mind the question suggests itself, to what end will the 
architectural, spectacular and dramatic elements in these 
shows proceed. How much longer will it be possible to 
devise and provide new and greater things in these lines ? 
But these are questions which the exhibitors must be 
puzzled about ; the public will continue to patronize and 
praise until the development of the citrus fair reaches its 
highest estate and the public will give the first sign that 
retrogressive steps are discernible. Then probably the citrus 
fair will have accomplished its ends as a popular advertis- 
ing medium for making known climatic charms, soil rich- 
ness and commercial opportunities, and thereafter horti- 
culture will resume the leading place which has been 
temporarily denied it, and we shall have citrus fairs in 
which size and beauty shall be of the fruit not of the 
structure which it decorates ; in which quality shall be of 
the fruit contents not of the candle power of the incandes- 
cent light which illumines it; in which tributes shall be 
to the skill of the producer of the fruit not to the inge- 
nuity of the artisan who makes decoy rocks out of canvas, 
or bogus steel bars with scantling covered with silverine 
Unquestionably the fairs of the future will embody more 
of the natural and in their imitative features will present 
truer art as well as higher horticulture. 

But we do not mean to complain. If the public likes 
oranges better in sham structures than in natural 
masses, in select groupings or in commercial packages, 
certainly the public should have them in those forms. If 
there is anything hollow about the popular whim, it will 
collapse in due time. Certainly the citrus fairs have done 
a powerful and valuable work in making better known 
the fruit resources of California. They have revealed to 
old Californians things they never dreamed of, and they 
have impressed upon the tourist and winter guest our op- 
portunities for investment and industry. Unquestionably 
our progress in all fruit lines would have been much 
slower without them. 

Citrus fairs began in southern California more than a 
decade ago, and have each year shown advancement and 
progress. At first the mass of the fruit was from seedling 
trees, and in many cases inferior. In later fairs, when 
the budded varieties began to bear freely, the fruit was 
vastly improved, until at present the finest varieties are 
often employed in decorative as well as in cultural dis- 
plays. In the northern citrus fairs, the mass of oranges 
used for decoration is inferior; the choice fruit appears 
only in small quantities. This will be changed soon, as it 
has been at the south. The influence of the annual fairs 
in raising the quality of the fruit by teaching all growers 
what are marks of excellence, will be its most lasting 

A VERY satisfactory result of the late poultry show at 
Petaluma is the organization of a state association, in 
which there is a large representation of prominent breed- 
ers, and which gives promise of being a strong and per- 
manent institution. A State show is to be held next year, 
probably in this city, where there is opportunity to secure 
that most important of all features at an exhibition — large 

Sonoma county is taking active steps toward joining 
the northern citrus belt. A Citrus Fair Association has 
been formed at Cloverdale. There are enough oranges, 
lemons and olives in that vicinity to secure satisfactory 
representation at the present citrus fair in this city. No 
good reason exists why Sonoma should not be known as 
one of the chief citrus counties in northern California. 

The Fresno County Farmers' Institute will hold its 
quarterly meeting on Saturday, January 28, at Malaga. 
Many subjects of wide, practical importance are announced. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

The particular circumstance which gave strength to the 
Democratic party in the late campaign in this State was 
its position on the railroad question. The plank in the 
Fresno platform demanding the abolition of the Bailroad 
Commission gained many a vote for the Democratic nomi- 
nees; and but for this plank and for the favor which it 
gained, the party would not now be in a position of 
authority at Sacramento. The declaration of the Fresno 
oonvention was no accident; it was the outcome of a full 
discussion, in which both the principle and policy of the 
thing were approved by ovewhelming numbers of the dele- 
gation. The Democratic party was put fairly and 
squarely in a position of antagonism to the Southern Pacific 
policy; and the form which this antagonism took was a 
positive demand for abolition of the Railroad Commission. 
The only notable objector to this demand was Hon. 
Stephen M. White of L#08 Angeles. In the convention 
Mr. White opposed the proposition, but it was carried over 
his protest and became the winning card in the campaign. 
Mr. White supported his party ticket during the cam- 
paign, but said nothing about the railroad plank of the 
platform, and within the past month he has publicly 
reiterated the views expressed in the Fresno convention. 
He stands in direct and outspoken opposition to the 
formal declaration of his party on the most important of 
all questions in California. And yet this same Stephen 
M. White is the unanimous choiceof the Democratic legis- 
lative caucus for the United States senatorship. All the 
facts of the case taken together curiously illustrate the 
insincerity of politics. When parties have so little regard 
for their own declarations of principle, is it surprising that 
the public is losing its old respect for parties and that 
thousands of voters are throwing partisanship to the winds 
and are coming to view public affairs from the standpoint 
of political independence? 

Latbb — Since the above was written, Mr. White has 
been elected. The first ballot (on Tuesday) gave him 60 
out of 120 votes, one less than a majority. On the second 
ballot (Wednesday) he got 61 votes out of 129 present and 
voting. McOowan, a Republican of San Francisco, was 
absent (no doubt by intent to insure White's election) and 
Kerns, one of the Populist members', cast his vote for 

The California Railroad Commission is a body 
of most extraordinary powers. By the State Consti- 
tution, it is given authority to establish maximum 
rates of freights and fares; to impose upon railroad com- 
panies a book-keeping system of its own devisement; to 
examine the books of any railroad company at any time; 
to hear and determine complaints and to adjust the same like 
a court of law; to enforce its own decrees; and to en- 
force penalties for contempt or disobedience. Its powers 
in brief are an association of legislative, judicial and ex- 
ecutive functions such as no other State constitution gives 
to any commission. It was vainly urged against this plan, 
when the Constitution was under discussion, that it in- 
volved a dangerous concentration of authority; and it now 
appears to be the judgment of the State that events have 
justified the wisdom of this objection. There seems to be 
substantial agreement that the Railroad Commission is a 
failure; that it is dominated by the very interest which it 
was designed to control; and that it would now be better 
to transfer its powers direct to the State legislature. With 
this last proposition the Rubal finds itself in hearty ac- 
cord — not more from the circumstances of the particular 
case than from an objection on principle to government by 
commission. Government, whether related to railroads or 
to broader interests, is in our judgment never so safe as 
when it is retained in the hands of immediate agents 
of the people. A commission with the varied authority 
of the Railroad Commission exercises, or may exercise, 
within its scope the powers of sovereignty; and it is there- 
fore an anomaly in our republican system. We hold that 
there should not exist for any purpose, however limited, 
a power in the State superior to the legislature, to the 
courts and to the executive department. Legislatures 
may — as the advocates of the commission plan urge — find 
it difficult to deal intelligently with a subject so com- 
plicated as that of transportation; but, on the whole, we 
believe that their judgments will be more wise and satis- 
factory than the dicta of a commission. 

It is the expressed desire of many Republican politicians 
that the Democratic party, which will soon assume the 
responsibilities of government, should within the shortest 
possible time repeal the tariff laws, and substitute a strictly 
revenue system. In the article from which we quoted last 
week Senator Dolph, of Oregon urges this course upon the 
incoming administration ; and it was probably in echo of 
his suggestion that the Oregon legislature, on last Wednes- 
day, seriously discussed a resolution introduced by a Re- 
publican and supported by Republicans, praying Mr, 

January SI, 1898. 



Cleveland to call an extra session and petitioning the 
Democratic Congress to repeal the McKinley law. Now 
the motive of Senator Dolph and of those who stand with 
him is not a right one; for they hold that the very thing 
they warmly recommend would plunge the country into 
distress. They seek to force the Cleveland administration 
into extreme courses of anti-tariff legislation, not for the 
good of the country, but to its harm, in order that their 
party may profit from public dissatisfaction, brought about 
by public calamity. They are willing and even anxious, 
in brief, that the country should suffer, to the end that 
their political party may be restored to power. 01 the 
morality of this proposition it is difficult to speak calmly — 
to us it appears akin in its moral aspects to the scheme 
suggested by an unscrupulous physician during the civil 
war, to infect the Northern states with cholera. Protec- 
tionists who support this proposition are persons in 
whom all sense of duty to country and to the public wel- 
fare is lost in a blind and stupid devotion to party. 

Furthermore the assumption that Democratic pledges 
call for immediate enforcement of a free-trade policy and 
the effort based upon this assumption to force radical tar- 
iff courses upon the incoming administration are grossly 
dishonest. In no sense is the Democratic party pledged, as 
partisan aeitators would have the country believe, to an 
immediate or even an ultimately complete overthrow of 
the tariff. The plank in the Chicago platform which de- 
cla'es the tariff doctrine of the party expressly says: 

But in making a re- 
duction of taxes it is not 
proposed to injure any 
domestic industries but 
rather to promote their 
healthy growth. From 
the foundation of the 
Government the tnxes 
collected at the custom- 
house have been the 
chief source of Federal 
revenue. Such they 
must continue to be. 
Moreover, many industries 
have come to rely upon 
legislation for their suc- 
cessful continuance, so that 
any change tn the law 
must be at every step re- 
gardful of the lalior and 
capital thus involved. The 
process of reform must he 
suhject in its execution to 
this plain dictate of jus- 

In this, surely, there 
is no pledge of a 
sweeping change — of 
such a change as Mr, 
Dolph insists it to be 
the duty of the Demo- 
crats to make; on the 
contrary, there is a 
distinct and specific 
pledge that no such 
change will be made. 

We have referred to this subject the second time 
within a few weeks because it seems to us important that 
the real facts of the tariff situation should be kept in the 
public mind as a means of counteracting the efforts of 
alarmists. In our judgment nothing could be more harm- 
ful to the country at this time than a complete and radical 
sweep of the protective tariff. It would cripple if not 
utterly destroy the prosperity of California; and none 
know 't better than those who declare that they would 
like to have it brought about as a means of illustrating the 
difference between Republican and Democratic policy. 
We profess ourselves totally unable to comprehend the 
species of mind capable of consenting that the country 
should suffer distress because it might be the means of 
promoting a particular party interest. We have faith that 
those willing to purchase partisan success at this price are 
very few, and that the bulk of both Republicans and 
Democrats stand with the Rubal Press for a tariff 
policy in the interest of material welfare rather than in 
the interest of politics. 

Rutherford Birchard Hayes, nineteenth President of the 
United States, died at his home at Fremont, Ohio, on 

Tuesday, 17th inst., aged 70 years Edward Murphy, 

Tammany Hall candidate for Senator from New York, 
against whose nomination Mr. Cleveland made an earnest 
protest a few days back, was elected by the full Democratic 
vote on Tuesday. This result, it is thought, will mark 
the beginning of war between Cleveland and the 

Tammany wing of his party Henry Cabot Lodge, the 

author of the Force Bill, was elected U. S. Senator by the 

Republicans of Massachusetts on Tuesday Creed 

Hayipond died in this city on the 13th inst. 

The Northern Citrus Belt. 

The term " Northern Citrus Belt " probably does not 
convey a definite idea to all who see or hear it, and es- 
pecially for distant readers we attempt definition. 

The word"belt" was borrowed from the old phrase "ther- 
mal belt" which n»ay be said to mean a zone in which 
there is comparative freedom from killing frosts. As this 
zone usually has a restricted width, and, following certain 
elevations, surrounds and encloses large central areas 
where different conditions prevail, the term "belt" is well 
chosen. The word "citrus" refers of course to the citrus 
fruits — the fruit of the citrus family of plants. These 
fruits, by reason of their temperature requirements, have 
always had some standing as exponents of climatic salu- 
brity. In the recent progress of California they have 
been given special significance in this regard and have 
served both as a sign of comfort and as a basis of indus- 
trial value. 

The last word of the three, or rather the first as the 
phrase runs, is most difficult of definition. All space 
terms must necessarily be relative. The "northern" cit- 
rus belt is therefore on the polar si^e, or in a higher lati- 
tude, or, if you like, farther from the fquator than the 
"southern." Owing to the peculiar topography and en- 
vironment of the State of California, the singular condi- 
tion exist« which enables one to go southward a thousand 
miles without getting warmer, or northward a similar dis- 


tance without getting colder— providing due regard be 
had for elevation and local topography. When the term 
"northern citrus belt" is used it does not mean necessarily 
that the orange endures a thousand mile shift toward the 
north pole without being killed, but rather that the orange 
finds essentially the same weather conditions in the two 
widely distant points. There is in fact so far as climatic 
conditions go, a California citrus belt or a series of belts 
which is practically of uniform character irrespective of 
geographical situation. Meteorologically, then, we may 
speak of the northern or southern, eastern or western ex- 
tensions of the citrus fruit belts of California. 

But though there is no north, south, east or west in 
California climate, because one can select belts of practi- 
cally uniform climatic conditions in all of them, the term 
north and south do have a very interesting historical and 
geographical importance, which renders them useful and 
convenient. The southern citrus belt is the historic citrus 
fruit ground of California. In this part of the State a 
century or more ago the padres planted oranges, lemons, 
dates, figs and olives. They also brought some of these 
fruits northward, even to the central latitude of the State ; 
but as the coast region of the south is warmer than the 
coast region of the north, and as the padres never went far 
from the coast in locating their establishments, it was nat- 
ural that they should find their semitropical fruits more 
satisfactory as they approached the southern limits of the 
State. They never departed from the coast far enough to 
dream that such a thing as a northern citrus belt existed. 
Following the padres, and profiting by their experience, 
came the pioneers of the southern counties, and their 
citrus fruit plantations throve wonderfully, the vegetable 
gold of the south rivaling in profit the mineral gold of the 

north. Then came the newer race of southern Cali- 
fornians, the colonists, the men who planted vines and 
fruit trees, and churches and schoolhouses, banks and 
palatial mansions, all at the same moment upon the cactus 
covered soil of the interior of Southern California. Hence 
arose the newer life of the South. Its compass held due 
south of Tehachapi. These mountains and their exten- 
sions to the coast served as a barrier which many 
of the new comers thought, shielded them from the terrors 
of the Arctic regions, and they naturally looked upon the 
mountains as the northern limit of all that was tolerable 
to a man or to an orange. 

It came to be held then that all country north of the 
Tehachapi was northern California, and in a sense all 
oranges grown northward of that limit are products of the 
northern citrus belt. But more recently the law has 
stepped in, and the legislators with their genius for geo- 
graphical equalizing have given a legal definition to the 
terms "northern" and ' southern" by making all 
southern which pertains to the Sixth Congressional dis- 
trict, and this makes Fresno County the northern limit of 
the southern citrus belt, and makes the upper San Joa- 
quin, with its promising citrus regions, a part of the di- 
vision which enjoys State money at the March shows in the 
extreme south. 

Such then, in some of their characteristics and some of 
their history, are the citrus belts. In its own course of 
advancement the northern citrus belt has had times of 

arrested development. 
Periodically, during 
the first three decades 
of its history it had 
times of awakening. 
Usually, these were the 
work of southern Cali- 
fornia nurserymen who 
had nurseries over- 
stocked with corky, 
overgrown trees on 
lemon root and full 
to their tips with ir- 
rigation water. These 
trees were shipped 
north by the carload 
and were peddled out 
and many of them, 
largely on the advice 
of the sellers, were 
planted where a cab- 
bage would winter-kill 
or a tarweed die of 
thirst. It is not won- 
derful then that orange 
and lemon trees died 
in the northern citrus 
belt. Such trees as 
they were, planted in 
places selected for 
them, had to die. 

But after a few such 
missionary enterprises 
on the part of southern California treegrowers, the 
people north of the Tehachapi began to learn some- 
thing. They found that in certain places, even the 
poorest orange trees livSd and bore well and had 
done so for years. They found that the seedlings 
grown from the fruit they purchased for their table 
soon made large trees and were very productive, pro- 
viding the elevation, the soil, the water and other natural 
conditions were favorable. It soon became noised abroad 
that there were fine large orange and lemon trees here and 
there which had found the local climates congenial both for 
growth and fruit-bearing. These trees were no^ confined 
to any locality; they «ere growing all the way from Kern 
county on the south to Shasta on the north. In many in- 
stances they have proved of inestimable value in pointing 
out citrus adaptations and possibilities which are now be- 
ing fully utilized. The history of one famous tree will il- 
lustrate. It is as follows : 

At Bidwell's Bar on the Feather river, about 40 miles above 
MarysviUe and 9 from Oroville, is a superb specimen of the or- 
ange family; its great size and symmetry, and the luxuriance 
of its foliage, commanding the admi ation of all beholders. 
This tree is 36 years old. It was grown from a seed taken 
from Acapuico fruit, and was transplanted from Sacramento 
to its present situation in 1859. Ii has been in bearing 25 years 
or more, and its average annual product is about 2000 oranges. 
It is about .30 feet in height, and its branches have a spread of 
24 feet. The trunk is about 18 inches in diameter, with a cir- 
cumference of 54 inches. The tree has always been vigorous, 
and free from disease as well as inject pests. It is locally 
famous as the parent of thousands of other seedlings in the 
Feather river region. Its fruit is spherical, of medium size, 
highly colored and of delicious quality; pulp very juicy and 
sweet. Its seedling progeny manifest the same vigor and pro- 
ductiveness that characterize the parent stock. In a single 
year 20 of these feedlmgs have produced 44,000 oranges, an 
average of 2200 to the tree. 

This is perhaps the oldest in northern or central Califor- 


nia, but there are others here and there all the way from 
Shasta southward to Kern, which have Hone similar service 
in declaring local possibilities, which have been recently 
largely acted upon. The greatest results in extent of 
planting and in production have been attained in the 
vicinity of Oroville, but southward along the foothills in 
all counties good beginnings are shown. Knights Ferry 
and the Porterville region are two localities which have 
been prominent for a number of years. 

Unquestionably climatic conditions are of prime im- 
portance in determining the fitness of a region for citrus 
fruits, and in this respect the term " northern " is unfor- 
tunate, as has been often pointed out. A northern belt for 
a fruit which has the fabled glories of the southland 
strikes the world as a thing incredible. The world is, 
however, finding out that those points at the north where 
the well-informed advise inrestment in citrus fruits really 
have the climate which those regions possess in which the 
orange has succeeded from the earliest times. Sergeant 
Barwick, in a recent article, shows that the Mirysville 
region, for example, has a higher mean average tempera- 
ture for the winter than Naples, Mentone, San Remo, 
Rome, Pisa, Genoa, Nice and Florence, Italy, and Toulon, 
Marseilles and Cannes, France. 

The number of clear days throughout the great Sacra- 
mento valley far exceeds that of Italy. The Sacramento 
valley averages a little over 235 clear days, as against 196 
in Italy and 124 in Jacksonville, Florida. 

In mean temperatures the average for each season, and 
also for the year, shows that Marvsville has a warmer 
winter temperature than any point in the Riviera of Italy. 
The average precipitation is between 17 and 20 inches for 
Yuha and Sutter counties, as against 20 to 23 inches in 
toe Riviera of Italy . 

The northerly winds of Italy have a more deleterious 
t'ffeirt than those of our own valley. In Italy they are 
cold and cutting winds, which are much dreaded, while 
the northerly winds of the Sacramento valley are health- 
ful and not dreaded by any one. 

The table spoken of above is i>s follows, and shows the 
average temperature by seasons, and for the year also : 
















tem p. 






65 6 



57 6 



60 7 



74 2 


61 3 






58 8 


57 2 • 

75 2 

62 8 







48 9 



61 9 

61 1 


73 9 





m 2 




< -a ones.. 






Jacksonville, Fla.. 






The average winter temperature at Marysville is 50.1, 
which is ahead of any portion of the great Riviera of Italy. 

Next to the claims of climate come those of soils pre- 
eminently suited to the growth of fruits. Prof Hilgard, 
our leading expert on soils, at one time applied these 
words to the soils which are most sought by fruit-planters. 
At first it was thought that the fruit grown in the valley 
would necessarily be of lower quality than that of the 
mountains, because such is the general reputation of vallpy 
fruit. But while the great valley of California is, in the 
geological sense, a true valley, its soils are by no means 
all, or even predominantly, what may properly he called 
valley or alluvial soils. Particularly on the east side there 
is a very considerable slope, of true upland, from the base 
of the hills toward the drainage or river troughs, and 
broad undulations, or low ridges, of reddish loam of great 
depth run far out into the valley from the foothills of the 
Sierra. Better soils for fruit culture it would be hard to 
find; and if they ever have furnished fruit of inferior 
grade, it was due to unsuitable varieties or improper cul- 
ture, and particularly to overirrigation or rather the use of 
water at improper limes. 

Both citrus and olive culture have passed beyond the 
experimental stage in north central California. It is 
certain that in any locality having suitable soil, and an 
exposure that is n^t particularly liable to injury from 
frost, the oranere will run not nearly as much risk as it 
does in Florida, which is yet vaunted as the home of the 
orange. As to quality, the fact that until 1891 few except 
seedling trees had come into bearing in central California, 
renders a strict comparison with the fruit of the more 
southern regions difficult. But chemical investigation of 
fruit at the first northern ^citrus fair proved that, so far 
as it can be shown in that way, the fruit was similar to, 
and in no way behind that of the"South. A somewhat 
earlier maturity, also, will, secure an open market 
for the northern-grown fruit before the bulk of the south- 
ern crop goes out. The large amount of capital that has 
already been invested in this industry shows that men of 
large means, both those who live on the 8pot!'.and others 
long acquainted with citrus culture else wnere.T are willing 
to risk their dollars on its success. 

Assuredly, the variety of cultures of which the choice is 
offered the home-seeker in this region is such as is not 
easily found outside of .California. 

Notable Horse Sale.— The sale of horses shipped to 
New York by William Corbitt o« San Mateo was notable 
Forty-two head brought $61,845, an average of $1472. 
Some considerable figures were reached: Regal Wilkes 
(2:1 1 3^) brought $13,000 and Lillian Wilkes (2:173^) brought 
$6000. One rich New York man invested more than one- 
hall of the total receipts of the sales. 

Another death has resulted from glanders of a citizen 
of J^os Angeles. This makes the third that has occurred 
re tly. Better precautions should be taken to prevent 
the bpread of the disease. 


The Petaluma Poultry Show. 

The annual exhibition of the Sonoma county Poultry 
and Pet Stock Association was held at Petaluma last week, 
beginning Tuesday, January ro, and ending Saturday, 
January 14. It was a complete success as regards variety 
and quality of exhibits, though from a financial standpoint 
it was perhaps not quite so satisfactory. ^It is freely stated 
that no such congregation of fowls was ever before seen 
on the Pacific coast, and the facts seem to bear out the 
assertion. There were about 1500 fowls on exhibition, the 
number at last year's Petaluma show being about 1000. 
Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pea fowls, guinea hens 
and pigeons, and a number of varieties of pet stock — 
prairie dogs, rabbits, 'coons, squirrels and so forth — were 
among the things shown. It is a matter of regret that bad 
weather defeated one of the interesting projects of the 
show — a race between pigeons. And, by the way, to the 
same cause is largely due the somewhat meager attend- 
ance. To this cause also may be added the fact that the 
citrus and mechanics fair at .San Francisco, opening at the 
same time, had the effect of divertmg attention and interest. 

The arrangements for the exhibition, which was held io 
the pavilion, at agricultural park, were made judiciously, 
so that each group of fowls could he displayed to the best 
advantage. The prominent features of the exhibition were 
made suitably conspicuous, so that the visitor, by ordinary 
diligence, stood in no danger of missing anything. To 
the industry and capacity of Messrs L. C. Byce and A. 
Armstrong, more than to any others, is due the success of 
the event. It is creditable to the enterprise of the people 
of Petaluma that they supported the managers of the show 
by their interest and attendance. 

One of the direct and one of the most important results 
of the gathering of poultrymen at Petaluma is the organizi- 
tion of the California State Poultry Association, which took 
place Wednesday, January 11. Between thirty and fony 
of the principal breeders Of the State met at the American 
hotel and elected C. R. Marker, of San Jose, editor of the 
Fanciers Monthly, as temporary chairman and A. Arm- 
strong, secrtidiy. 

The object of the meeting was discussed at length, and 
ihe (riendly parley resulted in the organization of the Cali- 
fornia .State Poultry Association. 

Permanent ()ffi;ers were elected as follows: President, 
C. R. Harker, of San Jose; vice-president, L. C. Byce, of 
Petaluma; secretary, A. Armstrong, ol Petaluma; treasurer, 
G. T. Marsh, of San Francisco. 

A board of directors was elected, consisting of the fol- 
lowing well-kiown poultrymen: Messrs. Tyler of Pasa- 
dena, Thurber of Alhambra, Alb^e of Lawrence, Whitman 
of Fruitvale, Noyes of West Butte; BlomofSt. Helena, 
Moore of Merced, French of Stockton, Quick of Patterson, 
and Croley of San Francisco. 

The chair appointed a committee on constitution and 
by-laws, con is ing of Messrs. Bailey, Croley and Byce. 

It was derided, by unanimous vote, to hold the first an- 
nual meeting of the association in San Francisco, about 12 
months hence. 

A guarantee fund, to provide for financial contingency in 
connection with the first exhibition, was proposed and sub 
scriptions were p-omptly volunteered as lollows: G. B. 
Bailey, $125; L. C. Uyce, $125; O. J. Albee, $125; C. R. 
Barker, $125; B N Tracy, $50; C. Blom, $25; E. H. 
Freeman, N. Tyler, $25; E. C. Noye , $25; Jas. 

(^uick, $25; G H. Croley. $25; Frencti Bros.. $25; S. L 
K )berts, $25; Woodhull Btos.. $25; J. A. Scholefi Id, $22; 
Mrs. S. J. McFarling, $25; A. E. Power, $25: Ed. Elli,, 
$25; H. C. Gray, $25; E. C. Tnurbei, $25; G. E. 
Fhelps, $25, 

A unanimous vote of thanks was tendered to Messrs. 
Byce and Armstrong for their arduous labors during the 
pasi year in behalf of the grandly sujcessful poultry show 
now being held in Petaluma. 

Another association of Leghorn breeders was also organ- 
ized, naming their association the California Leghorn Club, 
and electing the following officers : President, E. H. Free- 
man of Santa Clara; Vice-President, Mrs. McFarling of 
Napa; Secretary, C. Blom of St. Helena; Treasurer, C. 
Nisson of Petaluma. 

Commitiees were appointed to perfect arrangements for 
the offering of special prizes at the meeting in conjunction 
with the next exhibition of the California State Poultry 
Association, and to secure an amendment of the existing 
standard to meet the requirements of the breeders of Leg- 
horns on the Pacific coast. 

The following gentlemen were judges at the show, in the 
classifications assigned to them : S. L. Roberts of San 
Diego, Mediterraneans; N. Tyler of Pasadena, Americans; 
G. B. Nugent of San Jose, Asiatics and miscellaneous — in- 
cluding turkeys, geese, ducks, pet stock and sundry other 
exhibits; C. R. Harker of San Jose, Buff Leghorns, etc. 

The awards were as follows : 

Brown Leghorns— Rose Combed. — Best cockerel, Mrs. McFarling of 
NapJ, ist ai.a 2d; cock, Mr... MtFarling, ist and 2d; hen, Mrs. 
McFarling, ist and 2d; pullet. Mrs. McFarling, ist and 2d. 

While Leghorns— Kose Combed. — Ven, Mrs. McFarling, ist and 2d. 

/?(/^ /,^t'/;tfr«j.— Cockeri I, W. O. Moore of Merced, 1st; S. B. 
Wngtil 01 Likeport, 2d. Hen, A. Armstrong, Petaluma, ist ai<d 
2d; pullet, A. Armstrong, ist and 2d; pen. A. Armstrong, ist and 2d. 

Huff Coehins. — CockertX, James Quick, Paittrson. ist; H. F. Whit- 
man, Fiuitvdlu, 2iJ; cock, James Quick, ist; hen, James Quick, ist; 
pullet, H. F. Whitman, isi and 2d; pen, H. F. Whiiman, ist 
and 2d. 

While Leghorns. — Cockerel, O. J. Albee, Lawrence, 1st; J. A. 
Scholeficld, Hjllister, 2d. Cock, O. J. Aib^e, isi. Hen, O. J. Al- 
bee, ist; J. A. Scholtfield, 2d; pulUt, O. J. Albee, ist and 2d; pen, 
O. I. Alb-e, ist and 2d. 

Silver Wyandolles. — Cockerel, C. H. Freeman, Santa Clara, ist; 
Will. A. TrAcy, 2d. Hen, O. J. Albee, first; C. H. Freeman, 2d. 
Pullet, O. T. Albee, ist; C. H. Freeman, 2d. Pen, O. H. Albee, ist; 
C. H. Frei man, 2d. 

Golden Wyandolles. — Cock, Scholefield, 2d. First undecided. 
Hen, Scholefield. isi; Freeman, 2d. Pullet, ■'cholefield, ist; Free- 
man, 2d. Pen,, 1st. 

White Wyandolles. — Cockerel, Freeman, 1st. Hen, Freeman, ist. 
Pullet. Fret-man. isi. Pen, Freeman, ist and 2d. 

White Plymouth Rocks. — Cockerel, Mrs. McFarling, ist; C. Sew- 
ell, Veniura, 2d. Pullei. Mr.';. Purdy. 1st. 

Barred Plymouth Rocks.— CocVereX, O. J. Albee, ist and 2d. Cock, 

January 21, 1898, 

Alb-e, 1st and 2d; Hen, Albee, ist; Freeman, 2d. Pullet, Mrs. 
McFarling, 1st; Albee, 2d. Pen, Albee, ist; Mrs. McFarling, 2d. 

Indian G</»i«.— Cockerel, E. C. Thuiber, Alhambra. isi; W. 
RiohaidiOn, Napa, 2d. Cock, E. C. Thurber, ist; W. Richardson, 
2d. Hen, E. C. Thurber, ist; W. Richardson, 2d. Pullei. W. 
Richardson, 1st; E. C. Thurber, 2d. Pen, E. C. Thurber, isi; W. 
Richaidson 2d. 

Red fJimw.— Cockerel, Woodhull Bros., Stockton, isi. Hen, 
Woodhu.l Bros., ist and 2d. 

Houdans. — Cockerel, J. B. Olcese, Merced, ist; A. Armstrong. 2d. 
Hen, Mr.,. Purdy, ist; J. B. Olcese, 2d. Pullet, J, B. Olcese, 131; 
A. Armstrong, 2d. Pen, J. B. Olcese, 1st. 

White-Faced Spanish. — Cockerel, Robt. Rowan, Pasadena, 1st 
and 2J. Cuck, Rowan, ist; John Noouen. San Francisco, 2d. Htn, 
Rowan, ist and ad. Pullet, Rowan, ist; Noonen, 2d. Pen, Rowan, 
isi; Noonen. 2d. 

Black iT/in()rraj.— Cockerel, French Bros., ist and 2d. Cock, 
Frcnc.i Bro.-., loi. Hen, French B OS., 1st. Pullet, French Bros., 
1st and 2d. Pen, French Bros., isi and 2d. 

Ducks. -Ve.)s.\n duck, W. A. Plait, ist. Pekin drake, W. A. Piatt, 
ISI. Ruuen duck, Mrs. McFarling, 1st. Rouen drake, Mrs. Mc- 
Farling. ist; Pair Cayuga ducks. Deer Mount Poultry Yards, ist. 

G<«if.— Toulouse geese. Deer Mount Pouliry Yards, 1st; Mrs. 
McFaiiing, 2d. Toulouse gander, s. J. McFarling, 1st; Deer Mount 
Yards, 2d. 

Turkeys. — Narragansetl cock, French Bros., ist. Hen, French Bros., 
ist. Wnile pair, Deer Mount Poultry Yards, ist. Bronze cock, 
French Bros., ist and 2d. Hen, French Bros., ist and ad. 

Pet Slock. — French Bros., ist; Deer Mount Poultry Yards, 2d. 

Ornamental Peacocks. Etc. — French Bros., ist. 

Pigeons — Black Pouters, G. T. Marsh, San Francisco, 1st; A. N. 
Biihy, Oakland, 2d. Blue, G. T. Marsh, ist and 2d. Red, Marsh, 
1st; Bailey, 2d. Silver, Marsh, ist and 2d. 

Jacobins, Black, Marsh, isi; Bailey, 2d. Splashed, Marsh, ist; 
Bailey, 2d. Yellow, Marsh, ist; Bailey, 2d, Blue, Marsh, isi; 
Bailey, 2d. S rawberry. Marsh, ist. While, Marsh, ist and 2d. 

Fantails, B.ue, Marsh, i»t. Black, Marsh, ist. Red, Marsh, ist. 
B ue-crested, Marsh, ist. Blue-checkered, Marsh, isi. Yellow. 
Barley, ist. White Silkies, Marsh, ist. Plain white. Marih, isl; 
Bailey, 2d. White-crested, Marsh, isl; Bailey, 2d. 

Mottled Trumpeters, Bailey, ist.. 

0*1 Pigeons, Blue English, H. H. Carlton, Alameda, ist and 2d. 
Same exhib tor also awarded first premium for blue-checkered, B ue 
Chinese and .Silver Owl pigeons, Chinese varieties, ist and 2d, and 
1st for BUck English. 

Blue Wing furbots, G. Bitlleston, Alameda, ist Black Magpie. 
Bailey, isi. Blue Tumblers, Carlelon, ist. Blick and Blue Sad- 
dled, G. Bittleson, ist and 2d. BUck Short-faced, Bailey, 1st. Shon- 
faced Carrier, Bittleson, ist. Black Rollers, Bittleson, ist. Black 
High-Flyers. Bittleson, ist. Parlor Tumblers, red, Carleton, ist and 
2d. Black, Carleton, ist; Bailey, 2d. Barbs, white, E. J. Hinz, San 
Franciico, ist. Black, Hinz, isl. Red, Hinr, ist. Dun, Hinz, 
ist. Black Homer, Bailey, ist and 2d. Yellow, Bittleson, xst. 
Pri°sts, Hinz, isl. 

Black Langshans. — Pen, O. J. Albee, ist; Mrs. J. McFarling. 2d. 
Cocktrel, Alt)ej. lit. Pul et, Albee, ist. Hen, Albee, ist. 

Partridge Cochins. — Pen, E. H. Freeman, ist. Cock, E. H. 
Freeman, isl; O. J. Albee, 2d. Pullet. Fri-eman, 1st; Albee, 2d. 

Dominifues.— Cockerel, Deer Mount Poultry Yards, isi. Pullet 
and hen, Ueer Mount Poultry Yards, ist. 

White Minorcas. — Pen, French Bros., ist and 2d. Cock, cockerel, 
pullei and hen, French B os., ist. 

Black Leghorns. — Pen. Vf. O. Moore, isl; Ed. Ellis, 2d. Cock, 
W. O. Moore, isi. Pullet, Ed. Ellis, ist; S. B, Wright, 2d. 

ylndalusians. — Peo, French B.os., isl. Cockerel, pullet and hen, Bros., ist. 

Light Brahmas. — Cockerel, James Quick, ist and 2d. Cock, 
James Quick, island 2d. Hen, Jame^ Quick, ist and 2d. Pen, 
James Quick, ist and 2d. 

Silk Brahmas. — Mrs. Purdy, ist and 2d. 

Dark Brahmas. — Cockerel, O. J. Albee, ist; Miss Florence 
Forbes, 2d. Hen, O. J. Albee, 1 t; E. H. Freeman, 2d. Puilet, O. 
J. A bee, ist; Miss F.orence Forbes, zd. Pen, O. ]. Albee, lat 
and 2d. 

White Leghorns. — Cockere], O. J. Albee, ist; Scholefield, 2d. 
Cock. Albee, ijI. Hen, Albee, 1st; Scholefield, 2J. Pul el, Albee, 
ISI arid 2d. Pen. Albee, ist and 2-i. 

Sweepstakes.— O. J. Albee, grand prize, for best exhibit as a whole, 
$100; James Quick, 2d, $50; Ei'. Ellis, 3d, $25. 

American Class.— O. J. Alb e, ist, $15; E. H. Freeman, 2d, $10. 

Asiatics. — James Quick, 1st, $15; O.J. Albee, 2H, $10. 

Mediterraneans.— Ed. Ellis, 1st, $25; French Bros., 2d, $15. 

Special Premium. — Taxidermy Club, $25. 

Creneral. — Mrs. Purdy, $7: Ellis, $19; Oclese, $5; Moore, $7; Peta- 
luma lutubalor Co., $8; Miss Forties, $5; S. J. McFarland, {24; 
Rowan, $10; Lauia Walls. $2; Sewell, $1.50; Piatt, $7; Mrs. Bell, $1; 
Scholefield, $2.50. 


It is stated that 10,000 orange trees will be planted in Fresno 
county this year. They are beginning to find that they can raise 
oranges in Fresno county. 

The horticultural commission of San Bernardino county has filed 
its report, showing a total of 41,674 acres planted to orchards in the 
county. This is an increase ol over too per cent in four years. 

The editor of the San Jose Mercury says that .Santa Clara will this 
year have a fruit output of the value o. $15,000,000, against $10,000,- 
000 for last year. Pretty stiff figures, but a San Jose editor was 
never known to underestimate. 

Bakersfield celebrated recently Ihe completion of the East 
Side iirigaiion canal and the San Miguel and Bakersfield Railroad as 
far as the asphaltum beds. The town and county expect great re- 
sults from Ihe consummation of this enterprise. 

Foggy weather in the Sacramento valley has not been productive 
of physical comfort, but it has conduced to tranquility ot mind 
among hopgrowers. It was precisely what they wanttd. There has 
been little or no frost with the fog, and many ol the principal growers 
have begun plowing. 

Four carloads of scale-in lected Florida orange trees have arrived 
at Sacramento and have been investigated by Stale Inspt ctor Alex- 
ander Craw. Secretary Lelong claims that the maj ority of the citrus 
trees received Irom Florida are infested with either the purple or 
Glover scale, and advises that extraordinary precautions be taken in 
the inspection ot such trees. 

There is a good deal of complaint in Butte county because the 
local supervisors have done away with local fruit tree inspectors. 
The grounds were economy, and the utter uselessnessof such officers. 
As a matter of fact, there is no use for such inspectors where all im- 
ported and other fruit trees are sound and healthy. If Butte county 
has nothing to fear from the pests, it is much more fortunate than 
other places. 

The executive committee of the State Raisin Growers' Association 
recently met at Fresno, and drafted a bill that will be presented in 
the Legislature, and will, if made a law, regulate the meshes tor grad- 
ing raisins and provide for a uniform grade throughout the Stale. 
The committee has also called a meeting of the association to take: 
place at Fresno on February 1st, next, 10 take action relating to the 
maintenance of the r.iisin combine next season. 

The road supervisors of Nevada county complain that Ihe twenty 
cents per mile allowed thein by law as compensation, which in one 
year shall not exceed $300, 10 act as road commissioners is not 
sufficient, no per diem being added ; and Ihe supervisor must travel 
3,000 miles in order to raise his $300. They will ask the legislature 
to corrt CI this feature of the law. A good road supervisor deserves 
fair pay. Unfortunately poor ones have to be paid also. 

January 21, 1898. 



Tbe Almond. 


Davisville, Cal. 
California cannot be excelled for raising almonds; and 
for quick returns and a crop easily, quickly and inexpen- 
sively grown, the almond is the one above all others. It is 
the most easily cared for of any kind of nut or fruit- 
bearing tree. It is extremely hardy and the tree needs 
little or no pruning. The crop may be gathered leisurely. 
There need be no hurry to gather it within a certain time, 
like there is for fruit. It requires no experience or practice 
to harvest the crop, for there is no science needed such as 
there is in handling fruit. We can get our almonds into 
the eastern markets so much earlier than the importers 
that we have the great advantage over them of being able 
to supply the demand first, and consequently get better 
prices. This is one advantage over imported almonds 
which California hardly needs, for the new varieties of 
almonds now grown are so much larger and more beauti- 
fully shaped than the old varieties that our better-looking 
nuts sell for higher prices right alongside of the foreign 
article. The Ne Plus Ultra, California Paper-Shell, I. X 
L. and the Nonpareil are the names of the better varieties. 
They commence bearing in three and four years. There is 
little or no labor attached to the harvesting of a crop 
almonds; and not only that: You can almost choose you 
own ti-ne about harvesting — any time after the nuts are 
ripe; yet it is safer to gather them before any heavy rain 
come. It is liable to blacken them and make it difficult to 
get theu white again. 


The nuts are ready to gather when the hulls open 
disclosing the almond, usually about the middle of Sep 
tember or the first of October. At this time grain-harvest 
ing is over, and there are usually many men to hire out 
to whom you do not have to pay fancy prices. You 
could not get your labor as cheap if your crop ripened in 
the summer. In gathering, a large canvas sheet is spread 
under the tree, and the limljs a^e struck sharp blows with 
poles until all the nuts are shaken off. These poles are of 
the straightest-grained Oregon pine, about 15 feet long and 
inches square, with the edges rounded off a little. This 
striking of the limbs with poles does not injure the tree at 
all, and besides, it hulls a portion of the nuts. 


After gathering, the almonds are put through the hulling 
machine. The almond-huller of the present day is a rather 
incomplete affair. It consists simply of an iron or wooden 
draper run by steam or horsepower, carrying and rubbing 
the unhuUed nuts against a stationary top-piece, which fits 
down just close enough to the draper to allow of the nuts 
passing through without breaking them. This rubbing and 
chafing takes the hull of?, and then the nuts are separated 
from the hulls by the hand. When the necessity comes 
for an almond hulling and separating machine, there will 
no doubt be invented a machine that will hull and separate 
the almonds from the mass of hulls, which will greaily 
cheapen the preparing of the crop for market. This ne 
cessity will soon arrive, for California can grow almonds to 
greater profit than anything else. 

After the almonds are separated from the hulls, the nuts 
are bleached by sulphur fumes. The bleaching-house of 
Webster Treat is about 25 feet by 8 feet, and 4000 pounds 
are generally put in at one time and exposed to the fumes 
of sulphur from four to ten hours, though the longer the 
nuts are bleached the whiter they become. Usually, in 
bleaching soft-shells a little water is sprinkled over them 
before being put in the sulphur-house, for the purpose of 
making them bleach whiter. Care should be taken not to 
put more sulphur in one pan of coals than will completely 
burn; for if too much sulphur is put in at one time there 
will not be a complete combustion, and the soft-sheUs on 
being taken out will smell of the sulphur and the paper- 
shell kernels will taste of it. Mr. Webster Treat's bleach- 
ing-house is boarded with tongue and groove inside and 
out, and roofed with well-laid shingles. A flue about two 
feet high is on the apex to help draft the sulphur fumes up 
and out. The floor is of 1x3 set up edgeways, three- 
eighths of an inch apart, or just wide enough to admit the 
sulphur fumes and yet near enough to prevent the nuts 
falling through. The floor is about two and a half feet 
above the ground, the lower space boarded up with tongue 
and groove and fitted with small doors every five feet to ad- 
mit of placing the pans of burning sulphur underneath the 

After bsing bleached, the almonds are put into burlap 
sacks, which can be bought for about seven cents and hold 
about 55 pounds of almonds. It costs about 2J cents a 
pound to gather, hull, bleach, sack and haul a couple of 
miles and load on the cars. This is allowing a very liberal 
estimate of the cost, for a gentleman offsred to gather, hull 
and bleach almonds for ij cents per pound and put them 
in sacks (I to furnish the sacks). A carload of almonds, as 
given by the Southern Pacific Company in 1891, is 15,000 
pounds at $225 per carload and li cents for overweight; 
this is the rate to Chicago. To New York the rate is about 
$260 per carload, with if cents for overweight. With a 
good machine to do the hulling and separating, the cost 
would be reduced to three-fourths of a cent per pound, 
which is a very liberal estimate. 

The reason that almonds have not been grown success- 
fully heretofore in California is because that old, old vari- 
ety, the Linguedoc, has been the only one planted; and it 
is a terribly poor bearer, giving a good crop about once in 
four years. But now the new varieties which have been 
propagated here bear heavily and regularly and ripen early, 
the advantages of which I have already pointed out. The 
almond tree will commence bearing in about three or four 
years, and will continue to bear in fast-increasing ratio as 
it grows older and larger. I do not know bow long an 

almond tree will conMnue to live and bear, but its lifetime 
is three or four times longer than that of the peach tree. 


The almond tree requires very little pruning. When the 
tree is first set out— say it is an average sized tree three 
feet high— cut off about eight inches of the top; that is all 
the cutting to do to it unless you find along in summer 
that the branches are making a long straight shoot of more 
than three feet; if so. then pinch off the ends of the shoots. 
Let it grow without further pruning till next season. If the 
following winter you find the branches so thick as to seri- 
ously crowd one another, cut out such ones as in your 
judgment you think best. In cutting out branches that 
crowd, it is best to be on the safe side and not cut out too 
many, for all the wood you cut off after the second and 
third year, you must remember, is wood that will soon 
bear. The more you cut a tree, the more it will grow to 
wood. The less you cut the more limbs yiu have on the 
tree to bear. However, no set rules can be given that may 
be followed every time. Your own judgment must be used 
to some extent. 

Of course it is understood that the way of pruning here 
given will not give the tree a nice, pretty shape, such as 
you have seen pictures of, probably in Downing's " How 
to Grow Fruits." But an elegant shape is not what is 
wanted. What we want is a big tree as soon as possible, 
with plenty of limbs on it to bear. We are supposed to 
be growing almond trees for profit, not for their beauty. 
The Anderson Bros, here at Davisville have an almond 
orchard of 55 acres and last year the trees, three and four 
years old, netted them nearly S5000. This year the trees 
are much larger and they estimate between $10,000 and 
$12,000 worth of almonds. Percy Treat. 

California Prodncts in Boston. 

Mr. C. F. Wyer, a fruitgrower of the Winters region, was 
in Boston at Christmas-time and writes of his observations 
to the Winters Express, as follows: 

I was surprised to find our .California black fig has not 
reached this market, while our earliest pears have not been 
sufficiently introduced to create any demand, or gain popu 
larity. The quotations given you are wholesale figures to 
the trade. Unpeeled peaches do not, as yet, meet with 
favor in this market, the consumer preferring the peeled 
peach. The unpeeled sell for 14 cents a pound, while the 
peeled range from 20 to 25 cents a pound. French prunes 
are selling from 10 to 12J cents a pound, 10 cents being the 
price for the four sizes, viz : 60s, 705, 80s, and 90s, while 
the latter price is for 40s and 505. Apricots are command 
ing from 13J to 15 cents a pound in sacks, and in some 
instances, where the goods are choice, bring as high as 17 
to 18 cents in boxes, Turkey supplies the demand for figs. 
The ruling prices at present range from five to seven cents 
a pound in sacks and from 9 to 13 cents a pound in boxes, 
according to quality. 

We have room for considerable improvement in the 
handling, packing, etc., of the fig. As for raisins, the 
markets seems to be very much depressed, and a wide 
range in prices for London layers prevails. They are selling 
from $1 25 to $2.55 per box; three-crown loose Muscatels 
bring from four to five cents in sacks; two-crown loose 
Muscatels from 324^ to 4J cents, seedless from 3J to 
cents — 33^ cents, of course, b^ing for inferior stock. There 
is no demand in this market for dried grapes — the call for 
them coming from the western States. 

Our almonds are very popular and sell for from 14 to 17 
cents a pound, and the paper shells retail as high as 28 
cents a pound. The kernel is full and contains from 40 to 
60 per cent more weight than almonds from other pirts. 
Walnuts are selling for about 9,'/ cents a pound. 

The que tion of overproduction in our California products 
seems to be an absurdity if they are properly distributed. 
Since leaving California I have not seen 1000 frui:-trees, and if 
they were in our orchards, owing to their sickly appearance 
they would soon be either dug up or grafted to some vari- 
ety that would prove more profitable. 

ACTicultnral Statistics. 

Napa, Cal., Jan. 9, 1893. 
To the Editor : — In your issue of Jan. 7th you call 
attention to the great want of reliable statistics from this 
State, and justly so, as no one knows better than myself. 
The Department of Agriculture, in whose service I have 
worked for some years now, does all it can to keep the 
farmers and fruitgrowers posted in that respect; but what 
can we do if the farmers themselves do not help us and the 
State reports are so unreliable as not to mention even, in 
many counties, some of the leading products ? You have 
xplained so well why we cannot expect them to be cor- 
rect that it is needless for me to reiterate. I take this oc- 
casion to thank the many industrious correspondents I have 
some counties for their kind efforts to help us, and also 
the press of the State, your valuable paper especially, for 
the information I have been able to glean, and from which 
am compelled to make my reports. But I am still with- 
out direct correspondents from 24 counties, as follows : 
Alpine, Amador, Del Norte, El Dorado, Glenn, Inyo, 
Kern, Lassen, Marin, Mariposa, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, 
Plumas, Sacramento, San Benito, San Mateo, Siskiyou, 
onoma, -Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne, Yolo. Will 
not some one in each of these counties send me his address, 
so that I can send him the monthly circulars to fill out ? 
If he is an enterprising farmer or fruitgrower, he is surely 
posted on the condition and price of crops and stock, and 
will take him but a few minutes to fill out the circular 
nd mail it. We can offer no further compensation than 
the monthly reports of the Department, which are sent 

direct to a/l correspondents, and such seeds as are sent out 
annually for trial. But these reports themselves will cer- 
tainly be a full equivalent for the labor required, with the 
consciousness that it is by its help we are enabled to make 
them as near correct as possible. 

Let me suggest to a// my correspondents that they 
specially notice, under the head of remarks, any climatic 
or other conditions, such as drouth, wet, floods, hail, etc., 
which have had an influence on the abundance or scarcity 
of crops; also any new industries whicti may have devel- 
oped. Our State has so many resources which are devel- 
oping gradually, and which will have the tendency to make 
it what it ought to be, the greatest and richest State in the 
Union, that I have made it a point, in my special report to 
the Department, to notice any new branches of industry, 
together with the older ones, which promise well and which 
California alone, perhaps, has the climatic conditions to de- 
velop. Will not our many intelligent farmers and fruit- 
growers help me in this, which is certainly for the benefit 
of aU, and will have the tendency to bring such immi- 
gration as we need — men with willing hands and brain, 
who can see that they can make a good investment when 
they bring these together with what capital they may have 
to a State which will yield them fair returns, and where 
they can live in comfort, secure from blizzards, cyclones 
and extremities of heat and cold. 

I am glad to see that the press of the State acknowledges 
and appreciates the efforts made by the Department to ex- 
tend our markets and benefit the farmers. It is our repre- 
sentative and we should do all in our power to increase its 
usefulness ^nd strengthen its hands by using our itfluence 
in Congress and out of it to make it more and more what 
it should be by liberal appropriations and active help. 

George Husmann, 

S. S. Agent, Dept. of Agriculture. 

(She JStock "Y'a'ID. 

Market Wanted for All -Purpose Horses. 

The all-purpose horse of California has the greatest 
trouble finding a profitable market. The California "horse 
counties" are overstocked with them and ranchers and 
horsemen find them a positive burden. The suggestion of 
Mr. A. F. Jewett, in a letter to the Hanford Sentinel, a 
part of which is appended, are timely; but to these should 
be added that, before shipment East, more definite informa- 
tion as to the condition of the market there be secured, 
and specific arrangements for the consignment and hand- 
ling of the horses should be made. Mr. Jewett says: 

Another problem- now confronts the producers of the 
Lucerne country, which is, " How shall we dispose of our 
surplus stock of horses at living prices." Not those grow- 
ing up, but those now ready but vainly seeking a market. 
There are now in western Tulare alone not less than 1000 
horses ready to put on sale could a buyer be found; of this 
number more than half are excellent animals, sound, young 
and well-bred. The markets of this State are practically 
blocked, except for animals of heavy draft, which are some- 
what scarce, and every year adds a large number to the 
surplus. After a horse has been matured, each year les- 
sens his value, besides the cosi of keeping him — -vhich is 
$15 to $18 yearly. 

Many persons breed the mares which they cannot sell, 
hoping to make them pay expenses by so doing. But this 
only makes matters worse, if no market can be found, par- 
ticularly if the animals are small or of poor stock. When 
horses capable of service are killed outright, and their car- 
casses fed to swine, because there is no sale for them or 
use they can be put to to earn their keeping; and others sold 
under the auctioneer's hammer at $2 50 per head — many 
really good ones of fair size, young, gentle and broke to 
harness, going for less than a two years' pasture bill — it is 
time that our horsemen awaken to the situation and do 
something to relieve the country of its surplus stock perma- 
nently. 1 

These are the conditions. What is .the remedy ? Here 
it is: Ship all good horses of four years old and over, for 
which a market cannot be found at home, E ist, and in the 
future, breed less horses and then only the best, and each 
kind adapted to some particular use. Don't mix them up. 
The old-time theory of breeding an all-purpose horse is a 
fallacy. That kind of an animal is not wanted in any 
market of the world now, and never was, only people did 
not know it, because when horses were scarce, any kind 
capable of service would sell. The draft, the trotting-bred 
and the thoroughbred are the kinds wanted. If you want 
an all-purpose animal get a mule. " Jack of all trades, 
but master of none " applies to the horse as well as to man. 

The well-known fact that our railroad companies have 
always charged for transportation, and do now, more than 
the traffic will bear, and by so doing, kept this country a 
cattle range for years after it should have been settled up, 
does not prove that our surplus stock of salable horses 
cannot be shipped east of the Rocky mountains and dis- 
posed of at a profit to the raiser. 

Persons who are in a position to know 
slightest hesitation, that the experiment, 
called, is a safe one. 

Live Stock Notes. 

if it 

without the 
may be so 

It is not desirable to have the ewes that are to lamb in 
the win'er or spring very fat, but they should have plenty 
of good firm flesh and muscle. Oats or barley, either with 
fine dry or early-cut straw, will make this and at the same 
time promote the milk flow, while corn, cornmeal, oilcake 
and clover-hay, make too much fat. Not all of the ewes 
that are too fat have bad luck themselves or with their 
lambs. If with his feed there is the additional fault of tft<> 
little exercise, there is very sure to be weak lambs,'''.i'fl 
ew^s that are liable to fever after the lambing, that is very 




January 21, 1893 

much like the milk fever in cows, though 
marked by different symptoms. Even the 
exertion of getting food from whole roots is 
belter than no exercise at all. 

One reason why unthreshed oats, or oats 
and peas, make good sheep feed, is that they 
are not as heating as the more carbon- 
aceous food, like clover and cornmeal. The 
use of too much heating food may cause a 
shedding of the wool, which means not only 
a loss of wool, but a reduced strength and 
vitality of the animal. 

Chicago market reports say that the farm- 
ers and ranchmen are culling their herds 
very closely, and selling their amimals in 
poor condition for what they bring as "can- 
ners," thinking that it does not pay to put 
out good feed on them in the winter, prefer- 
ring to use it for stock that will give better 
returns for their feed. 

There are not many of what are called 
the nutritive elements in pure salt, but as a 
stimulant to digestion it is valuable. Cattle 
drink moie. eat more, digest it belter, and 
grow faster or produce more when they have 
just salt enough. This is applicable to cer- 
tain foods that have a value beyond that 
found bv the ctiemirt-. — Am. Cul ivitor. 

Improved Method of Slaughtering 

There is no necessity to have a crowd of 
men about, to kill and dress a few hogs. 
There is no reason why a farmer with his 
dozen pigs may not make use of some of the 
simple mechanical appliances that are used 
by the great slaughterers. Of course it is 
not suggested that he should have any costly 
apparatus, but there are some readily-made 
devices by which one man may do as much 
as three or four, and, with one helper, the 
dozen pigs may be made into finished pork 
between breakfast and dinner, and without 
any excitement or worry or hard work. 

It is supposed that the pigs are in a pen 
or pens, where they may be easilv roped by 
a noose around one hind leg. This being 
done the animal is led to the door and 
guided into a box, having a slide do.or to 
shut it in. The bottom of the box is a 
hinged lid. A-i soon as the pig is safely in 
the box and shut in by sliding down the 
back door, and fastening it by a hook, the 
box is turned over, bringing the pig on his 
back. The bottom of the box is opened 
immediately, and one seizes a hind foot, to 
hold the animal, while the other sticks the 
pig in the usual manner. The box is 
turned and lifted off from the pig, which, 
still held by the rope, is guided to the 
dressing bench. All this is d me while the 
previous pig is being scalded and dressed, 
or at such a part of the work that as soon 
as one pig is hung and cleaned, the next 
one is ready for the scalding. 

The scalding-vat is a wooden box with 
a sheet-iron bottom, so that a small fire may 
be kept under it to maintain the proper 
heat of the water. This is 180° Fahr. or 
82° 0.; or the vat may be replenished with 
hot water from an adjacent boiler. This 
vat is placed close against the dressing- 
table, 80 that the carcass may be rolled on 
to a barred table that is immersed in the 
hot water the full depth, This barred table 
may be made in various ways. It may con- 
sist of slats, fastened at each end, and the 
middle to chains, by strong staples, so that 
it is pliable, and the hog may be embraced 
by it and easily turned out of the water by 
two short rope-handles, or one attached to a 
pulley-block on a bar over it. 

As the carcass is dressed it is lifted by a 
hook at the end of a swivel-lever mounted 
on a post and swung around to the haneing 
bar, placed conveniently. This bar has 
sliding hooks made to receive the gambrel 
sticks which have a hook permanently at- 
tached to each so that the carcass is quickly 
removed from iht^ swivel-lever to the slide 
hook on the bar. The upper edge of 'he 
bar is rounded and smoothed and greased to 
help the hooks to slide on it. This serves to 
hang all the pigs on the bar until they are 
cooled. If four persons are employed, this 
work may go on very quickly, as they may 
divide the work between them, and one pig 
be scalding and cleaning while another is 
being dressed. The entrails should be 
dropped into a wheelbarrow, as they are 
taken from the animal. 

When 10 or 12 pigs are dressed every 
year it will pay to have a suitable building 
arranged for it. An excellent place may be 
made in the driveway between a double 
corncrib, or in a wagonshed or an annex to 
the barn where the feeding pen is placed. 
The building should have a stationary 
boiler in it, and such a,)paratus as has been 
suggesicd, and a wiudla«» used to do the 
lifting, — American Agriculturist, 

G[xPE[^iMENT Stations. 

Root Knots on Fruit Trees and Vines. 

University Experiment Station Bulie- 
tin No. 99. 

Iktboductoky Note. — The subject upon 
which Prof. Woodworth makes the following 
interesting statement has perplexed California 
fruitgrowers for many years. Almost every- 
thing imaginable has been cited as a probable 
cause; conditions of droutli or of excessive mois- 
ture were among the earb'est causes assigned, 
and some prejudice against nursery stock 
grown by irrigation was created. An investi- 
gation by a committee of the State Horti- 
cultural Society about 1880 showed that the 
knotted roota were found quite as abundant 
in unirrigated land as in irrigated, and othe>'- 
wise the inquiry yielded no definite resuUs. 
For some time many nurserymen followed the 
practice of removing the knots from the trees 
as dug from the row, but this was abandoned 
when it was found that the knot commonly re- 
appeared after planting in the orchard. At 
present no reputable nurseryman sells such 
trees; they are burned at the nursery. 

In my personal examination of knots, which 
has continued for 15 years, I have but on one 
occasion found a nematode gall and that was 
upon the root of an English walnut sent from 
Los Angeles county. Nearly all the others were 
of the charactflr described by Prof. Woodworth 
as " crown galls," although they are found in 
many cases farther down on the roots. Some 
orchardists have been at great expense in lay- 
ing bare (he roots and smoothly paring the 
roots and applying various substances to the 
roots. In most cases the knots have reappeared 
snbseTuently. Others have laid bare the knot- 
hnrdened root crown to the sun and the knots 
h^ve flaked off, but others have been found 
afterward lower down on the roots. 

It must be acknowledged that the cause of 
the evil and its cure are still unknown, and it 
is to be hoped thst Prof. Woodworth's study 
of the subject, which is still in progress, may 
reach definite conclusions. His advice not to 
plant a diseased root should be zealously ad- 
heted to by all planters. Probably during the 
last 20 years, hundreds of thousands of such 
trees have spindled and died in the best soil 
and with the best freatniert. If the disease 
has stunted the growth of a young tree, pluck 
it out and plant a new one. If knots arp found 
on larger trees, which are making satisfactory 
growth in spite of them, remedial measures 
should be tried. The final result seems to de- 
pend upon whether the natural or the diseased 
growth secures the ascendancy early in the life 
of the tree, for apricot trees have h^en taken up 
after 30 years of satisfactory growth and bear- 
ing, and found to have roots badly infested 
with the knots. E. J. Wickson, 

Acting Director. 

There is no one thing about which so 
many inquires have been received as a pecu- 
liar form of root-knot or gall on a number of 
plants, but chiefly grape and apricot. These 
knots are of irregular shape, fleshy and 
mostly situated at or about the crown of the 

On different plants they present a some- 
what different appearance, but they are so 
near alike in structure as to prove that they 
must all be due to practically the same 

This form of gall has received a number 
of local names, the most widely used of 
which is that of " black knot," particularly 
for the form that occurs on the grape. This 
is an objectionable name, as it has long 
been used in the eastern States for a very 
different kind of gall that occurs on the 
stems of cherries and related plants. On 
account of its presence at the crown of the 
root, almost invariably, it may be called the 
crown gall or knot, so as to distinguish it 
from other forms of root galls, of which 
there are quite a number of kinds, sometimes 
with much the same general appearance as 
the crown gall, but which show a decided 
preference for the other parts of the roots. 

The crown galls arise generally from one 
side of the crown as a simple swelling of 
fleshy substance of about the consistency of 
a potato or perhaps somewhat harder. They 
soon become irregularly granular over the 
surface and dark-brown in color, the outer 
parts of the granulations into which the 
surface is divided being the darkest. When 
cut or broken open they are almost white 
at first, but very soon become reddish-brown 
on exposure to the air. Under the micro- 
scope, they may be seen to be composed of 
large, thin-walled cells, with now and then 
the distorted and scattered elements of the 
fibro-vascular bundles. 

A young gall of this kind contains very 
much water, and on drying, bf comes sponge- 
like in appearance, and is very light and 
quite hard. Older knots are similar, but 
harder, and dry into harder and firmer 
masses, which do not shrink or become 
sponge-like. In size the crown gall varies 
greatly, beiug olten as large as one's fist and 
sometimes much larger, especially in the 

Of other root galls, we may distinguish 
five different kinds : 

Ist. Mechanical galls, which are slight 
swellings,^ sometimes produced at points 
where the roots meet obstructions, and are 
quite common on the roots of some plants 
in a stony soil. They may be told at once 
from a crown gall by their comparatively 
smooth surface, and by the fact that they 
only accompany an abrupt bend of the root. 
They are only slight swellings and flatten- 
ings of the root, and are seldom found any- 
where near the crown. Indeed, they are 
the form of root gall least likely to be mis- 
takea for the crown gall. 

2d. Louse galls due to the attacks of 
plant lice. Those caused by the phylloxera 
and woolly aphis are well-known examples. 
They are almost always of small size, oc- 
curring on both large and small root', and 
as often at the crown as elsewhere. The 
presence of the lice is generally suflScient 
as a distinguishing character, though their 
small size may render them hard to be 

3d. Tubercle galls found only on the 
roots of plants of the pea family. Only the 
smaller roots are affected. The gall is 
about an eighth of an inch or less in di- 
ameter, the whole inside of which is 
swarming with minute moving particles 
which appear to be bacteria. They play 
an important role in the acquisition by 
the plant of nitrogen from the air. The 
small size of these galls and their presence 
only on the small roots will distinguish 
them from th*> crown galls. 

4th. Club-foot galls produced by a 
slime-mold (Plasmodium brassicae), on the 
roots of cabbages and such plants. These 
galls are somewhat yellowish when broken 
open, which color is due to the presence of 
the slime-mold in great abundance in the 
diseased tissues of the gall. They may be 
distinguished from the crown galls by not 
being so knotlike, but being much more 
closely attached to the plant. 

5th. Nematode galls which are due to 
minute worms resembline very much the 
so-called vinegar eels. They are found on 
the roots of a great number of plants. The 
worms are so small that ordinarily they 
will not be seen without examining sections 
under the microscope. The small size of 
the eall, and its presence chiefly on the 
smaller roots, will distinguish it from the 
crown gall. 

There are several theories as to the cause 
of the crown gall, but none of them are 
without very serious objections. One idea 
is that these galls are the result of wounds 
made in cultivation, and I think it has 
been proven that at least in a few cases the 
galls have followed such wi unds. In at- 
tempting to heal a wound, as is well known, 
the plant will often produce at that point 
a slight swelling, and it is argued that at 
the crown the conditions are such that a 
large swelling will result. There are, how- 
ever, a number of fatal objections to this 
hypothesis. Neither is the crown gall the 
uniform result of a wound, nor is a wound, 
at least one made by human agency, neces- 
sary to produce a gall, though it would 
be bold to as-iert that there had never been 
a wound of any kind at the point where the 
gall is produced. The most fatal objection 
to this hypothesis is the fact that the ap- 
pearance, the manner of growth and all the 
phenomena connected with the crown gall 
are so different from those of a healing 
wound that there seems scarcely any reason 
to connect the two. 

Another theory is that they are due to 
peculiar conditions of the weather, such as 
frosts, excessive rains and such things at 
a critical time in the spring, causing an 
abnormal stagnation or an excessive flow of 
sap, and the gall is the result. These sup- 
positions are scarcely reconcilable with the 
facts of plant physiology, and it has never 
been observed that these galls are produced 
in particular abundance immediately fol- 
lowing any peculiar spring condition. 
Indeed, the idea seems t<i arise from the 
general tendency to ascribe every abnormal 
coudition of a plant to the weather. 

A third theory is that they are due to 
some of the fungi related perhaps to that 
which produces the true black knot. The 
only objection to this theory is that no such 
fungus has ever been observed about the 
knots, at least not in the living knots, and 
it may be that a more careful study than 
has yet been made will show that such fun- 
gus does occur. 

Finally, as has become quite the fashion 
of late years, the bacteria have been charged 
with the injury. I myself ha^e succeeded 
in getting pure cultures of a micrococcus 
fiom the inside of some of the knots, after 
taking all the usual precautions to prevent 
accidental contamination. I do not succeed, 
however, with all knots of this kind, and 
not having further evidence, such as, for 
instance, the communication of the disease 
to healthy plants, we are not in a position 
to say that we have found the cause. 

The presence of a gall at the crown of a 
plant seems to effect an obstruction to the 
flow of the sap, and in this way a tree or 
vine becomes weakened and finally dies. 
The gall generally attacks small plants, but 
not always, and it often takes a number of 
years before the plant is killed. 

Whatever the cause, many fruitgrowers 
in California have had reason to know the 
seriousness of the injury produced, so the 
following words in regard to remedies and 
prevention will not be out of place. Not 
knowing the cause, they can be but sugges- 
tions, but it is believed that the treatment 
laid down is the safest procedure. 

First, in the orchard the knots should be 
carefully removed and burned as soon as 
found, and an antiseptic application made 
to the tree where the knot has been re- 
moved. We would recommend Bordeaux 
mixture for this purpose. Trees so treated 
should be examined from time to time for 
at least a year, and should the knot reap- 
pear, it would be best to remove and destroy 
the whole tree. When a tree is removed, it 
would be well to delay resetting for a year 
or two, or to reset with a tree of an un- 
susceptible kind. 

Second, when setting an orcha»d, reject 
all stock affected by the knot. I would pre- 
fer to have stock from a nursery known to 
be entirely free from it. 

Third, in the nursery the greatest care 
should be taken to destroy by burning ev- 
erything showing any evidence of the dis- 
ease. Fields in which these galls have 
appeared should be devoted to some other 
crop for a number of years. 

C. W. Woodworth, 

December 1, 1892. Berkeley, Cal. 

A New Nozzle Tester. 

The latest acquisition in the line of ap- 
paratus for experimentation is a new nozzle- 
tester that has just been constructed at the 
University of California. There are many 
kinds of spray nozzles on the market, and 
excellent ones, too, but they are of widely 
different types and so are not equally suit- 
able for the same use. There has not been 
as yet any attempt to determine carefully 
and accurately their relative merits. This 
the University Experfment Station now 
proposes to do. 

The most conspicuous part of the new 
nozzle-tester is a large tank intended to 
maintain a constant pressure. From the 
lower part of this tank a large pipe leads to 
the apparatus, to which the nozzle is at- 
tached. The large diameter of this pipe 
makes the friction of the water flowing 
through it practically nothing. Just before 
the point where the nozzle is attached there 
is a steam gauge to register the pressure and 
a mercury manometer for determining more 
accurately the lower pressures. It is hardly 
worth while at present to attempt to de- 
scribe the various contrivances for the ac- 
curate measurement of the action of the 
nozzle and of the spray, as they will all be 
fully described and illustrated in a later 
bulletin, where also the results of actual 
tests of the more common nozzles in the 
market will be given. 

The data that will be determined for each 
nozzle under different pressures is as 

1. Volume of discharge per second. 

2. Velocity of steam jmt in front of the 

3. Distance the spray is thrown. 

4. Angle of dispersion. 

5. Average fineness of spray. 

6. Distribution of spray. 

7. Uniformity in fineness. 

It is believed that by such a study of new 
nozzles the following questions may be 

1. The best types of nozzles for particular 

2. The conditions under which each 
nt zzle gives its best results. 

3. The changes in the construction of any 
nozzle which will make it more available for 
any particular purpose. 

We also intend to study old nozzles, com- 
paring them with new ones of the same kind 
to determine: 

1. The cause and amount of deterioration. 

2. Changes in construction which might 
overcome these defects. 

We would like to receive from manufac- 
turers and dealers in spraying apparatus 
specimens of their nozzles for experiment. 
For the study of old nozzles we would like- 
wise request fruitgrowers and others to for- 
ward to us their old nozzles together with a 
statement as to the extent and kind of 
washes that have been used in them. The 
data in regard to »11 nozzles tested will be 
published in full with illustrations in the 
bulletins and reports of the Experiment Sta- 
tion, and the nozzles will be preserved and 
exhibited in the museum of the department. 


Berkeley, Dec. 16, 1892. 

January 21, 1893. 


jJgricultural X^otes. 



Chico Enterprise: Senator Stanford has com- 
pleted negotiations for the purchase of the 
Butler ranch, near Tehama, being a part of 
what was formerly known as ihe Toomes 
grant. The present purchase consists of about 
3000 acres, most of which is first-class farming 
land. The price paid was $100,000. These were 
Mr. Butler's figures, but a less sum was offered 
and refused. 

Chico Enterprise: Mr. V. David, who has be- 
come quite enthusiastic over sugar beet culture 
in this section, and who has spent his time and 
money in urging the farmers to cultivate beets 
by supplying them with seed, has been experi- 
menting in a small way with some beets grown 
in this vicinity. He sliced up 15 pounds of 
beet and, in a common pan on the top of an 
oifice stove, cooked that amount for the saccha- 
rine matter that was in it, and has as a prod- 
uct li pounds of thick syrup. 

Oroville Register: The profits, as shown by 
Mrs. E. Robinson, F. Gloss, J. O. Loomis and 
others of Placer county, show that the olive in 
Butte county will pay better than any other 
tree. Dr. Clark, of Auburn, realized $200 an 
acre from six-year-old trees. Many in Butte 
are planting extensively, among whom are 
Judge Grav, at Wyandotte, who has 10,000 
trees; Hearst & Taylor, of Palermo, 9000 trees; 
Dr. W. E. Mack and Mrs. Jenkins, of Paradise, 
■5000 trees, while there are many others in all 
parts of the county. 


Chops.— Colusa Sun: We have not started in 
on the crop season in first-class shape. The 
very hard rain coming on the summerfallow 
before the grain was up has made a crust on all 
the lands in which clay predominates, and this 
includes some of our best wheat lands. The 
consequence will be a bad stand on such lands, 
and a bad stand allows the sun and wind of the 
whole season to parch the crust thus formed so 
as to pinch the plant. We have suggested to 
several farmers the feasibility of harrowing the 
ground and putting on a little more seed before 
the plant gets too large, and the idea has been 
indorsed. It is very often the case that it will 
do good to cultivate wheat with a heavy har- 
row. No plant, from a wheatstock up to a 
pear tree, will do so well with the land pinched 
and baked around it as it will with the soil 
cultivated. We are satisfied that half the 
wheat area of the county would be benefited 
by cultivation in this way, whether more seed 
should be put in or not. 

Contra Costa. 

The Concord Su7i reports that 3000 almond 
trees have been planted in the J. W. Channel 
orchard, in Mt. Diablo valley; also that three 
date trees about five feet high are flourishing 
finely in the same orchard. 


TSmes: The squash which has been on exhi- 
bition in the window of McNamara & Silver 
wood's store was opened and the seeds counted. 
There were 268 seeds in it, and the first prize of 
$20 was won by Charles Potter, who guessed 
the exact number. 

At the Humboldt creamery, near Ferndale, 
from March 14, 1892, to December 30, 1892, 
they purchased 2,166,816 pounds of milk, and 
made 91,272 pounds of butter, the value of 
which was $22,945. The above figures do not 
include skimmed milk. 

.Times: The farmers and dairymen in the 
vicinity of Hydesville held a meeting in that 
town last Wednesday, at which steps were 
taken to organize a creamery company and 
build and operate a creamery. It was decided 
to organize an association having a paid-up 
capital stock of 100 shares at $50 a share. Near- 
ly two-thirds of the stock has already been 


The Standard says: When the 78 irrigation 
canal is completed, it will cover 200,000 acres of 
fine land lying east and south of Sumner. 


Lakeport Democrat: A. H. Poe killed one of 
the largest wildcats we have ever seen, last 
Tuesday morning. He caught him in a steel 
trap, and it was a monster. He measured two 
feet and nine inches from tip to tip. Mr. Poe 
has captured two coyotes lately, besides quite a 
number of other small varmints. 


Mail: One of our reporters visited the Wat- 
son ranch yesterday, where he was invited to 
witness a hog-killing contest. Thirty-two hogs 
were slaughtered and hung up between the 
hours of 10 A. M. and 6 p. m. The two heaviest 
porkers weighed 520 and 540 pounds re- 

Los Anseles. 

The orange shipment from Downey com- 
menced last week with one carload for San 
Francisco, one for Ogden and one for Butte, 

Los Angeles Express: A new society has been 
organized in Antelope valley, styled the Rabbit 
Rustlers.. If the society rustles »s hard as the 
rabbits do in that locality, it will become a 
formidable organization. 

The walnut growers of Ranchito and Los 
Nietos will have at the World's Fair a tower 24 
feet high, constructed of plate glass and filled 
with walnnts. The tower will also be sur- 
mounted by an immense wooden walnut. 

Pomona Progreu: A leading merchant in 
Pomona informs us to-day that he knows our 

townsman James Becket has recently been 
offered $3500 for the crop of Navel oranges on 
his six acres of trees on the Holt avenue, and 
that the offer was declined with the expectation 
of getting more money later in the season, when 
the Florida oranges are out of the market. 

Last year Mrs. Strong of Whittier raised 
2,000,000 plumes, the crop during the present 
season being 1,750,000. Of these, 100,000 were 
sold in this country for use during the cam- 
paign, and 650,000 were disposed of in Europe. 
The remaining 1,000,000 are reserved for use at 
the World's fair, 10,000 being needed for the in- 
terior decoration of the California building 

Pomona THtnes: Mr. C. L. Loud of Loud & 
Gerling has made a careful estimate of the 
orange crop in and about this city. He places 
the amount at 210 carloads. He estimates the 
value of the fruit on the trees at $2 per box for 
Navels, $1 for Seedlings and $1.50 for other va- 
rieties, making from $90,000 to $100,000 for the 
crop on the trees. Those who pick and deliver 
at packing-houses will of course get higher 

Pomona Progress: Hiram Kinney has a four- 
acre walnut orchard, 12 years old, on his farm 
near Downey that has annually borne a crop 
worth not less than $950 for five years. Mr, 
Kinney told us the other day that the price 
paid for the nuts varied each year from 6 to 9i 
cents. He never had the least bit of trouble in 
finding a market for the crop. Mr. K. reckons 
that his last English walnut crop paid him an 
average of $5.25 a tree; and as he has 80 trees to 
the acre, the gross receipts from an acre of nuts 
are $420. In 1889 the crop from the 320 trees 
sold 'for exactly $1164. In 1890 the crop 
brought $1125. There is no work about an En- 
glish walnut orchard compared with a prune, 
orange or lemon orchard, and the net profits 
therefore run high. 


The Board of Supervisors of Mariposa county 
by a majority vote refuse to issue the $75,000 
road bonds formerly voted by the Mariposa 
county people for new road-making purposes 


Potter Four Corners: Skating on the sloughs 
is pronounced excellent by those who have 
tried it, and yet the sun shines warm and spring 
like and the frogs keep up their singing as 
though winter never existed. 


Over 200 head of cattle are being fattened at 
the Moro Cojo ranch for Monterey butchers 
There is a great abundance of feed for them in 
the beet-fields, as the beets are cut quite deep 
and a large supply of mammoth beets have to 
be left over. 

Watsonville Pajaronian: Over 4000 acres of 
land have been contracted for beets for this 
year, and a large acreage has been engaged and 
the contracts will be signed in due time. This 
estimate is exclusive of the Moro Cojo ranch 
and a large part of the Cooper ranch. 


Newcastle News: The Auburn papers state 
that the carload of oranges recently sent from 
this place was the first full carload of oranges 
ever shipped from here. Such is not a fact, 
says the Newcastle News. The Cooperative 
Fruit Company shipped a full carload of the 
yellow fruit several years ago. There has been 
a steady growth in volume of the crop, how 
ever, as our fruit is early and is shipped in less 
than carload lots. 


According to the records, 176 coyotes were 
killed in Sacramento county during the last 

San Benito 

Advocate: Coyote scalps to the number of 154 
were filed with the county clerk for the quarter 
ending January 31, 1892. 

San Bernardino. 

It is estimated that Riverside will this year 
pay out $180,000 for labor to pick and pack its 

Orange Belt: Sylvester Sawdey brought 'in 
samples of his last season's raisin crop that 
were very fine in flavor and of delicate texture 
of skin and pulp. They were grown on vines 
one year old from the cutting and are a good 
illustration of the productiveness of Rialto 


Redlands Oitrograph : R. J. Waters' young 
Navel orchard, on Center street, breaks th 
record for bearing. The orchard contains 4i 
acres and the trees were planted in March 
1889. The estimated crop this year is 300 boxes 
Oranges are now selling for $3.50 per box, f. o 
b., which gives $1050 as the proceeds of the 4i 

The price of beets at the Chino ranch for th 
coming season will be $3.50 per ton for 12-per 
cent beets, and 40 cents per ton for each per 
cent above 12, instead of 25 cents, as paid here 
tofore. The Champion fignres that this will 
bring an increase of $35,000 on the season' 

San Diego. 

The Perris and Bear Valley irrigation dis 
trict, at their recent meeting, sold $14,500 worth 
of bonds at 90 cents, $6000 being taken by th 
.(Etna Iron Works of Bridgeport, Con., and 
$8500 by the Bear Valley Company. Bids for 
laying laterals will be opened soon, and the 
entire district of 13,444 acres will be irrigable. 
The district collector has received $22 000 in 

San Joaauin. 

A Dexter Prince filly, the property of Dan 
McCarty, broke her neck one day last week in 
Lodi while in training. The animal reared 
and fell, nistaining the injuries as stated. Sh 
was valued at $2r"" 

San Luis Obispo. 

Arroyo Grande Herald : On Monday after- 
noon last C. L. Bandy, a gentleman 64 years of 
age, was gored by an infuriated cow near his 
residence in the eastern end of town and seri- 
ously and dangerously injured. 

Tribune: The Godfrey ranch is undergoing 
a metamorphosis. Before the year is out old 
settlers, to whom the ranch has been familiar 
from childhood, will lose themselves while 
crossing it. A thousand acres in one body is 
leased to Mr. Winchester, who will put it all 
into grain. Yestererday 500 acres more were 
leased to another successful farmer, with the 
privilege to purchase. Several sales are on the 
tapis, and will be consummated as soon as the 
surveyors complete their work. All through 
the Las Tablas there is a quickening of the 
vital pulses of the community. Every intelli- 
gent man, woman and child realizes that a 
great change is at hand. The old order will 
make way for the new. The picturesque 
vacquero will have to seek other pastures, and 
the sturdy granger will be given a chance. 

Santa Clara. 

Gilroy Advocate: The directors of the Farmers' 
Cooperative Union have declared a dividend of 
$4 a share. The prosperity of the business dur- 
ing the past nine months, the time of the union's 
existence, warrants the payment of this divi- 
dend, which is equivalent to lOS per cent for 
the year. The dividend is payable on demand 
of the shareholders. 

Gilroy Advocate: Mr. Britton is planting 
1100 prune trees this week on the Farman place 
recently bought by him on the Carnadero. He 
is planting one-year-old trees which have been 
raised without irrigation at San Jose. 


Dixon Dnbune: John Deatherage brought to 
our office on Thursday a sample box of large 
and luscious strawberries. He has been pick- 
ing berries from his vines continuously since 
the first day of April, and they are now covered 
not only with ripe fruit, but blossoms which 
will develop into fruit later on. 


Covina Argus: If some unforeseen calamity 
does not befall the orange crop of Covina, it 
will be a very heavy one considering the age of 
the trees. The four or five year old orchards 
are very heavily loaded, in fact the trees have 
too many oranges on them, and the branches 
have to be propped up to keep the fruit from 
doing the tree damage. 


Tulare Times: A gray wolf was recently 
killed near La Grange. These animals are sel- 
dom seen in that valley. 

It is said that the Tulare irrigation tax this 
season amounted to $60,000. This heavy drain 
on the pockets of the taxpayers made money 
scarce about Christmas-time. 


Hanford Journal: R. Starkweather, manager 
of the Grangers' Bank business here, reports a 

large quantity of seed wheat going out— much 
larger than at this time last year, the prospects 
being most favorable for a good wheat season. 
He has 5000 acres himself seeded in the vicinity 
of Dinuba and Summit lake. 

Hanford Jourrud: Sam Bee, the butcher, is 
in the pork-packing business now, and is man- 
ufacturing about 500 hogs into hams, bacon, salt 
pork, etc. He puts up a large amount of this 
product every year, and has no trouble dispos- 
ing of it at good figures. He says, and we be- 
lieve he is right in the proposition, that a joint 
stock company, formed of hog-growers and 
others, could, with a capable man to do the 
packing, manufacture the hogs raised in this 
county into a good quality of ham, bacon, etc., 
and make a good profit out of it. The money 
paid for freight and to outside packers could 
thus be kept at home and be a benefit to the 
entire county. He shows his belief in the suc- 
cess of the enterprise by offering to take stock 
in such a company. 


Independent: Deer are often seen in the hills 
near Sonora. A herd of eight was seen in one 
place a mile east of town, and a big buck 
jumped a ranch fence on seeing an envious- 
looking man with a gun. The gun and man 
followed for some time, but the game bucked 
out of sight. 


B. F. Maddox has sold his seven-acre orange 
grove in the Ojai to W. P. Stevenson for $5000. 


Independent: This being the season of the 
year when tree-planting is most general, we 
have been able to ascertain pretty accurately 
the number of trees that will be set out about 
Guinda this spring. If our list does not con- 
tain the name and amount of any person in- 
tending to set out trees hereabouts, if the in- 
formation is furnished us, we will cheerfully 
print the same. Our list is : E. J. Campbell, 
400 fruit trees; C. E. Hustler, 1350 almond 
and prune; T. Steele, 400 trees; W. T. Barnes 
and J. C. Frank, 2600; R. Chinn, .50 trees; W. 
B. Stitt, 1300; Hugh Chinn, 850 almond trees. 
In Simpsonville, R, S. Benham has let a con- 
tract for clearing 40 acrfs, and will plant 1000 
fruit trees this season; C. H. Simpson will also 
plant 1000. 


Salem Statesman: The Friends Quaker Colony 
Co. of Salem will in a few days be incorporated 
by Dr. H. J. Minthorn, Dr. S. Cook and a num- 
ber of Friends and capitalists from Lincoln, 
Neb., and In Jianapolis. Thev have secured a 
three months' option on 2200 acres of land, a 
large flouring-mill, 60 barrels daily capacity, 
operated by waterpower; a sawmill operated 
also by waterpower; a steam sawmill; a cheese 
factory, a fruit-drier; a store building; a black- 
smith shop; ten dwelling-houses; a large ware- 
house; several barns; a good limestone quarry: 
a coal mine; abundance of waterpower (in all 
from 200 to 300 horsepower) easily available, 
and plenty of good timber. The land is good 
fruit and grain or grass lands; the location is 
healthy and sightly. The water supply is 
abundant and pure and the drainage perfect. 


Mr. Willet F. Cook, Canajoharie, N. Y., writes: " Awoke one 
morning with excruciating pains in my shoulder. Tried various 
reliefs for sudden pains without effect ; went to my office ; the pain 
became insufferable; went home at ii o'clock and used ST. 
JACOBS oil; effect magical, pain ceased, and at I o'clock went 
to work ; cure permanent." 

IV K T T Ti A L C> I A . 

Little Rapids, Wis. 
My wife suffered with such intense neuralgic pains in the face, she thought she 
would die. She bathed her face and head with ST. JACOBS OIL, and it cured her m 

'""''^""^ " CARL SCHEIBE. 


NO POLE 'xcepton 

the road. 


One Plowman 
Instead oTTwo 






Seven Acres a Day Lrr 

Four horses abreast— one in the 
furrow, three on the land. 
Foot brake prevents pantj running 
on temii. Levers within easy 


No bottom or 
side friction. 
Weipht of furrow 
frame and plowman, 
carried on three greased spindles. 
Draft reduced to 

lowest poMNlble limit 

£aster Srlvlnfr, Strnlehter Far* 
rowM, nnd X^ltchter UrnCt 

than any Gang in America. 
Adjustable f rame~(m.i\ be Tiarrowed or 
widened ut will, and convei ted into a 
single plow in a few moments' time. 
Made with Stubble, Sod and Stubble, and 

S airie breakt-r bottoms, in Steel or Chilled 
etal. lUght or left -10, U or H-inch cut. 
Special prloennnd time for trial irlvenon 
first orders from points where we have no Agents. 

ECONOMIST PLOW CO., So. Bend, Ind., or Stanton, Thompson & Co., Sacramento. 

Our book— "Fun on the Farm"— sent free to nil. 


Engravings made from photographs, drawings and original designs, for newspaper, book, card and Job printing 
Itograved prints enlarged or reduced, cheaply and quickly. Also copies of manuscript, legal doeuments, wills, 
contracts, signatures, portraits, buildings, machinery and printed documents reproduced with accuracy. Photo- 
graphs, stereoscopio \iews, etc, duplicated, enlarged or reduced. Slides for magic lanterns made from photographs 
lithographs, and steel or wood engravings, etc SatistaotioD guaranteed. Agents wanted in all cities and In all 
towns. Address, lor farther Information, Diwwr ENeaiviNa Co., 7i9 Uarket 8f., Sap F'ancltco. 



Januaty 21, 1893 

HIhe XrR'®ationist. 

Irrigation in California. 

The following paper on " Irrigation in 
California " was read at the regular meeting 
of the State Board of Trade, Tuesday, Jan. 
lo, 1893, by B. M. Lelong, secretary of the 
State Board of Horticulture : 

To the pioneers of California, brought 
here by the wonderful stories of gold dis- 
coveries, the soil had but little attraction. 
To them the great Sacramento and San 
Joaquin valleys were desert plains, and the 
idea that they would ever become sources of 
wealth would have been scouted by them. 
In those days the "cow counties" were 
spoken of in terms of contempt, and to 
belong to a cow county was in some sort a 
reproach. But this is changed, and through 
the influence of irrigation the cow counties, 
so-called, have become the most important 
sections of the State. We may safely claim 
for irrigation the prominence of California 
to-day, lor had we depended upon the mines 
which gave our State so great an impetus in 
early days, there would now be little tor us. 
The wealth which was then taken out left 
the State and found its way into all parts ol 
the world. The object of the miners was 
naturally to take out of the soil all they 
could, and in doing so spend- no more than 
was necessary. It was a temporary pursuit, 
one in which they were to grow rich and 
then remove their wealth to other States or 
nations. Mining did not develop our State 
except incidentally, but horticulture, made 
possible by irrigation, has attracted thou- 
sands of families and brought millions of 
dollars into California. It has built up 
homes and cities, and so far from sending 
our natural wealth out of the State has at- 
tracted wealth to us. The miner came to 
make his fortune and leave; the horti 
cuUurist comes to bring his fortune and 
stay. It is true that many of the old-time 
miners have remained and built up our 
State, but it was the agricultural and horti- 
cultural possibilities and facts that retained 
them, and not mining alone. So I am safe 
in the assertion that horticulture and agri 
culture have made our State, and these, 
divorced from irrigation, could continue 
only in a miserable and unprofitable condi- 

Class I. 




1890 1 Gain. 

Fresno 9,4'8 

Kern 5.601 

Los Angeles 33 3S1 

Merced 5.656 

Orange ' '— ■ 

San Bernardino 7,7S6 

San Diego 8.618 

Tulare„ 11.281 


4 207 
IS 689 





Class 2. 









Ban Benito 

San Joaquin 

San Luis Obispo.. 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz 









Gain. 1 


2 928 

3 514 














64 90 

14 232 



34 390 












9 142 

16 072 

6 9,10 


9 618 




36 039 


12 966 


12 8U2 



50 52 








14 73 


5 469 


6 01 

9 aoi 




6 073 

10 071 

4 998i 

98 52 




7 76 

Class 3. 











49 05 








14 640 



Contra COsla 





Del Norte 









51 30 





15 44 



17 612 




4 S99 








24 OJ 

San Maieo 


16 o;2 


75 80 

8 610 





20 946 







Class 4 






£1 Dorado 



Nevada _ 




Tu' mne 









9 35 












13 58 




12 72 

7 49H 

2 1 02 




17 369 








6 061 



4 999 




11 284 







It will be seen from these figures that of 
the net increase of the State, 343i436, the 
seven irrigated counties have absorbed 
168,219, or nearly one-half, leaving but 
175,217 to be distributed over the remainder 
of the State. 

Irrigation was practically begun in Cali- 
fornia about 1870. The Riverside Company, 
which constructed the first canal of any 
magnitude for putting a quantity of arid land 
under water, began its work in 1869. Tak- 
ing then the seven leading irrigation coun- 
ties of the State and comparing their in- 
crease in population from the inception of 
prominent irrigation movement, and we have 


1870. 1890 

Los Atigeles 15.3091 

San Diego 4,951 

San Bernardino 3,988 

Kern 2,925 

Tulare 4,533 

Fresno 6,336 

MerceH 2 807 


In the same period the assessable property 
of these same counties has increased in even 
a more rapid ratio than their population, as 
will be seen from the following table: 

Los Angeles 

San Diego 

San Bernardino . 




Merced , 



1,974 8')6 


It will be seen from the tables that the 
highest percentage of gain has been in the 
principal irrigated counties, the highest here 
being San Diego with 305.98 per cent gain 
in one decade. The next highest per cent 
of gain is in the partially irrigated group. 
The nonirrigated group, as a whole, shows 
the smallest per cent ol gain, while the min- 
ing counties all show a loss. Of the coun- 
ties in the nonirrigated group, the increase 
of Alameda and San Mateo is largely due to 
their proximity to San Francisco, and that 
of Humboldt to the rapid growth of the 
lumber interests. 

Of the counties classed as mining in the 
past decade, many are awakening to the 
necessity of using their arable lands, and in 
the next census will show a gain as irrigated 
counties. Among these are Butte, Nevada 
and Yuba, which are now turning their at- 
tention to horticulture with very favorable 


The sources of water supply may be 
classed under three general heads: 

1. Natural streams. 

2. Reservoirs. 

3. Wells. 

The most primitive method of irrigation is 
the diversion of the water by natural streams 
direct to the land to be watered by riparian 
owners. This method involves the smallest 
outlay, but can only be resorted to by those 
who have arable land immediately aligning 
some natural watercourse. 

More often, however, the land lies at a 
greater or less distance from the water sup- 
ply, sometimes many miles of territory in- 
tervening. In such cases diverting dams, 
canals and supply ditches must be con- 
structed. Some of these canals and irriga- 
ting works are very extensive and costly. I 
may instance the works in Kern county, 
which are among the most prominent in the 
State. The main canal and lateral ditches 
have an aggregate length of 650 miles, 
and command an area of 200,000 acre&. 

The following table shows the water 
available for irrigation in the San Joaquin 
valley, as measured by Wm. Ham Hall, 
State Engineer: 

Least Flow |'^"-"-'^'^'-'-'-'--'--"-"--"^-"-"~« 
is to Great- 2222SSS2S2222®®^®®®®® 

I ^"rrssT*"^"" 

: a 
: O 

Point ofi 
ment I 

'O o 

— , > QQ E 

:«,§§§ 1 

2 : « o 

'r. a! "O W < 

No. A cres I 
Aver. Rain- 
fall would I 
cover 1 fix)t 


SOi — 06 C 
t* ^ I- ^ 
o X) >-< ciec -I 

» 0) O 0) fl 2^ 

<=> o o 

: O Q Q» o 

^ o o o o 
o o o ' — 

^ <U <D 0)' 


> w w o w <: 

•>< c« 00 o 

cotooToo'r- oc" 

CO 00 O O ^ CO 

The saving of the winter rainfall for sum 
mer use has not attained great proportions 
in our S'.ate as yet. The diversion of the 
waters of running streams has in most cases 
been found to furnish all the water required 
But as the present arable lands of the State 
are settled up, and the larger tracts subdi- 
vided, other lands will come into demand 
and the history of the southern part of the 
State will be repeated in other portions. 
Water will advance in price as the lands be- 
come more valuable, for without it they 
would be worthless, a point will be reached 
at which the value of water will induce the 
investment of capital in the work of devel- 
oping, increasing or saving the supply. 
When that time comes reservoirs will be 
numerous. There are at the present time 
a large number of small private reservoirs 
in the various counties of the State, but the 
only one on a large scale designed who'ly 
for irrigating purposes is the Bear valley 
reservoir in San Bernardino county. 

It is in this county that irrigation first ob- 
tained a foothold in California. Settled by 
Mormons in 1853, it was at once cropped by 
means of artificial application of w^ter, and 
so successfully as to attract the attention of 
the capitalists composing the Riverside 
Company, who built the first large irrigation 
system in the State. The very great possi- 
bilities of land here under water were 
demonstrated with the result of greatjer de- 
mands being made upon the water supply. 
The outcome of this was the construction of 
the now famed Bear valley reservoir, which 
has made possible the settlement of a very 
large area of what would otherwise still be 
a deseit waste. 

Following this, the Cuyamaca and Sweet- 
water reservoirs in San Diego county were 
constructed, and there are now in course of 
construction, the Arrowhead reservoir in 
San Bernardino, and the Hemet lake reser- 
voir near San Jacinto, and the San Luis Rey 
reservoir. These are all important works 
and will add largely to the summer water 
supply of the southern counties. They will 
do more than this, too, for they will prove 
to California and the entire arid region the 
vast possibilities for the reclamation of land 
by the reservoir system. 

The following figures will show the exact 
cost per acre per year of irrigating with 
water brought through canals, as charged 
by some of the leading irrigation companies 
located in the southern part of the State; 
also, the water rights charged per acre by 
these companies: 

: i88S§8 

: o o o c o 
: —I to o o A 

S S S So : :SS 

O»CCC0 f-l 


aa :a 

: ^ ^ o 

1 D ^ a < 
•S a a - ( 

II =.2 

p5 oor» >-< 

a is 

: ; \66 66 6 : 
: ; lOOHoa ; 
: : ••O'c'o'o'S : 

: ». t. h. ki k>' ; 

Q CQ cn oa ffi cc m 


: d 

: a 
: * 

> * o * 5*0 

1-1 tm-^Ci — 

~ 5 * s> 


o » o 


By taking the average of the above seven 

water companies (where the amount of 
water used per acre is specified) it will be 
found that it comes to one-seventh of one 
miners' inch constant flow for six months for 
each acre, or a total of 1 1 inches in depth of 
water on the land each year by the irriga- 
ting ditches, costing a minimum of $1 per 
year and a maximum of $8 per year. 

The third method of procuring water, that 
by wells, may agan be divided into two 
divisions — by artesian wells and by pump- 

In 1891 California had 3210 artesian wells, 
the flow^rom which was largelf used for 

irrigation purposes, and from which source 
a large portion of our arid lands derived 
their supply. In Kern and Tulare counties 
much land is irrigated from them; at 
Pomona and other parts of Los Angeles 
county they form an important addition to 
the irrigating supply, and Riverside and 
East Riverside derive a very large part of 
their irrigating and all their domestic supply 
from this source. In fact, the Gage canal 
system derives the larger part of its water 
supply from artesian wells sunk along the 
banks of the Santa Ana river. 

The following table shows the number, 
depth and average cost and flow of artesian 
wells in the different counties of the State, 
and will give an idea of the present impor- 
tance and future possibilities of this source 
of irrigating supply : 





Contra Costa. 






Los Angeles 







San Benito 

San Bernardino 

San Diego 

San Luis Obispo. 

San Mateo 

Santa Barbara.... 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz 









Depth in Feet. 







619 I 26 
159 : 60 



.1 I 
115 I 

3.210 i 


39 i 

4Si ' 


t 401 











V c o 


431 1 





7l0 1,600 


195 632 

408' 800 

687, 1,362 

149. 287 

248 S425i 161 


Another important source of water supply 
that has perhaps not received fhfc attention 
it deserves is that of surface or nonflowing 
wells. Many of our farmers and small or- 
chardists have availed themselves of this 
means of obtaining water by the erection of 
wind-engines and small reservoirs; in some 
cases the wind-engines have been replaced 
by steam or gas-engines, as being more re- 
liable. In the greater portion of our arid 
country subterranean strata of water are 
found at shallow depths, from 30 to 60 feet. 
These, if not immediately upon the land 
itself, are within easy reach, and by the use 
of pumping-plants and short flumes could 
be delivered at a small cost. Whether this 
would be found profitable on a large scale is 
not known, but it is perhaps worthy of a 
trial. The following calculations, based 
upon the cost of irrigating 25,000 acres by 
this means, have been made : 

Assuming that one-seventh of one miners' 
inch, constant flow for six months, is the 
quantity of water required, and figuring on 
the machinery being in duplicate, so that in 
case of accident one-half only of the plant 
will be stopped, would make the total cost 
of a first-class plant, to raise 22,000 gallons 
per minute 25 feet high, $30,000, and the 
operating expen<es would be as follows, run- 
ning day and night : 

Interest per year on (SO.OQO (coet of pumping 

plant) at 6 per cent $ 1 ,800 

Chief engineer, salary for the whole year 1 800 

Second engineer, salary for six months 6'^o 

Two firemen, salary for six months.....*. 900 

Oil, waste, wear and tear 400 

Coal, 2000 tons at $8, for six months' run 16,noO 

Depreciation in value of plant per year 1 ,000 

Total running expenses per year (.2,600 

$22,500-^25 000 acres=9o cents, which is 
the total expense of pumping water on one 
acre of land for the summer season of six 

The following would be the yearly run- 
ning expenses if the water had to be pumped 
50 feet high : 

Interest per vear on (46,000 (cost of pumping 

plant) at 6 per cent I 2,700 

Chief engineer, salary for the whole year 1,800 

Second engineer, salary for six months 600 

Four firemen, salary for six months l,8co 

Oil, waste, wear and tear 600 

Coal, 4000 tons at (8, for six months' run 82,000 

Depreciation in value of plant per year 1,600 

Total running expenses per year (41,000 

These sources of supply have been largely 
increased by the cleaning out of old chan- 
nels, opening up springs and draining 
cienegas. Water has been husbanded, too, 
by conducting it in cemented ditches, terra- 
cotta, -iron or wooden pipes, thus saving 
both seepage and e'/aporation, a very large 
item in a hot climate. By all these means 
the greatest development and economy of 

{Continued on pae^e 50 ) 

January 21, 18<J8. 


The Columbia Steel Ml. 


The frame of the wheel le constructed of drawn steel rods, the aookes bracing In 
both directions from the rim which la directly over the center of the hub, Klvine 
sreat strength and rendering it Impossible for the wheel to collapse In any direction. 
The main shaft is of first Quality steel shafting and to it is attached the Internal gear 
pinion, which in turn drives the internal gear wh^el. 


true spiral, presenting an angle ot 45 degrees to the wind, at the inner 
end of fan, gradually Increasing the angle to 80 degrees at the rim of the wheel, and 
present tne oest possible angle to the wind at every part of the fan when the wheel is in 
on our mill reduces the speed of the wheel to the normal rate at which It is practical to 
operate a pump in a well of any depth, and overcome the back lash on dead center (which 
Is the objection to outside or spur gears) and more than doubles the power of the wheel 
when compared with any direct-geared mill. Ihe gearing is entirely protected from 
exposure to the weather. The eight-foot Columbia Mill has 4, & and 7-inch strokes; the 
ten-foot has 5 and 8-inoh strokes, and is adapted to a larger range of utility than ever 
before attempted. 


8 Foot $45.00 

10 Foot $55.00 


Are known everywhere and will work anywhere. Ihey are strong, well made and in their working parts 
possess advantages over all other pumpe. 


33 & 35 MAIN STREET,:^::::;^^^::;:^^^^: : 













Gas or Gasoline. 




Will Actually 






Motive Power i^^^^^^ made. 

^ ^ ^ ! Ji^P ^ FROM 1 H P. 





Send for Price Lists 

And all Articles used 
by Hunters and 



The Triple Acting Power Force Pump 



F. W KROGH & CO., 51 Beale Street San Francisco, Cal. 

Head Hand 
Work Work 

The wise farmer uses his head as well as his hands. He is constantly looking 
for better ways and means. He lets science do the work that labor used to do. 
The result is apparent iu the condition of his farm, in the value of his crops 
— in his face. The first step in the right direction is an acquaintance with the 
" Planet Jr." labor-saving tools. They are a revelation ; an education ; a tri- 
umph of head work. The " Planet Jr." book for 1893 tells the whole story 
in pictures and words. It's an invaluable book to the farmer. We send it /ree. 
S. L. ALLEN & CO., 1107 Market St., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



January 21, 1893 

Irrigation in California. 

Continued from pa^e 48. 

water is effected, and the greatest amount 
of labor from a given amount is obtained. 


The growing importance of irrigation in 
California and the necessity for some meas- 
ures whereby irrigators could organize for 
their mutual benefit in this direction led to 
the passage, by the legislature, in 1887, of 
" An Act to provide for the organization and 
government of irrigation districts, and to 
provide for the acquisition of water and 
other property thereby for irrigation pur- 
poses." This is commonly known, from the 
name of its sponsor, as the Wright law. 
This provides for the organizing of fifty, or 
a majority of freeholders owning lands sus- 
ceptible of one mode of irrigation, into an 
irrigation district, and empowering them to 
issue bonds, which are a lien upon the 
realty of the bonded district, for the pur- 
pose of purchasing or developing water for 
the same. 

The object aimed at was a most desirable 
one, and many of the residents on and 
owners of arid lands availed themselves of 
the provisions of the bill and in a short 
time a number of irrigation districts was 

There are now in existence in the State 
38 districts organized under this law, as fol- 
lows : 



Fresno & Tulare- 

Kern & Tulare 

l>o8 Angeles 


San Bernardino.. 

San Diego 











354 ssn 




5,587, (.30 












700 000 








80 ',' 00 


4,4.^n 661 

2,615 000 






• 25«,774 






64 1.000 









There have been some difficulties in pla- 
cing the bonds of many of these districts. 
The securities provided are new, and capital 
is always conservative and fearful of new 
schemes. The need of a canal and irriga- 
tion works in any district indicates prima 
Jade the aridity of that district, with a con- 
sequent lack of population in its vicinity. 
Capitalists want the most ample immediate 
security for their loans, and are not willing 
to invest on prospective improvements and 
a consequent advance in value. This is 
especially true of eastern capitalists who 
have not yet overcome their early prejudice 
against the great American desert. 

The advantages offered by the Wright 
law, however, are amply illustrated by the 
fact that, in some cases, communities with 
ample and well-secured water rights, owning 
paying, and improved farms and orchards, 
have organized under its provisions in order 
that they may avail themselves of its benefits 
in working as a unit instead of as indi- 


The effect of wa*er upon land may be 
classed under two general heads — chemical 
and physical. 

The chemical effects may again be divided 

1. Supplying fertilizing qualities, contained 
i n the water, to the soil. 

2. Changing the chemical composition of 
the plant food already existing in the soil. 

3. Dissolving and preparing the plant food 
of the soil and fitting it for absorption and 

4. The deposition of beneficial or injuri- 
ous salts. 

The physical effects are fewer but no less 
important, and are — 

1. The softening of hard soils and render- 
ing them suitable for working. 

2. The disintegrating of the harder parti- 
cles and making the texture of the soil finer. 

The matter of fertilization is one of the 
gravest importance to the Eastern farmer. 
The continual cropping of the soil has so 
deprived it of the constituent elements of 
plant life as to have rendiered, in some cases, 
land worthless that was valuable until such 
continual cropping without making any re- 
turns had rendered the soil barren; in other 
cases, the farmer has to return a very large 
percentage of his earnings to the soil in the 
way of artificial fertilizers, in order to sup- 
ply the necessary plant elements. While it 
is unquestionably true that we in California 
shall have to supply some portion of these 
elements, the water from our mountains, 
an'1 even from our artesian wells, is so 
freighted with the larger part of them as to 
reduce the cost of this requirement to a 

These constituent elements, which are 
drawn from the soil and absorbed from the 
air, are potash, soda, lime, magnesia, brown 
oxide of magnesia, iron oxide, alumina, 
phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, silica, chlor 
ine. These are usually found in abundance 
in all virgin soils, but continual cropping 
without returns in some form will ultimately 
exhaust them, and as a result, crops are 
light and unprofitable. 

Our irrigating water is generally derived 
from the mountains. It falls in winter as 
rain and snow, follows the surface of the 
land to the main channels, and gathers up 
on its way all these elements, or it pene 
trates the soil, washes down the rocks, and 
breaks forth in the spring, and finds its way 
to the main stream. In either case the 
necessary elements of plant life are gathered 
up, held in solution and are ready for dep 
osition on the soil to which the water finally 
finds its way. In the gathering of these 
fertilizers the water is aided by the heavy 
frosts of the mountain regions, which work 
continually, disintegrating the rocks and 
pulverizing the rich mountain soil, releasing 
all the elements required by plant life, which 
the water in its turn gathers up and carries 
on their life-giving mission. 

The duty of water in irrigation is to sup- 
ply the sap, and to carry with it the neces- 
sary food which the soil contains or which 
the water brings in solution, and thus forms 
the plant and the fruit. This it does by dis- 
solvmg the plant food of the soil in which 
the plant is growing, changing its chemical 
composition and forming it anew in such 
shape that the plant can absorb and assim- 
ilate it. Coming charged, as they do, with 
so large a part of these necessary qualities, 
and finding others in the soil itself, our irri- 
gating waters are supplied with perfect con- 
ditions, and, in that wonderful laboratory — 
th; tree or plant — converts these elements 
into fruits or grain or flowers, as desired. 
And it is largely to these qualities of our 
water and soil that California owes its ad- 
vantages as a fruit-producer. 

Besides the great saving in the outlay for 
fertilizers, and the greater productive power 
of his land, the farmer or fruitgrower in the 
irrigated region has other great advantages 
over his brother in the rain belt. 

He has no fear from the effects of drought. 
He has learned to overcome all danger from 
this source. Here every year is a drought 
year, but with irrigation the effects of drought 
are rendered nugatory and every year is 
made a year of full and abundant crops. 
Farmers here take no account of the rain, 
and everything that is put into the ground is 
planted with the full knowledge that it must 
depend upon irrigation for water. And the 
agriculturists of the rain belt would be as- 
tonished could they see the growth made 
here. This can be understood from the fact 
that in the growing season we have no cloudy 
days, no chilling rains, but a uniform warmth 
that supplies the necessary conditions of 
temperature. Then water is applied at the 
right time and in proper quantity. No heavy 
storms or floods threaten the irrigating 
farmer in the summer, and when his harvest 
is ready, he has ample time to secure it with- 
out danger of its being damaged or de- 
stroyed by an inopportune storm. There 
is no hurrying here to get the half-cured 
crop housed before an untimely rain falls, or 
take the risk of having the entire product of 
a year's toil ruined by a storm. In Califor- 
nia our wheat ripens in May and June, and 
our wheat farmers harvest and thresh in the 
field, leaving their ripened grain standing 
until it suits their convenience to gather it, 
sometimes until October or November. A 
summer rain would be as much dreaded in 
the arid region as a summer drought is in 
the rain belt, and this is a condition which 
Eastern people who first come to California 
find it hard to understand. When they first 
come they remark, " What a beautiful land 
it would be if you only had summer rains." 
When they have been here a few years they 
know better and learn what a dreadful in- 
fliction summer rains would be to us. 

Illustrating the great advantages of irri- 
gation, the condition of the people of south- 
ern Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas may be 
instanced. This territory had been settled 
by people accustomed to rely upon natural 
rainfall for crops. Some three years since, 
this failed them, and a condition of severe 
hardships followed. Tales of suffering equal 
to those of the famine-stricken regions of 
India and Russia reached us, and a nation 
was called upon to aid them in their 
troubles. A general panic waj the result. 
Towns were deserted, farms and homes 
abandoned, and for a time it seemed as 
though this country would relapse into its 
original state. Yet the means of life and 
health were at these people's doors had they 
but then learned to avail themselves of them. 
Irrigation was introduced as a necessity, and 
the scene has changed. The towns are 
again prosperous, the farmers hopeful, and 

the future as bright ai in any part of the 
Union, and it is a question whether the 
farmers in this erstwhile drought-stricken 
land would, under the new order of things, 
exchange places with in the rain belt. 


Irrigation has within •a very few years as- 
sumed a position of importance that few 
would have dreamed of 30 years ago. The 
first efforts made in this direction were by 
the Mormons who, arriving in Salt Lake 
valley in 1847, found a large basin of most 
fertile soil producing nothing but sagebrush, 
whilethe mountains rushed perennial streams 
on their way to the lake. Irrigation was a 
matter of necessity with them, and locating 
on these streams they diverted the water to 
the land and the results were surprising. 
The yield of wheat and corn and vegetables 
was enormous. While the system of irriga- 
tion introduced by the Mormons was crude, 
it served to show what arid lands would do 
when under water, and the great boast of 
this people was that they had " made the 
desert to blossom as the rose." 

The steady increase of population in the 
East, the absorption of all available Govern- 
ment lands within the limits of the rain belt, 
had a tendency to push population into the 
arid district, and gradually irrigation has 
obtained a foothold until it has grown to 
proportions that are surprising, and now, in- 
stead of speaking of the great American 
desert, we allude to the great West as the 
irrigation empire. This empire includes all 
of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, 
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North and 
South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming, and 
large sections of Kansas, Nebraska, Oregon 
and Texas, with over 7,000,000 people de- 
pendent upon it for homes and food. The 
importance of this subject first made itself 
appreciated in Congress as late as 1874-5 
when the first inquiry into it was ordered 
made, and an examination of the San Joa- 
quin valley, with a view to its reclamation 
by irrigation, was made by Government 
agents. Ten years elapsed before it re 
ceived further recognition, at which time at- 
tention was again called to it by the arrival 
of an Australian Royal Commission to in- 
vestigate our irrigable area and methods, 
when the Department of Agriculture de- 
tailed Richard J. Hinton to prepare a report 
on " Irrigation in the United States." Three 
years after this Congress provided for an ir- 
rigation survey under direction of the 
United States Geological Survey, and their 
inquiry into the condition of the arid lands 
was ordered by the Senate, having in view 
their possible reclamation by irrigation. 

The rapid growth of irrigation is shown 
by the fact that when the first report was 
completed in 1886, the area of land reported 
as reclaimed by irrigation was 5,500,000 
acres, a large proportion of which was used 
for pasturage and the growth of natural 
grasses. In 1891 the total area under ditch 
is given at 17,086,034 acres. 

The following table for 1891, given in the 
report of the Office of Irrigation Inquiry at 
Washington, will show how this area is dis- 

States and Territories. 





Kansas (west of 97 long.).. 


Nebraska m 


New Mexico 

North Dakota 


South Dakota 











4,600 OOO 






900 000 
















1 60,000 




176 OOO 






P rom this table it will be seen that Cali- 
fornia leads in the quantity of land under ir- 
rigation systems and in the amount of that 
land now under cultivation. 

Irrigation in its relation to the agriculture 
of the western States and Territories is the 
subject of a bulletin recently issued by the 
census office, giving the results of its investi- 
gations to that date. The following is a 
summary of the results of this special inves- 

Of the 124,808 farms enumerated in the 
arid region in 1899, 52,584, or 42.13 per 
cent, contained land on which crops were 
raised in 1889 by artificial application of 
water, the entire area of land irrigated being 
3,564,416 acres, 20.72 per cent of the total 
area of the 52,584 irrigated farms, 9.66 per 
cent of the total area of the whole number of 
farms enumerated, and about one-half of one 
per cent of the total land area of the arid 
region. To this must be added 1552 farms, 
containing 66,965 acres irrigated, in the 
western parts of North Dakota, South Da- 

kota, Nebraska, Kansas and Texas, desig- 
nated, for convenience, the subhumid re- 
gion, where irrigation is slowly making its 
way as a method of agriculture, always ad- 
vantageous but not always absolutely neces- 

The average value of the land irriga:ed in 
1889, with the improvements thereon, is 
found to be $83.28 per acre, and the average 
value of products for the year stated, $14.89 
per acre. By correspondence with over 20,- 
000 irrigators, fairly distributed through the 
arid and subhumid regions, it has been as- 
certained that the average first cost of irri- 
gation is $8.15 per acre, and the average 
value placed upon the water rights, where 
separable from the land, $26 per acre, or 
over three times their original cost. 

The average annual expenditure for 
water, as distinguished from the purchase 
of water rights, is $1.07 per acre, and the 
average cost of the original preparation of 
the ground for cultivation, including the pur- 
chase of land at the Government rate of 
$1.25 per acre, is $12.12 per acre. By ap- 
plying, with necessary modifications, to the 
enumerators' returns the averages obtained 
for each separate State and Territory, it has 
been found that in round numbers the total 
investment in productive irrigation systems 
utilized in 1889, in whole or in part, was, 
up to June 1, 1890, $29,611,000. Their value 
at that date was $94,412,000, showing an ap- 
parent profit of $64 801,000, or 218.84 per 
cent. In the same manner the aggregate 
first cost of the irrigated areas, with their 
water rights, not including the farms of the 
sul}humid States, has been ascertained to 
be $77,490,000, and the value of the same 
on June i, 1890, $296,850,000, showing an 
increase in the value of land and water 
rights of $219,360,000, or 283.08 per cent. 
In other words, the land irrigated in 1889 
was worth nearly four times what it cost, 
no allowance evidently being made for fail- 
ures. The total expenditure for water, in- 
cluding the maintenance and repairs of 
ditches, in the arid States in 1889 was 
$3,794,000, and the value of products 

The number of artesian wells used in 
irrigation in the arid and subhumid regions 
in June, 1890, was 3,930, constructed at an 
average cost per well of $245.58, and giving 
an average discharge of 54.43 gallons per 
minute. The area of land thus irrigated, 
averaging 13.21 acres per well, amounted to 
51,896 acres, or 1.43 per cent of the total 
area of irrigated land in the arid and sub- 
humid regions. 

The territory under discussion, as the 
arid region, covers an expanse 1500 miles in 
length and looo miles in width, lying west 
of the looth meridian and extending from 
British America on the north to Mexico on 
the south, embracing two-fifths of the area 
of the United States. Until within the past 
few years it was known as the great Amer- 
ican desert, and was believed to be utterly 
useless except for the precious metal which 
the hardy pioneers who pushed into it ob- 
tained at the risk of their lives. But as civ- 
ilization advanced this desert contracted on 
the east and west. Its boundaries were 
pushed out of Nebraska, California was re- 
moved from it; it pushed beyond Wyoming, 
out of the larger part of Utah, and is now 
known only in spots, of which the Mojave 
and Colorado daserts form the most im- 
portant remains. From the great American 
desert it became the arid region, and is now 
fast earning the name of Irrigation Empire. 
Two-fifths of the area of the United States, 
it is indeed an empire worthy of reclama- 
tion. As the hardy pioneers of irrigation 
proved what wonderful results that desert 
was capable of when placed under water, it 
soon forced itself into notice, and at last 
Government is paying some attention to this 
most important part of its domain. 

Eastern people are realizing two facts 
which must induce the settlement and devel- 
opment of our arid lands; the first is the 
superior fertility of those lands, and numer- 
ous advantages over lands in the rain area, 
and the second, the rapid absorption of all 
Government lands within the rain region. 

Taking the area still open to settlement 
in the arid regions, as soon as the water 
which is now going to waste is properly pre- 
served and we have an empire capable of 
supporting an enormous population. The 
States which come within this irrigating area 
are : 




New Mexico.. 







Acres. Sq. Miles. 

77, '68 640 
71,737 600 
65.228 160 


To this add 100,000 square miles, or 64,- 


6 I 

000,000 of northern and western Texas, and 
the whole of Kansas and Nebraska west of 
97 long., and some idea of the area and im- 
portance of our irrigation empire can be 
formed, and it serves also to show the im- 
portance and necessity of governmental aid 
in its reclamation. Within the arid region 
there is now a population of 7,000,000 souls. 
This number is rapidly increasing, and from 
estimates made by the office of Irrigation 
Inquiry, $64,000,000 have been expended in 
irrigating works, as follows : 
Under ditch the acreage elven repre- 
sents (at service ot 260 acres per Miles. 

mile) a total ditch length of. 74,132 4S8-10O0 

Total of actual expenditures (not of 
capitalization) for the mileage 
given at an estimate of 83 per acre Cost. 

will be 855,699,321 

Allowing actual expenditures for other 
works, not under ditch mileage, 
and its necessary appurtenances, 
we may estimate the total at 
about 864,000,000 

These figures are certainly conservative, 
and the actual expenditures for irrigating 
works will probably far exceed them. 
Enough, however, is shown in the way of 
population, capital invested, and area to be 
reclaimed, to show the necessity for ex- 
tensive Government aid in this important 



Awarded Qrand Silver Medal by the State Agticultural 
Society at the Stite Fair, 1892. This is the ONLY silver 
medal ever awarded by the Society for a Sheep Dip. It 
is tbe highest award. 

J. W. GRACE & CO . 

4S0 Oalir^riiia .Street Han Francisco. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast. 

Back Fiuia ot the fAOivio Hural faiiss (unbound 
can be had for 82.60 per volume ot six months. Per year 
(two volames) 9*. Inserted In Dewey's patent binder 
SO cents additional per volume. 


117 Main Street, San Francisco. 


Superior Pumping Machinery! 

— AND — - 





Our Economical Pumping Equipments 

Elevate water for land Irrrigation at a less ocst per acre than 
wa'er Is now supplied by the canal systems in use. 





Write for Drlcea and full particulars of all 




:::::: Sizes 





^5^1?^£WATER PIPE. 


Irrigation, Power Plants, Mining, Town and Farm Supply. 

The cut on the left shows a section of three joints. 



In the manufacture of this Pipe, we use only a high grade of annealed Charcoal Iron ot 
great tenflle strength. 

The weight cr thickness of metal used is graded according to service required and pressure to 
whioh the Pipe wiU be subjected. 

FUR AL.1. ViVOISlcOROUND PURPOSES we immerse the Pipe in a bath contain- 
ing a special miiture of ABPHxliTUu, PITCH and PBTROLkUltl , at a Tem- 
perature of S00° Fahrenheit. It thus receives a thorough coating', both inside and out- 
side, rendering it impervious to the alkalies of the earth, rust, etc., and is practically Ini^e' 








iJi Mills, Bridges, 
Hay Barns, Stables. 






It Will Cost You 
No More Than 
other Makes. 

Was Awarded the Premium at State Fair Sacramento, OVER ALL OTHERS. 

Please note that an 8^-foot mill has H feet more wind surface than an 8-foot m 

gy^PY 1^11^^ GUARANTEED '^^^""^ ^" p'^''''b'p^^°'))'9''0'""9'h^''<'°''°'^'B<^< 

AnylMiU tbat does not worK satisfactory may be returned to us and we will 
pay tbe freight both ways. 


405 & 407 Market Street, - - San Francisco, Oal. 



THE RIFE HYDRAULIC ENGINE is the most simple and efficient 
macblne yet devlsfd for elevating water for Irrigation, filling railroad tanks, 
supplying mills, factories, < a'.riep, stock yards, country residences, small 
towns, and for various other purposes This ram is self-operatinf , constant in 
action, and is not only much more efficient than anything of the kind ever put 
upon the market, but from absence of wearing parts, more durable and every 
way reliable. Ma . y may be referred to that have run for years, elevating 
water in some cases from JOO to 300 feet without any attention or expense In 
the way cf repairs. 

These machines have already come largely Into use In all parts of the 
country, and are rapidly superseding every other device for the purpose. They 
will worn effectively under a head as low as two feet, and tor every foot of fall 
will elevate 20 fett. By means of an adjusting Uver the capacity of any of the 
various sizes oan be reduced 50 p»r cent or more, as may be desired, to pro- 
vide for a variation in water supply, without disadvantage or loss In efficiency. 

1 he fill fiom the spring, strejm or oiher source of supply to the engiuc 
determines the height to which thn water can be elevated, as well as the rela- 
tive proportion between the water raisfd and wasted, the quantity raised 
varying according to the height it Is carried and the dii^taoce (.ouveyed. For 
ordinary purnoees It is sufflcieot to say that wifi a discharge pipe 1000 feet in 
length, OLe-fixth of the naier can be raised and discharged at an elevation Ave 
times the height of fall or one- twelfth 10 times the height of fall. 

Parties writing for information should give the quantity of water that 
can be supplltd to the engine, tither in gallons, cubic feet or miners' inches; 
the h«ad or fall from source of supply to point where the engine is to be 
located, length of drive pipe, height to which the water ii to be raised, 
distance from engine to pla e of discharge, and the quantity of water It is 
desired to elevate. No reliable information can be afforded without an explicit 
answer to these Inquiries. 






January 21, 1898. 


Fine Displays at the Mechanics' 


Sacramento's Orange Locomotive — 
The Rock of Ages Depicted In Fruit. 
A Working Windmill and Great Tri- 
umphal Arch in Yellow.-- Arcades, 
Grain Pavilions. Etc. 

The sixth annual northern citrus fair, and 
the first ever held in San Francisco, began 
at the Mechanics' Pavilion, Tuesday, Jan- 
uary loth, and will continue its daily ex- 
hibitions until Saturday, February nth. It 
is fitly described as the " dress parade for 
the World's Fair." It is held in connection 
with the twenty-seventh annual exhibition of 
the Mechanics' Institute, of which it is the 
leading feature, and for which it has been a 
conspicuous and successful attraction. The 
very large numbers of visitors to the Fair 
attest a measure of interest not accorded to 
the Institute of recent years by the Cali- 
fornia public, which, it is not too much to 
say, found insufficient variety and benefit in 
the annual exhibitions of the Institute, and 
Have not accorded it the patronage'its merits 

A tour through the Mechanics' Pavilion 
to-day is an education as to the resources 
and products of the State of California. It 
is a marvel both to the Californian and to 
the stranger. The variety of products, fruit 
and agricultural, is prodigious. The 
methods of exhibit are tasteful and satis- 
factory. The arrangement is splendid and 
even mac;nificent. Some displays are very 
pretentious and strike the beholder with an 
involuntary feeling of admiration, if not with 
positive awe. The several county exhibits 
are without exception in charge of gentle- 
men and ladies who take an active interest 
in showing their products, with their nu- 
merous and manifold beauties, to all who 
take the trouble to inspect or inquire. The 
success of the entire exhibition attests the 
care, capability and liberality of those who 
have it in charge. 

It is the design of this article to present a 
review of the leading features of the various 
county exhibits at the Fair. It will be im- 
possible to notice, adequately, or even at all, 
the various private displays, meritorious and 
inviting as the majority of them are. The 
various county exhibits have been given 
places of honor for their citrus displays. 
They are five in number, viz. : 






They are in the center of the great Me- 
chanics' Pavilion, visible alike from the 
ground floor and from the gallery, and each 
takes up many hundred square feet. From 
the gallery, where a better perspective can 
be obtained than from any other point, the 
ensemble is unique, striking and even mag- 
nificent. First comes Placer, the Gateway 
County, which fitly vindicates its appropriate 
pseudonym by a great triumphal arch whose 
constituent element appears to be wholly 
oranges. On the right is Yuba with its ar- 
tistic windmill of oranges, nuts and lemons. 
On the left Tulare, with a small but excel- 
lent display, and Sacramento with its orange 
locomotive. A.t the rear is Butte county, 
with its great, orange Rock of Ages, fine mar- 
ket pavilion, and handsome grain and fruit 
palace. Butte county takes up more space 
than any other, having altogether perhaps 
io,ooo square feet. 


As Placer county comes first after en- 
trance of the pavilion, so it will be taken up 
in the beginning of this description. The 
arch is built on a most imposing and im- 
pressive place. It stretches from one side 

of the vacant space under the gallery to the 
other. Its dimensions are about 15x80 feet, 
at a guess. It has three openings — one 
main in the center and two at the side — and 
is of the familiar plan seen in all pictures of 
ancient Roman triumphs, and at our own 
Fourth of July and other important celebra- 
tions. It is well-proportioned and really 
artistic and finished in its architectural 
whole. It is in reality a rude wooden struc- 
ture, but it is so completely and artfully cov- 
ered with oranges that little of its real 
supporting timbers or framework is visible. 
Between 45,000 and 50,000 oranges were 
used in its make-up, placed in even rows 
with care and infinite labor. One side of 
the arch is covered with oranges contributed 
by Robert Heeler of Penryn. The varieties 
are Mediterranean Sweets, Washington 
Navels and Seedlings, in proportions about 
as follows: Sweets, one-fourth; Navels, one- 
fourth; Seedlings, one-half. Contributors to 
the other side of the arch are Owen R. 
Owen and Mrs. F. Owen of Penryn. The 
varieties found on this side of the arch are 
as follows: 

Washington Navel, 
Australian Navel, 
Florida Navel, 

Mediterranean Sweets, 
Magnum Bonum, 
Parson Brown, 
Beaches No. t, 

Paper Kind St. Michaels, 
Florida Sweet, 
Higbys Late, 


Ten years ago it was not thought that 
orange-trees would thrive in Placer county, 
which, as its name indicates, had for its 
chief industry the operation of mines. Its 
population depended very largely upon the 
development of its mineral riches for sup- 
port, and immigration was attracted thither 
chiefly by interests and allurements of that 
kind. About ten years since, however, ex- 
periments were made with orange orchards, 
and it was found that they would produce a 
fruit of luscious and delicate flavor. From 
an experiment, orange cultivation rapidly 
developed into an industry of resp'ctable 
dimensions and permanent conditions, and 
to-day Placer county produces the orange 
in commercial quantities for export. It is 
already a source of revenue, and is destined 
to be a large factor in the growth and de- 
velopment of the county, and a heavy con- 
tributor to its wealth and prosperity. 

It should be mentioned that Placer makes 
an auxiliary exhibit of dried and preserved 
fruits, which have found a station near the 
arch. It is varied and creditable, and is a' 
tine showing of the county's citrus and other 
resources, outside the more pretentious and 
obtrusive fresh-fruit display. 

The Placer county exhibit has already re- 
ceived the premium of $250 for the " most 
original and attractive exhibit on the open- 
ing day." This is exclusive of citrus prod- 


Upon Sacramento county has officially 
been conferred the high distinction of hav- 
ing the " most complete exhibit on the open- 
ing day," and for the " widest range of use- 
ful products on the opening day." These 
two honors have been ai-corded by the 
judges, the first taking with it a premium of 
$500 and the second $250, making $750 in 
all. Sacramento county also won the first 
premium at the last State fair. While 
these prizes are for farm products, and are 
bestowed because of very fine displays of al- 
most innumerable articles, it is still a fact 
that the most unique and interesting feature 
of the Sacramento exhibit is the citrus loco- 
motive. The likeness is faithful as to prep- 
aration and appearance, even in the minutest 
particular. One almost expects to hear the 
bell clang, the whistle shriek and to see the 
engine and tender go tearing down from its 
improvised track and across the great hall, 
throwing noisy musicians right and left (the 
music stand is directly in front of the pilot) 
and square into the Butte county Rock of 
Ages on the opposite side. Of course, no 
dreadful and sanguinary miracle of that wo- 
ful nature can by any possibility take place, 
but it doesn't take a very greatly disordered 
imagination to speculate on what it might do. 
The locomotive, is built on the nar- 
row gauce principle, and is equipped with 
about 35,oco oranges, fastened on to a 
wooden structure with painstaking diligence 
and industry. There are also numerous 
lemons in the make-up, and dried prunes, 
figs and apricots, peanuts, walnuts, and even 
Chinese lemons. The dried fruits have been 
used in appropriate places for making let- 
ters, varying colors, and so on. The realis- 
tic efTect is heightened in a very great de- 
gree by the use of real locomotive appli- 
ances, such as bell, piston, steam-gauge, 
oilcups, and signal lanterns. So genuine 
does the locomotive appear that it seems 
hardly too much to say tha the only thing 

lacking to make it fully equipped and ready 
for instant and permanent use is motive 

It has been stated freely in print that the 
designers of- this locomative intend to ex- 
hibit it at the World's Fair. But such is 
not the case. The Sacramento orange will, 
at that time, be practically out of season, 
and no such exhibit will be made. It may 
be interesting to know that the total cost of 
construction of the locomotive, its transpor- 
tation here, and its establishment in the 
pavilion, is about Si,ooo. 

At a distance from the great locomotive is 
the Sacramento county agricultural and de- 
ciduous fruit exhibit — that part which has 
already won $750 in premiums. It has not 
a very desirable location, being under the 
gallery and off to one side. The ground 
dimensions are 1 10x25 feet, and the general 
plan is indicated by the following diagram : 




Plan of Sacramento County Exhibit. 

There are probably 2500 pieces in the ex- 
hibit, of which over 1000 are in glass. In 
eeneral, the articles on exhibition are com- 
prised under the following heads : 
Grains, Lard, 
Flour, Bicon, 
Fruits, Butler, 
Wool, Cheese, 
Hops, Honey, 
Flowers, Jams, 
Woods. Jellies, 
Minerals, Vegetables, 
Pottery, Granite, 
Wines, Hay, 
Nuts, Pickles, 
Grasses, Canned Goods. 

It will thus be seen that the range is enor- 
mous and comprises almost everything, of 
whatsoever nature, produced in the tem- 
perate zone. A categorical description of 
the innumerable specimens would be im- 
possible. Even to mention the articles of 
real value and merit would take up a vast 
deal of space. It is not out of place, how- 
ever, to specify a few. The specimens of 
turnips, cabbages, p<jmpkins and cauli- 
flower are particularly fine. There are corn- 
stalks 18 feet high and a sunflower 19 feet. 
" The fact is," said Mr. J. P. Odbert, who is 
one of those in charge of the exhibit, " we 
made no special attempt to show prodigies 
of the vegetable kingdom, but simply the' 
best specimens of excellence in our vege- 
table productions." However, there is one 
freak that attracts a great deal of attention. 
It is a double pumpkin, weighing about 50 
pounds, being apparently a sort of Siamese- 
twin pumpkin — two in one. " Two pump- 
kins with but a single stem, two hearts that 
beat as one," as some one poetically said. 

There are 18 varieties of grain and over 
100 specimens of these vatieties, in sheaf, in 

sack and in glass. Among other interesting 
things, Mrs. G. H. Kerr has an exhibit of 
fig preserves, fig jam, fig marmalade, fig 
syrup and pickled and crystallized figs. 
They are evidently of fine quality and splen- 
did color. 

New potatoes of quite large size are 
prominently shown. 

Seventy plums on one stalk are an attrac- 
tion in a large glass jar. They were put up 
by Mr. Odbert, who says there were twenty 
more on the stem, but he could not get them 
in the jar. 

Noticeably large lemons of beautiful color, 
bright and clean, are displayed in jars on 
the shelves. They appear to be an espe- 
cially fine fruit, and if they are as good as they 
look, it is certain that Sacramento's future 
as a lemon producer is great. 

Washington Navel oranges are displayed, 
measuring 14 inches both ways — long and 
short. They are smooth and symmetrical, 
and of excellent color, that heavy appear- 
ance often accompanying large oranges 
being totally absent. 

The Jelly exhibit is large and meritorious. 
Ninety kinds of jelly were put up by Mrs. 
Odbert alone, in 400 glasses. For a similar 
exhibit she received a gold medal at the 
State fair. 

It is designed to take the best specimens 
of this magnificent exhibit to the World's 
Fair. Mr. Walter Greer is superintendent. 

Connected with this exhibit is a new 
patent extension ladder, shown by Mr. J. 
F. Logue, and designed for the use of or- 


Yuba county has a number of fine dis- 
plays, arranged and placed on exhibition by 
various towns and localities. One of the 
most impressive is that of Smartsville, which 
is a miniature representation of the Califor- 
nia building at the World's Fair. It is the 
individual production of James K. O'Brien, 
superintendent of the entire citrus exhibit. 
It presents a handsome appearance, and 
the oranges are arranged so as to be dis- 
played to the best advantage Between 
12,000 and 15,000 are requited to cover 
the building. 

Brown's valley is represented by a gigantic 
bell, covered with oranges.* Lemons are 
also prominent. 

Wheatland has a picturesque Eiffel tower, 
about 12 feet high. 

The county as a whole is represented by 
a full-size windmill, in *hich oranges, lem- 
ons, peanuts, prunes and figs are conspicu- 
ously shown. The fans of the wheel are 
made up largely of gilded peanuts. Win- 
dows, doors and other appliances of a genu- 
ine windmill are in their proper places and 
the likeness is carried out to the smallest 
particular. The wheel is operated by elec- 
tricity. Surrounding the mill is a neat plot 
of made-ground, in which appear a pretty 
waterfall, grasses, mosses, displays of fruit 
and other pleasing things. 

The Yuba county exhibit as a whole is a 
prominent and inviting part of the entire 
citrus show, and reflects credit upon the 
taste, care and liberality of those who got it 


Attached to the Yuba county exhibit is a 
collection shown by J. P. Onstott, of Yuba 
city, Sutter county. It is of seedless raisin- 
grapes, and it has been accorded a consider- 
able share of attention. It is claimed for 
this grape, that besides being a fine 
raisin-grape, it is delicious (or table 
use. Mr. Onstott claims for it that " it 
is larger than the Seedless Sultana, and 
its pulp is more meaty ; in this respect, 
and in its color, it more nearly resembles the 
Muscat grape. It ripens ten days earlier 
than the first crop of Muscats, and all the 
fruit ripens at the same time, there being no 
second crop. This grape does not burn on 
the vine. It cures rapidly and evenly, and 
as the bunches and berries are very nearly 
of uniform size, it requires no sorting when 
taken from the drying trays. It will cure in 
fully two-thirds of the time required by the 
first crop of Muscats, and three and twenty- 
seven hundredths pounds of the ripe grapes 
make a pound of raisins. 

" For a number of years I have kept care- 
ful account of the crop of Thompson's Seed- 
less vines growing in my own vineyard near 
Yubi City, Cal. 

" I weighed the fruit from the same vine 
for the years named, with the following 
results : 

1885 50 lbs. 

1886 68 lbs. 

1887 70 lbs. 

1888 109 Ibf. 

1889 15 lbs. 

1890 24 lbs. 

1891 147 lbs. 

" This vine was not isolated, but stood in 
a vineyard where the vines are set eight feet 
apart each way . The average per year for 

January 21, 1893. 



the first four years, when properly pruned, 
was 74^ lbs. per year." 


Stanislaus county has a single representa- 
tive, Mr. C H. Mero, of Knipht's Ferry. 
Mr. Mero shows a pyramid of about 5,000 
oranges, conspicuous among which is the 
blood Navel, which, Mr. Meto says, has, 
among other good qualities, the important 
one of bearing well. Mr. Mero has had no 
help from his county, but the exhibit is inde- 
pendent and paid for by himself. Mr. A. 
Collins, a neighbor, contributed ten boxes of 
Seedlings to make up bis display. 


Butte county has the most extensive citrus 
display of any at the fair. That is to say, it 
occupies more space. It is one of the lead- 
ing features of the entire exhibition, and has 
attracted general and most favorable atten- 
tion. The chief portion is the " Rock of 
Ages," constructed by the town of Oroville. 
A " Rock of Ages " made up of oranges 
might seem an anomaly, but the efTect is 
made realistic by a painted background, re- 
presenting the stormy sea, and lowering 
clouds, and a frowning rock boldly appearing 
Irom the angry waters. The foreground is 
an enormous bed of oranges, with lemons 
arranged here and there in a very pretty 
manner. The " Rock of Ages" is placed 
at the rear of the pavilion. The structure is 
at least thirty feet high and forty feet broad. 
On the semicircular frame at the top is a 
decoration of palm leaves, and under it the 
inscription "Rock of Ages,'' in ornamental 
text, each letter being made of oranges. 
The cross in the foreground, its base sur- 
rounded by rocks, ferns and running water, 
is also covered with the golden fruit. At the 
extreme apex of the arch is an electric star, 
and the whole scene is sufTused by the blaze 
of a search light at night. 

At nine o'clock each night a tableau is 
presented, at which a young lady in white 
comes forth and clings to the cross, in the 
affecting fashion usually depicted in the 
familiar allegorical piciure. The band in 
the meantime plays the grand old hymn. 

Palermo, Butte county, is represented by a 
structure called an "arcaded market." It is 
a square building, surrounded by a tower 
and a clock. Its basic dimensions are 
25x35 feet, and its height about thirty. 
Through the numerous open arches of the 
substructure are seen numerous displays of 
citrus fruit by private exhibitors, about 
twenty in number. The arcade took 39,000 
oranges for its composition, and is said to 
have cost about $1200. It was put up by 
the Palermo Land and Water company. 

Chico, Butte county, has a fruit and grain 
palace, under charge of Mr. B. F. Allen 
It is no less than a handsome edifice made 
up entirely of boxes of grain and fruit, in- 
geniously and skillfully placed, so that each 
distinct specimen shall be shown through 
glass to the best possible advantage. The 
palace is also copiously decorated with glass 
jars containing grains, nuts, etc., fixed in 
convenient niches and other repositories, 
and disclosing the entire range of such pro- 
du ts in Butte county. Around its base are 
sheaves of wheat and other grains. There 
are seventy varieties of wheat, twenty-five 
of barley, fifteen of oats, three of flax and 
seven of rye, a large part of which comes 
from the ranch of the famous Gen. John 
Bidwell. There are forty kinds of nuts, and 
one hundred specimens of beans, peas, 
corns and seeds. There are fifteen exhibits 
of almonds, and there are many olives and 
figs. There is also a display of Butte 
county cotton. 

Vegetables and melons are shown, among 
others the casaba, of the musk-melon family, 
held by the inhabitants of Butte county to 
be superior to any kindred melon. It is a 
native of Italy that thrives remarkably well 
in California. 

Chico has also on exhibition an orange 
pavilion, on which are shown about 7,000 
oranges, and large and luscious varieties of 
fruits in glass jars. All kinds of peaches, 
plums, apricots and prunes are also dis- 
played. The deciduous fruits are designed 
for the World's Fair. 

In the two Chico exhibits there are in all 
about 600 specimens in glass, put up with 
care and good judgement, and making on 
the whole a very excellent showing. 

There should be added to the foregoing 
mention of the"speltz"a hybrid grain, a 
cross between wheat and barley. It is first- 
class feed, and is grown quite extensively in 
Butte county. It was announced, a few 
days since, that this grain was grown this 
year for the first time in Skagit county, 
Washington. The statement is an error. 
"Speltz" has been raised on Gen. Bidwell's 
place for several years. 

As an entirety, Butte county makes a 
splendid showing. In common with other | 
displays, its exhibits appear best at night ' 

under the full glare of the strong lights, 
but they are sufficiently beautiful at any 
time, day or night, and without the assist- 
ance of such advantageous artificial con- 

On either side of the " Rock of Ages " 
stands an orange-tree, one of them at the 
time it left Oroville showing 186 oranges 
and the other over 150. Many of these still 
remain on the trees despite the trials of 
transplantation and transport. To the left 
of the triangular orange slopes is a special 
exhibit of lemons, citrons, shaddocks, etc., 
showing that Oroville has considerably more 
than one siring to her bOw. The two in- 
ctosures in front of these main exhibits are 
devoted to Thermalito colony displays, and 
are under the ausp ces of the Oroville Cit- 
rus Association. Never has there been 
probably a more creditable display of 
oranges than is here presented. They are 
most of them budded oranges, among the 
varieties being Hermosas, St. Michaels, 
Mediterraneans, Washington Navels, Par- 
son Browns, Majoricas and Malta Bloods. 
Here can be seen, too, exhibits of olive oil, 
pickles and limes. Twenty-two large views 
of the favored section represented attract 
much attention in their single large frame 
suspended between two of the uprights of 
the northern stand. 


Tulare comes forward with rather a small 
exhibit for so big and so prolific a county, 
and it is represented by growers from one 
section only — C. Frost, W. J. Pretiyman 
and Phil. M. Baier, of Porterville. The 
varieties of oranges shown in a well-arranged 
display are as follows: 
Majorca, Dancy, 
St. Michaels, Cataline Navels, 

Magnum BDnum, S^nford, 
Rugby Blood, Dincy Tangerine, 

Washington Navels, Seedlings, 
Jiffi, Haniord Mediterranean. 


Mexican limes and Lisbon and Kureka 
lemons are also shown. The latter seem to 
be further advanced than the northern lem- 
on, and are of especially fine color and ap- 

The Porterville oranges are comparatively 
new to San Francisco. Their market is al- 
most wholly in the East. Their merit is 
great and the producers claim they have 
little or no difficulty in effecting sales. 

One of the exhibitors — Mr. Baier — said 
to a representative of the Rural Press: 
"We do not claim to have the best oranges 
in California. What we say is, we have or- 
anges that are first-class in all particulars, 
and that is enough for us. Other commu- 
nities may, and doubtless do, have the 

It is probable that Tulare county will also 
be represented at the southern citrus fair at 


Over in one corner of the pavilion is to be 
found a very unpretentious but, at the same 
time, notable exhibit of the products of San 
Luis Obispo county, in charge of J. N. 
Young. No citrus fruits in quantity are 
shown, but there is a very large and valu- 
able collection of grains, vegetables and de- 
ciduous fruits. There are shown sixty vari- 
eties of grain in sheaf and in glass, forty 
specimens of beans, and corn, peas, seeds, 
alfalfa, beets, pumpkins, melons, walnuts, 
apples, onions, potatoes, squashes, carrots, 
dried fruits, wines and mineral water, lem- 
ons, asphalt and Indian relics — quite a vari- 
ety in all. There are seventeen varieties of 
apples and twenty-two exhibits of table 
squash, eighteen of carrots, sixteen of beets, 
six of potatoes and two of onions. The dis- 
play of apples is from Mr. Young's orchard. 

Among the prodigies shown by Mr. 
Young are the following: Big onions are 
displayed in a jar that weigh five pounds 
each. The biggest potato pulls down the 
scales to seven pounds. Two gigantic 
pumpkins are shown — one a blue seal 
weighing 212 pounds and another a potiron, 
208 pounds. A Mangel beet weighs 80 
pounds, and a carrot 12. 

From the Suey ranch is a display of giant 
lemons. They are in a glass and cannot 
now be measured or weighed, but they ap- 
pear to be the largest in the pavilion. 

There is also a display of asphalt in dif- 
ferent forms, antimony, quicksilver and 
chromic ore just turned out by the new 
chrome works in San Luis Obispo. Petri- 
factions are shown in which is a large oyster 
shell found 35 miles from the seashore. 

There is a sunflower I5>2 feet high, the 
flower of which was five feet in circum- 
ference when green. 

There is building-rock and the unique fire- 
rock peculiar to San Luis Obispo. It is 
stated of this rock that a fragment dipped in 
oil will burn one-half hour with a bright 
flame when the match is touched to it. It 
is commonly used for building fires. 

Mr. Young himself collected the entire 
exhibit, for which he has as yet received no 


Alameda county makes a very complete 
and meritorious exhibit of fruits, nuts, dried 
prunes, grains, pickles, asparagus, almonds, 
rhubarb, peas, etc., all in glass. Among 
interesting features is an arch, with columns 
of immense glass jars, completely filled with 
a variety of fruits, arranged in artistic pro- 
fusion. Surmounting the jars is the in- 
scription, "Alameda." A unique exhibit is 
a Japanese mandarin orange tree with fruit, 
and a great variety of other fruits at its base, 
among others a ripe watermelon. There is 
also a sugar exhibit, showing the beet in all 
its stages of progress from the naked veg- 
etable to granulated sugar. 

There are in all, in the Alameda exhibit, 
several thousand pieces. Unfortunately, no 
one seemed to be in charge on the several 
occasions it was visited by a representative 
of the Rural Press, and its many merits 
could not at that time be specifically ex- 
plained to visitors. 


The Sonoma county exhibit was late in 
place. No visitors were admitted for a 
number of days after the fair opened, and 
a full description therefore cannot be given 
at this time. There is a rumor that a lead- 
ing feature of the display is a pumpkin 
weighing 300 pounds or less. This paper 
will take occasion to verify the report (or 
otherwise) at some other time. 


To Humboldt county belongs the honor 
of presenting a collection that is in the 
greatest degree singular and entertaining. 
It is a museum of curiosities, labeled 
"Humboldt as it was in 1850." If civilization 
in Humboldt forty-three years ago was 
r early as wild and uncouth as here repre- 
sented, all strangers within its limits must 
have felt that they bore their lives in their 
hands every time they advanced a step into 
that land of wonders and terrors. The ex- 
hibit is, in short, an ideal representation of 
the roughest and most dangerous, and ad- 
venturous aspects of existence in that 
weird wilderness at an early pioneer day. 
There are shown savage animals, weapons. 
Indian relics, strange household appliances 
made from the skins and boms of wild 
beasts and other natural resources, snakes, 
scalps, baskets, knives, slings, canes, dresses, 
and a thousand other things that went to 
make up the surroundings and domesticities 
of Indian life and of the new civilization 
then just gaining a foothold in Humboldt. 
The collection belongs to and is exhibited 
by Mrs. R. F. Herrick, and is one of the 
fruits of her long existence and labors 
among the Indians, and of her pioneer life. 
The collection was begun by Seth Kinman, 
the famous hunter and trapper, who died 
about ten years since. 

The principal feature is a huge grizzly 
bear — stuffed and very much dead — having 
been killed years and years ago, 30 or more 
There is a story connected with his slaughter 
that is worth narrating. A Spanish ranchero 
in Humboldt had for a Inng time been much 
troubled by the devastations of a giant 
grizzly. Cattle and sheep were carried off 
through the prowess of the fierce beast for 
long weeks and even years. Finally, it was 
decided to organize an expedition to slay 
him. The ranchero and several vaqueros 
started out horseback in his quest. They 
found him A bullet in the head — a prac- 
tically invulnerable portion of his tremen- 
dous anatomy — enraged the grizzly and he 
started in hot pursuit of the party. One 
horse was slow, and the bear gained rapidly. 
Seeing his capture inevitable, the rider aban- 
dbned the horse and climbed a tree — a very 
wise proceeding, as events showed. The 
grizzly overtook the horse, attacked him and 
tore every rib from one side of the poor 
animal's body at one blow. The monster 
afterward retired, and thetrembling Spaniard 

Next week Seth Kinman volunteered to 
engage the grizzly in combat. So he started 
out with several attendants. They went 
along the seashore, and, sure enough, there 
was the giant (the original prototype of ursa 
major) engaged in the peaceful pursuit of 
digging rlams. A well-aimed shot by Kin- 
man slew him, the ball taking effect in the 
back just behind the foreleg. 

The bear weighed 1800 pounds and was, 
it is said, over ten feet high when erect. His 
length now is 8 feet 8 inches, but it is 
claimed that he has shrunk a very great deal 
since his death and in the process of years 
of decay. His paw was 18 inches across, 
his claws several inches in length. The In- 
dians said he was about 32 years old, being 
cut off in the prime of life. He ought to 
have lived to be at least 75. If he had been 

a good bear, he might have been alive to- 
day, giving his progeny sound moral advice 
and guiding them into the paths of rectitude 
and sobriety. On the other hand, he might 
have joined a sideshow to a circus and given 
the eloquent and accomplished gentleman 
who always delivers an oration on the out- 
side an opportunity to stretch the truth a 
great deal as to his stature — "20 feet in 
height, weight 3600 pounds, he eats an ox at 
every meal, etc., etc." So, in the interest of 
good morals, it is perhaps as well that Mr. 
Grizzly had his predatory career thus sud- 
denly cut short by Mr. Kinman's bullet. 

Mrs. Herrick shows a beautiful chair of 
elk horns that was to have been given 
by Mr. Kinman to President Garfield, but 
the presentation was prevented by the Presi- 
dent's assassination. A similar chair was 
given to President Hayes, and Kinman had 
the distinguished honor of appearing in a 
photograph with the President, the latter 
seated in his barbarian chair, the other in 
his hunter's garb, standing very erect and 
looking very proud. 

A violin with ihe frame made of a mule's 
skull is another curiosity. Kinman was a 
violin player, and he had a mule that was of 
a disposition irresistibly musical. Coming 
across the plains, whenever Kinman played 
the violin, this gentle hybrid of Apollonic 
instinct!) would come and stick his head in 
the tent, his ears gently waving to and fro 
in strict time to the music. So, when the 
mule died, after an honorable and faithful 
service of many years, Kinman dedicated 
his immortal soul to music by imbedding 
bis skull in a violin frame. 

The scalp of Lassie, a bad • Indian chief 
who tried to kill Kinman, and was prevented 
by a slight accident — the accident consisting 
in Kinman getting the drop on him first — is 
also proudly shown. 

Moose,*deer and elk horns are also prom- 
inently displayed. One set of horns is of a 
mule deer, and has 22 points, believed to be 
the largest number on any horns in exist- 

A cane used by Daniel Boone in his old 
age, a musket nearly 200 years old, and vari- 
ous Indian charms and other things are also 
in the collection. 

Mrs. Herrick says the Indians have prom- 
ised to find and donate to her that extraor- 
dinary rarity — a white deer skin. The white 
deer is an object of veneration and profound 
worship among the Humboldt Indians. He 
stands in the same relation to them as a 
white elephant to the superstitious East 

Fruits, grains, woods and fish are also a 
part of the Humboldt county exhibit. 


One of the very interesting exhibits at the 
fair is the aquarium, which, though not large, 
is quite attractive. The following varieties 
are shown : Rainbow trout from Klamath; 
salmon fry from Sisson hatchery; catfish, 
suckers, carp, whitefish from Lake Tahoe; 
cutthroat trout from Lake Tahoe; black bass 
from Russian river; brook trout from Mt. 
Shasta; terrapin. 

Another very interesting collection is the 
Wells, Fargo & Co.'s display. Its most 
prominent feature is the relics of various 
desperate robberies of which the company 
has been the victim. 

The machinery department is not exten- 
sive; but it is creditable. 

An excellent band discourses music after- 
noons and evenings. 

The attendance so far has been very satis- 

Of course the new wash-machine man is 
on hand. No show would be complete 
without him, or the lightning sketch-artist, 
or the Edison phonograph conductor. "Five 
cents hears it; $350 buys it." 

At one place an industrious old lady oper- 
ates a spinning wheel, said to be 200 years 

Possibly it was an oversight, but the ex- 
hibitors have generally given poor old Co- 
lumbus a rest — and this is Columbian year, 

The citrus exhibit is called " the dress 
parade for the World's Fair," because a 
number of its features are to be reproduced 
at the great exposition. 

The state mining bureau has a large and 
complete exhibit. 

The great statue of California occupies a 
prominent place, nearly in the middle of the 

One serious drawback is the absence of 
seats to accommodate a big crowd. As a 
matter of fact, however, there is little space 
for them. The arrangement of the pavilion 
is not up to- modern requirements. 

None of the private exhibits is more 
unique and attractive than the salt display 
of Mr. G. W. Durbrow, of Salton. Salt in 
all its various forms — coarse, fine and crys- 
tallized — are shown in most picturesque 
shapes, and the processes of salt-gathering 



J»naary 21, 189S 

and refining explained by drawings and 
otherwise. Among other interesting things, 
there are shown the remains of a wheel- 
barrow recovered from Salton sea. It is 
one mass of glistening crystallizations, not a 
vestige of wood being visible. The exhibit 
is to be taken to the World's Fair, where it 
is certain to excite much attention. 

During the present week, special nights 
have been devoted to the various counties, 
when the managers of the several exhibits 
were " at home " to the public. These 
nights thus set apart were : — 

Monday night — Butte county. 

Tuesday night — Yuba county. 

Wednesday night— Placer county. 

Thursday night — Humboldt county. 

Friday night — Alameda county. 

Saturday night — Sacramento county. 


Taken as a whole the fair is a success. 
In some features it is superior, in others 
quite equal, to its predecessors. It is a fact 
that heretofore exhibits were monopolized by 
local merchants, machinists and implement 
houses. While their displays were in the high- 
est degree creditable and deserving, they were 
of necessity much the same each ye»r, and 
the fair really amounted to little more than 
a display of the work of these various busi- 
ness houses. The same things can be said 
even of the art exhibition, in which were 
found many rare and beautiful paintings; 
but inspection of the catalogue never failed 
to disclose that at least one-half the produc- 
tions of genius were for sale by the artist to 
the first purchaser, and the inference was ir- 
resistible that the sole purpose of exhibition 
was to find a buyer, and that it was not a 
contribution to an artistic collection for art's 

It is likely that all citrus fairs in the future 
will be held in connection with the^echan- 
ics' fair, and that a feature of superior per- 
manent interest will thus be added. Pre- 
vious citrus fairs held in places in the inte- 
rior of the State have no doubt possessed 
equal merit and attractiveness with the pres- 
ent fair; but it is undeniable that they have 
not been visited by as many thousands as 
have already spent a pleasant and instruc- 
tive afternoon or evening in attendance at 
the present show. The chief object of a 
citrus fair, as of any other, is to present 
such a variety of objects, in pleasing and ar- 
tistic shape, that it will draw many people 
to inspect its features. Attendance is a 
leading element of success. It is the design 
of the various exhibitors to interest the larg- 
est possible number of people in their dis- 
plays. It appears, therefore, to have been 
a wise decision that brought the fair to San 
Francisco, because the products of the vari- 
ous counties will here be in view of more 
people than in any other city in the State. 

The cash premiums of the Northern Cit- 
rus Association, amounting to $2500, were 
awarded last Tuesday night by A. W. Potter, 
D. E. Allison and John G. Wetmore, judges. 
Butte county got first, as it has at previous 
fairs. The several citrus awards are as 


First premium, Butte county, $250; second 
premium, Placer county, $200; third premium, Tu- 
Ure county, $150; fourth premium, Yuba county, 
$100: fifth premium, Sacramento county, $50. 


First premium, G. Frost. Porterville, Tulare 
rounty, $200; second premium, Robert Hector, 
Monte Rio, Placer county, $150; third premium, 
Oroville Citrus Assnciation, Butte county, $100; 
fourth premium, N. W. Winton, Thermalito, Butte 
county, $75; filth premium, W. A. Ro£;ers. Ther- 
malito, Bu'te county, $50; sixth premium, Butte 
County Infirmary, $40; seventh premium, G. A. 
Fisher, Thermali'o, Butte county, $30; eighth 
premium, J. W. Hutchins. M.irysville. Yuba county, 
$20; ninth premium, A. F. J one?, Oroville, Butte 
county, $10; tenth premium, Mrs. F.Owen, Penryn, 
Placer county, $5. 


(Best 12 budded oranges grown by exhibitor.) 
First premium, G. Frost, Porterville, Tulare 
county, $fo-, second premium, Mrs. A. F. Jones, 
Oroville. Batt" county. $9; third premium, Oroville 
Citrus Association, Thermalito, Butte county, $8; 
fourth premium, G. Fros>, Porterville, Tulare 
county, $7; fifth premium, Robert Hector, Monte 
Rio, Pla'-er county, $6; sixth premium, Mrs. C. D. 
Dunn, Oroville, Butte county, $5; -ieventh premium, 
George A. Fisher, Thermalito, Butte county, $4; 
eighth premium, G. Frost. Porterville, Tulare 
county, $3; ninth premium, Orovilli Citrus Associa- 
tion. Tberroalito, Butte county, $2; tenth premium, 
G. Frost, Porterville, Tulare county, $1. 


(Best display <:tandard boxes packed for market 
Not less than five boxes). 
First premium. Oroville Citrus Association, $35; 
second premium J^cob Mansfield, Wyandotte, 
Butte county, $20; third premium, R. C. Chambers, 
Palermo, Butte county, $15, 


(Best general display by producer.) 
First premium, James O'Brien, Smartsville, Yul>a 
county, $150; second premium, O. R. Owens, 
Penryn, Placer county, $ioo; third premium, Butie 
County Infirmary, $75; fourth premium, C. H. 
Mars, Knight's Ferry, Stanislaus county, $60; fifth 
premium, E. W. Fogg, Pence Ranch, Butte county, 
$40; sixth premium, Excelsior Company, Yuba 
county, $30; seventh prem'um, Mrs W. N. Rogers, 
Marysville, Yuba county, $23; eighth premium, Mrs. 
Mary Karr, Marysville, Yuba countv, $20; ninth 
premium, F. G. Condon, Smartsville, Yuba county, 
$10; tenth premium, Miller & Lusk, Marysville, 
Yuba county, $5. 


(B^st twelve seedling oranges grown by exhibitor.) 

First premium, W. J. Pettyman. Porterville, 
Tulare county, $io; second premium, Jacob Mans- 
field, Wyandotte, $9; third premium, J. W. Currie, 
Piano, Tulare county, $8; fourth premium, W. B. 
Vineyard, Smartsville, $7; fifth premium, Mrs. 
Mary Karr, Smartsville, $6; sixth premium, Ex- 
celsior Colony, Yuba county, $5; seventh premium 
Mrs. M. A. Benjamin. Oroville, $4; eighth pre- 
mium, Robert B.^atiy, Smartsville, $3; ninth pre- 
mium, William A. O'Brien, Smartsville, $2; tenth 
premium, F. G. Congdon, $1. 


(Best display standard boxes packed for market. 
Not less than five boxes.) 
First preminm— I,. R. Kelchum Bidwe'l's Bir, 
Butte county, $25; second premium — James O'Brien, 
Smartsville, $20; third premium — Butte County In- 
firmary, $15. 


(Best display by producer.) 
First premium — W. J. Prettyman, Porle'ville, $50; 
second premium — E. Tucker, Oroville, $35; third 
premium — Pogue Lime Kiln, Tulare county, $25; 
fourth premium — Mrs. Mary Karr, Marysville, $15; 
fifth premium— Mrs. M. D. Coombs, Marysville, $io. 


(Best twelve lemons grown by producer.) 
First premium, J. C. Henry, Thermalito, $7; 
second premium N. J. Prettyman, Porterville, $5; 
third premium, Pogue Lime Kiln, Tulare county, 


(Best display by producer.) 
First premium, E. Tucker, Orovill», $20; second 
premium, W. I. Prettyman, Porterville, $15; third 
premium, M. Biggs. Jr., Oroville, $10; fourth pre- 
mium, J. Gardella, Orovill':, $5. 


(Seedling and budded, grown from seed by ex- 

First premium, Oroville Citrus Association, $20; 
second premium, H, C. Bell, Oroville, $15. 


First premium, windmill, Yuba county, $75; sec- 
ond premium, locomotive, Sacramento county. $50; 
third premium, watch tower, Butte county, $25. 

To the list of awards the committee adds: " We 
wish to call special attention to the exhibit of the 
Thermalito Olive Oil Association, which, though we 
could give no premium, has an excellent display. 
The Seedless Azorean St. Michael exhibit by Herold 
& Curliss, Palermo, is a promising variety and 
worthy of special attention by growers of citrus 
fruit. The general excellence of the exhibits de- 
serves special mention, as we lielieve they are equal 
to anything that could be shown by growers of cit- 
rus (ruit in any part of the world." 

Seedling oranges from the Brown's Valley Irjiga- 
tion District made an excellent display, but were 
not entered for prizes. 

The committee on artistic disolays was composed 
of Norton Bush, Mrs. W. G. Richardson, Miss 
Mary D. Bates, R. D. Yelland and C. E. Grunsky. 


Every oyster has a mouth, a heart, a 
liver, a stomach, besides many curiously de- 
vised little intestines and other organs, nec- 
essary organs such as would be handy to a 
living, moving, intelligent creature. The 
mouth is at the end of the shell, near the 
hinge, and adjoining the toothed portion of 
the oyster's pearly covering. 

Growing Boses. 

There is a world of pleasure to b" derived from a 
garden full of roses; even a single flower, in a little 
red pot, will brighten the home and bring good 
cheer. With the right kind of plants there is no 
difficulty in the way of everybody having the 
choicest roses; a little soil, water and sunshine is ttfe 
only care they require, and they amply repay for 
the slight trouble and expense. The best roses for 
home culture are those grown by the Dingee & 
Conard Company at West Grove, Pa. For twenty- 
five years this firm has been propagating roses of 
every variety on their own roots and sending them 
by mail to every part of the land. Their method of 
starting a rose is peculiarly their own. When the 
plant leaves their hands it is ready to thrive and 
bloom in pot or garden. This firm publishes an i|. 
lustrated " Guide to Rose Culture " which contains 
complete instructions for growing flowers of all 
kinds, and much other information intei-'sting and 
valuable to the lover of flowers. They ofTir to send 
it Free, and enclose a specimen copy of their floral 
magazine, "Success With Flowers,"' to all who 
make application. 

When You Are Ready for Seed, send to 
Kansas Seed House of Lawrence, Kansas, for one 
of its descriptive catalogues. This firm, besides 
being one of the largest in the West, is noted 
throughout the country for a numtier of leading 
novelties and specialties in the seed line. 


"I have now la, use fiva ot your ROCHESTER GANG PLOWS, aad desire to say that they eive excellent 
gatistaction, and I find them indi^pengab'e. The price Is so much reduced from that (ormerlv naid for a lika ln< 
plement that no orchardirt should do without a BOCHESTER." 


N. P. CHIPMAN, Red Bluff, Cal. 

Unitarian Literature 

Rent trxf hy the OHAHinifa AirnLiAKT »f the Plist L'olta. 
rian Church, cor. Qeary an ' Franklin Sts., San Fran- 
clace. Addren Wh S, A, Hobe, ai at>OT*. 

"Your R03HESTER PLOW Is a success, and the lightest weight Plow doinr ^ 
effective work." Signed, L. E. BLOCHMAN, Santa Maria, Cal. 

" We started the ROCHESTER GANG PLOW to day, and are well pleased with it 
It does the work well." Signed, JONES & MAULSBY, Santa Maria, Cal. 

Olive Hill Orchard and Nurseries. 

" I received the ROCHESTER PLOW yesterday. In rood i>hM>e, and am very well 
pleased with it." Signed, T. LILIENCRANTZ, Aptos, Cal. 

" I consider the ROCHESTER GANG PLOW the beat I have 
ever seen ujed." Signed, B. H. BANCROFT, Concord, Cal. 

"Having used the ROCHESTER GANG PLOW in my or- 
chard, I am pleased to say it does Its work well and Is lighter on 
my team than I expected." Signed, E. C. W. HacDONALD, 

Aptos, Oal. 

" I am well pleaded with the ROCHESTER GANG PLOW, as 
it does flne work and is very liirht draft, two horses handling it 
easily." Signed, E. PARSONS, North Pomona, Cal. 


' Am well pleased with the CYCLONE PULVERIZER I purchased from you last year. For the last work- 
ings of an orchard it is especially valuable, leaving the ground well pulvtrized and le^el." 

Signed, Dr. GEO. W. HANDY, Saratoga. Cal. 

" I have used the CYCLONE PULVERIZER here for two years, and it is a nood tool to work in orchards 
and will do better work than a harrow. There is no better set of tools to tirepare the ground for sugar beets 
than the CYCLONR PtU.VKRIZ <■ CYCLONE CULTIVATOR." Signed, A. B. AKNIN, Fullerton, Cal. 

"The CYCLO.NE PULVERIZER arrived, and I started 
it within an hour of the time I received it- To say that it 
gives satisfkclion is not sayi- g half enouiih in iti favor. It 
is the most complete Pulverizer I ever saw. It leaves the 
ground as fine as a flower garden. Three fmil' nr two 
medium horses, and one man. can fiaish fifteen acres every 
day, and do tne work better tb»n can be liore with any other 
tool now in use." i>i<ned, W. E. COLE, 

Capay, Cal. 

" 1 have used the TOWER CYCLONE PULVERIZER on 
my orchard in Sutter county, and take pleasure in rec <m- 
mending it to pirtif s wishing an In plement for surface culti- 
vation. I am using cultivators of your different makes, all 
of them doing gocil work; none of their, however, finishes 
up tl>e Furface of the ground and levels it equ 1 to the 
~ Marysville, Cal. 


" We find our 8-foot LUITWIELER CULTI- 
VATOR all that is cUii^ed for it— a buc- 
c"89tul implement for o'chsrd use, and rec- 
ommend it to all who wish a dm c'ass culti- 
vator." Signed, A. P. CHRISMAN, 
Los Oatos, Cal. 

I received from you is givin-r sood satisfac- 
tion. My team is medium and handles it 
quite easily." S gned, H. B. 8TEIN8URO. 

Woodland, Cal. 

"After giving the DESRFIELD STEEL 
HARNESS a trial, I am prepared to say that 
I find it very sucoeesful for orchard use. nan 
recommend It to all who wish to use a Har- 
ness which will not Irjiire their trees." 

Signed, O. F. SMITH, Carpinterla. Cal. 


" We have used your DEERFIELD STEEL HARNESS in plowing vineyard, and and it Is the most com- 
plete arrangement we ever saw. Also, tor 2-horge work on wagon, it works equally as well as in our vineyard or 
orchard." Signed, W. E. ft H. BENJAMIN, Santa Rosa, Cal. 

" Having used the DEERFIELD STEEL HARNFSS, and given it gnol tests, am now prepared to say that 
it is the best Harness for orchard work I have had on my place. I recommend it to my nelghb' rs." 

Signed, RUSSELL HEATH, Carpinterla, Cal. 

" I find your DEERFIELD STEEL HARNESS Al for orchard and vineyard work, and by far tha most con- 
venient Harness for a lead team and for a general purpose Harness on a farm." 

Signed, M. S. B0WDI8H, Los Gatos, Cal. 

HARNESS haa been given a 
trial In my vineyard, and works 
well, preventini; injury to vines 
^ and trees to a vreat extect. 
It is a decided advantage to be 
able to hitch up the horses 
reparately and attach them 
atterw-ard." Signed, 


Evergreen, Oal. 

" My tearastT reports that 
NESS works well. I enclose 
check f3r payment Please 
send me another set of har- 
ness." Signed, 
Santa Paula, Cal. 

ROW came all right. The more 
I use it the better I like it, and 
would not part with i' at auy 
price It IS the best Harrow I 
ever saw." Signed, 


Santa Ciuz, Cal. 



Horticultural Pampblet 


3 and 5 FRONT ST., 
346 N. MAIN ST., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

January 21, 1893 



The Wheaten Loaf. 

The ideal loaf depends on the perfection 
of the leavening process. Baking fixes the 
air cells, and the quicker that is accom- 
plished the better. If dough is placed in the 
oven before it is sufficiently "proofed" the 
bread will be close-grained or heavy. If the 
temperature of the oven is too low then sog- 
gy bread results; if overheated the crust will 
form too quickly, becoming hard, thus pre- 
venting the escape of water. The result is 
an " underbaked " loaf. The right tempera- 
ture and medium-sized loaves result in such 
a penetration of the heat through the loaves 
as to delay the baking of the crust until the 
necessary changes have been made. To 
test the oven throw on its floor a tablespoon- 
ful of fresh flour, If it takes fire or burns 
black quickly the oven is overheated and 
must be allowed to cool. If the floor re- 
mains white after a few seconds the tempera 
ture is too low. If the oven is right the flour 
will turn a blackish or brownish yellow and 
look slightly scorched. 

In the largp cities there are immense bak- 
eries where machinery and reel ovens are 
employed in bread-making. This reduces 
the cost to the consumers, who will ere long 
be able to buy, if they are not already, bread 
as cheap as they can make it at home, taking 
fuel and labor and loss from bad bakers of 
, bread into account. In the large bakeries 
the dough is mixed in huge oval tubs of oak 
which hold five barrels or looo pounds of flour 
made into dough, which is worked by ma 
chinery. The tub is elevated on a platform 
so as to permit the working of revolving 
steel blades. Three men are thus enabled 
to work up in one day without touch of hand 
150 barrels of flour, which, if done in the or- 
dinary or old method by hand, would require 
the services of thirty men. A huge lump of 
twenty-four pounds of dough is cut by a ma- 
chine in a few seconds into twelve loaves. 
Economy of material, better bread and low 
cost are the result of these mechanical im- 
provements. — Food. 

In orchard and vineyard cultivation as in 
general farming the plow is the first and 
most important implement. On page 68 of 
this issue will be found an announcement of 
interest to every fruitgrower in the State. 
It refers to the justly celebrated Oliver 
Chilled Plows. Particular attention is being 
paid by this company to the needs of the 
Pacific coast, and every season they are 
adding new patterns to their already very 
complete list. It is not exaggeration when 
we say that their line of plows for orchard 
and vineyard work is the best and most com- 
plete of any on the market to dav. 



:e? /vir-x-F:isT MiaEiis ^.NO\7^x<r. 






We have ANYTHING you want in the Implement Line. 

GENUIN"! STAR MOLINB PLOWS, fitted with Crucible Steel Shares uid Soft Center Holdboards, are 
the best. We have them all sizes, 6 to 16-iDch cut. 


THE OLD RELIABLE SOUTH BEND CHILLED PLOW has more friends than any other «hllled 
plow made. 

HARROWS -All Styles. 


THE ALLISON-NBPP SPRAY PUMP-Three sizes, A, B and C; latest and best. 

DON'T plow your orchard or vineyard but once during the season. The now famous CLARK'.S REVERSI- 
BLE: CUTAWAY Disc HARROW will keep the weeds down, your land well pulverized and level, 
and at one-third the cost of plowing. 





Yoa will faavc^ 
the Best Crop 
It' yo« buy 



Oar Novelties: Glass Radish, Jerusalem and Kansas 
King Corn, Denver Lettuce and Kansas Stock Melon. 

Our Specialties: Onion Seed and Sets, Alfalfa, Bsper- 
sette. Kaffir Corn, (Jane, Millet, Seed Corn, Tree Seeds for 
liinljcr rlahUM and nurseries. Kverything in the seed line. 
('ntsiloRues mailed Free on application. 
KANSAS SEED HOUSE. F. Barteldes & Co., Lawrence, Kan. 


Bowens Academy, 

Vniverslty Ata., Berkeley. 


For Boys and Toung Men. 
Special university preparation, depending not on time 

but on progress In studies. 
T. S BOWENS. M- A.. - Head Waster. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying, 

Open All Tear. 
A. VAN DER NAILLEN, President. 
Assaying of Ores, 828; Bullion and Chlortnatlon Assay, 
$28; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of assaying, 180. 
KSTA BUSHED 18B4 trV l^n^ f^- \r.n\%T 


24 POST ST.. S. P. 

College Instructs In Shorthand, Typewriting, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the 
English branches, and everything pertaining to business 
tor six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school has 
Its graduates In every part of the State. 
IV" Sbns for CiRonuR. 

B. P. HEALD, Prealdenl. 

C. 8. HALEY. Secretary. 

^^^xZftOff^^^ l^t^ quality can ever 
^^_e-t/ ^^tJiXAa agnj. by mail. May- 

hap you know it. By freight, prepaid if 
preferred, we ship safely 4, 5, or 6-ft. trees, 
2-yr. Eoses of rare excellence — everything 1 
You actually pay less than for the puny 
stufi. 1000 acres Nurseries. 20,000 acres 
Orchards. Exact information about trees 
and fruits. Stark Bros.. Loni»iana. Mo. 

.VERY iilNB. 

Vitus Caljfornica Seedlings. 

Two years old. 
Ten Dollars per Tbonsand. 

C. MOTTIER.' Box 8, IMiddletown, 

Lalre f^ountv. California 

Chicago's won- 
ders at a glance. 
Beautiful Col- 


4»red Views, illustrated Oreat Expoflitirn 
Buildlnprs, ParkH, Lake, Indexed Map and 
Guide to Places of Interest and Amusement. How 
to Save Money and Enjoy the Attractions. Scenery, 
Uiatorv, Pleasure, at the Home Fire-Side. (Latest, 
special Souvenir work Pub.) Mailed for!i0c.,or3for 
$1.00. Agents wanted atonce. Address, 

Hsntlon this Paper. Chicago, IIU 


-' - ?= - ^ ,Ci5*«'*" 

Onborne Bet I.eTer All Steel SprloE 
Tooth Harrow, 

Seventeen Teeth Kit foot. C\it. 



Auburn, N. Y., and San FraDclBCO. 

The Most Complete Assortment 


Onborne llival l>ii«r Harrow. 

All Steel, Hall Beuriuf^^. Bi^id traiiie. lb aud 20'iacb Diaca 
Scrapers and Weight Boxes. 


* Set Lever Spring and Peg Tooth Harrows. 





Oaborne Flexible Disc Harrow. 

.All Steel, Ball Bearings, Flexible Gau«s, 16 and 20-lncb Discs 





Osborne Set liever Hear Tootb All Steel Harrow Any Desired Width 

D. M. OSBORNE k CO., Qy Main Street, San Francisco. 



January 21, 1893 

Iio>1E QlRGbE. 

Fate's Frustrated Joke. 

Once Fate, with an ironic zest, 
Made man— a most delicious jest. ^ 
" From out the void I man evoke," 
Said Fate, " my best and latest joke ! 
I stand him on two slender props, 
Two pins on which the creature hops. 
I'll watch the unbalanced gawky sprawl. 
Prong alter prong behold him crawl; 
And when a strong wind from the east 
Blows on this perpendicular beast, 
I'll laugh to see him topple o'er, 
And all the gazing gods shall roar I 

This mite shall feed the lion's maw 
And dangle on the tiger's paw, 
Shall be the sportive panther's prey, 
And flee from dragons night and day. 
This (eatherless bird of awkward mold 
Shall chatter through the winter's cold; 
No hair or wool to him I give. 
No turtle shell in which to live; 
Nor can he, like the bear," said Fate, 
" Dig holes in which to hibernate. 
Out in the universe 1 fling 
This naked, helpless, shivering thing; 
Of all my jokes this is the best. 
This masterpiece of jest I " 

But Fate, in mixing man his brains, 

Forgot to take the usual pains, 

Dropped in, and made a fearful muss, 

An extra scoop of phosphorus; 

Then man he slily said: "You wait, 

And I will get the joke on Fate." 

He did not feed the lion's maw. 

Or dangle on the tiger's paw. 

But cut the lion into steak. 

And used his skin a coat to make. 

The whirlwind from the east might blow. 

Hut still it could not overthrow 

This feathered biped, for 'tis plain 

This extra phosphorus in his brain 

Was just enough upon each limb 

To hold him up and balance him. 

And so through all the )ears that come 

He keeps his equilibrium. 

And so this pronged and toppling thing 
Stood straight and made himself a king; 
This straddling biped did not fail 
To rule the elephant and the whale. 
And even great Leviathan 
Accepts the sovereign sway of man; 
And sheltered safe from wounds and scars. 
His thoughts went out beyond the stars, 
And traveled through lime's shoreless sea, 
And "wandered through eternitv. " 
And baftled Fate said: "Well, I see 
The fellow's got the joke on me I " 

— S. W. Foss, in Yankee Blade, 

In a Cathedral. 

OLONIALS, on the whole, I 
think, have more apprecia- 
tion of St. Paul's cathedral 
than of any other of London 
sights. Coming over from 
Australia for a six months' 
visit, one of the first things I promised my- 
self was to see St. Paul's. I felt it impossi- 
ble to go back and face my friends if I could 
not say that I had seen the metropolitan 
cathedral. First one thing intervened and 
then another, until my last day in England 
had been reached. The last day I had kept 
clear of engagements purposely, but unfor- 
tunately a telegram arrived in the morning 
summoning me to Norwich, and it was 8 
o'clock in the evening before I reached 
Liverpool street on the return journey. 
Now, I was bound to start for Brindisi the 
next day, and it seemed as if it were to be 
my fate to miss the last chance of seeing St. 
Paul's. Still I was deterrr.ined, and a fast 
hansom put me down at the corner of St, 
Paul's churchyard. As I stood on the pave- 
ment, looking up at the giant dome, the 
clock struck 9. The sun had set, and high 
overhead the golden ball and cross stood 
out against the sky, still burnished by the 
evening glow. The traffic had slackened, 
there were but few pedestrians and an occa- 
sional cab crawled by. The crty seemed to 
sleep, and St. Paul's was fastened up. 

Was I doomed to see only the outside ? 
Bending my neck and gazing upward, I saw 
that about the great golden ball was a 
tracery as of cobwebs, and men like flies 
were crawling about. Stout scaffoldings 
and cables there were, no doubt, but from 
the street they appeared but trifling. After 
quickly walking around in vain search for 
an open door, I came to the end of the south 
transept; I spied a light. Presently I heard 
a door softly closed, and a gray-haired old 
verger opened the iron grille. With all the 
eloquence of which I am master I entreated 
him to let me into the sacred fane. He 
hesitated and shook his head. "Very well," 
he said. "It is against the rules, but as you 
say, it is a long way from Australit; I'll let 
you in if you don't mind stopping inside for 
an hour. I shall return then, but I must 
lock the door behind me. Do you still wish 
to go inside ? ' 

Thanking him warmly, I said, "Certainly, 

I got under the great dome, which hung 

like a luminous cloud above, full of hazy, 
uncertain shadows, a faint circle of light 
flitting around the huge piers — white figures 
gleaming here and there in shadowy re- 
cesses, marble warriors, heroes and states- 
men. Under the dome in the vast open 
space was a vast crowd of chairs, rush-bot- 
tomed, lashed together in rows looking east- 
ward. Choosing one of the most central of 
these I sat down and began to dream, peo- 
pling the area with a vast invisible congre- 
gation. In soft, long-diawn cadence the 
bells tolled out the hour of 10. I had been 
in the place an hour. I felt chilled and 
numbed. I walked briskly up and down 
an avenue between the chairs. I had seen 
enough and wanted to get away from the 
scene of the shadows, Looking upward a 
faint circle of light marked the soaring 
vault, and just above my head I saw a rope 
hanging down from the vast height above. 
Then I remembered the spider webs I had 
seen outside above the ball and cross, and 
as I stood and listened I heard faint sounds 
of hammering and knocking. Men were at 
work, hundreds of feet above; lights shone 
here and there, twmkling like stars. In 
years gone by I used to be a famous gym- 
nast, and the sight of the rope hanging 
above me put me in mind of my former 
prowess. How many times, I wondered, 
could I, hanging on to that rope, draw my 
chin up to my knuckles? I leaped up and 
caught the rope. 
Once, twice, thrice. 

Drawing myself up and down until 1 grew 
tired, I stretched myself, expecting to reach 
the ground with my toes. But 1 could not. 
Glancing below me I saw with horror that 
the flooring had vanished from under me. 
I was swinging suspended hv my hands high 
up toward the dome. If I had dropped at 
that moment I might have been safe, but I 
hesitated and was lost. Slowly and steadily 
the rope was being wound up I shut mv 
eyes. Was this a hideous delusion ? No, I 
looked down — the floor below me was al- 
most out of ■ sight. There I swung, a tiny, 
human speck, half way between heaven and 
earth. My muscles were wearied with the 
load. I made huge efforts to grasp the rope 
with my feet also, but impossible. I could 
not do it. I could, therefore, only hold on. 
I was now on a level with the plinth that 
surmounts the great arches of the dome; the 
colossal fresco figure seemed to mock my 
agony. I must be half-way up now — could 
I hold on to the end ? But to my despair I 
now saw that the seeming dome was a false 
one, above which rose the real conical roof 
another hundred feet or more, and that 
through a vast round orifice — the sham 
dome — the rope was to ascend to the upper 
most peak. In that moment of torture I 
saw that my fate was inevitable. My mus- 
cles were now relaxing, my grasp would fail 
and I must fall and be dashed to pieces. 
Confused thoughts whirled through my 
brain. Voices, I thought, were catling me. 
I was slipping, slipping, and I fell. 

" How do you feel now, sir.''' was whis- 
pered close to my ear. 

Was it possible? Was I still alive? Yes, 
my brain was conscious. But, my frame? 
Shattered, no doubt; a mere human wreck. 
I only dared to use my ears, and yet I had 
no feeling of pain. An old man was bending 
over me, the same who had admitted me. 
He had a wine glass in his hand. A candle 
by his side formed a little chamber of light 
above us. 

"Am I knocked all to pieces? Do say," 
I whispered. " I don't think so, sir; you 
are not hurt a bit. Bless you, sir, you only 
fell about three feet." I stretched out my 
arms; they were all right, and my leg was 
sound. "How is this?" I said, sitting up 
and looking about me. " I thought I was 
carried up into the dome." 

"And so you were. You'd have been a 
dead man by this, but just in the nick of 
time I came back. T don't suppose I should 
have noticed you, because of the lipht, but I 
caught sight of your body against the gild- 
ing, and then you gave a sort of a moan." 

"Says I: 'There's death here if I don't 
think of something at once.' 

" Then I recollected hearing that the work- 
men chaps whistle three times when they 
want the rope lowered, so I piped away and 
the rope began to come down. I shouted to 
you to hold on and keep your heart up, but 
you didn't seem to hear anything. When 
your feet came to within a yard of the floor 
you quivered and fell in a dead faint. But 
what were vou about, to let them draw yOu 
up like that?" 

I explained my gymnastic feats. 

"O, I see, you shook the rope. That's 
the signal to pull up, and they pulled. The 
men are working double shifts now, and are 
in a hurry to get finished." 

When I left St. Paul's cathedral that even- 
ing I felt weak and nerveless, as if I had 
gone through a long illness. I have written 

this true and unvarnished account of my 
mishap as an outlet to my feelings. I did 
not talk much about St. Paul's when 1 re- 
turned to the antipodes. — Sheffield Tele- 

What Is a Friend ? 

London Tid-Bits has offered a series of 
prizes. The latest is as to what constitutes 
the word friend. The winning definition 
was: "The first person who comes in 
when the whole world has gone out." 

Some of the best of the other definitions 
are as follows: 

A bank of credit on which we can draw 
supplies of confidence, counsel, sympathy, 
help and love. 

"The image of one's self reflected in the 
mirror of mutual esteem and affection. 

One who loves the truth and you, and 
will tell the truth in spite of you. 

One who considers my needs before my 

The triple alliance of the three great 
powers, love, sympathy and help. 

The essence of pure devotion. 

A safe in which one can trust anything. 

The link in life's long chain that bears the 
greatest strain. 

A star of hope in the cloud of adversity. 

One who understands our silence. 

A volume of sympathy bound in cloth. 

A jewel whose luster the strong acids of 
poverty and disaster cannot dim. 

One who smiles on our misfortunes, 
frowns on our faults, sympathizes with our 
sorrows, weeps at our bereavements, and is 
a safe fortress at all times of trouble. 

A diamond in the ring of acquaintance. 

One who, having gained the top of the 
ladder, will not forget you if you remain at 
the bottom. 

One who in prosperity does not toady you^ 
in adversity assists you, in sickness nurses 
you, and after your death marries your 
widow and provides for your children. 

The jewel that shines brightest in the 

Friendship in the personification of love 
and help. 

The ripe fruit of acquaintanceship. 

The sunshine of calamity. 

Friendship, one soul in two bodies. 

A harbor of refuge from the stormy waves 
of adversity. 

One who multiplies joys, divides griefs, 
and whose honesty is inviolable. 

Your second self. 

God's earthly representative. 

A balancing pole to him who walks across 
the tight rope of life. 

A good banking account. 

A second right hand. 

The holly of life; whose qualities are 
overshadowed in the summer of prosperity, 
but blossom forth in the winter of adver- 

He who does not adhere to the saying 
that No. I should come first. 

A watch which beats true for all time, and 
never "runs down." 

An insurance against misanthropy. 

An earthly minister of heavenly happiness. 

A friend is like ivy — the greater the ruin, 
the closer he clings. 

One who to himself is true, and therefore 
must be so to you. 

The same to-day, the same to-morrow, 
either in prosperity, adversity, or sorrow. 

One who combines for you alike the 
pleasures and benefits of society and solitude. 

The best plaster for the sore cuts of mis- 

One who acts as a balance in the see-saw 
of life. 

A permanent fortification when one's af- 
fairs are in a state of siege. 

A link of gold in the chain of life. 

A stimulant to the nobler side of our nat- 

One who guards another's interest as 
sacredly as his own, and neither flatters nor 

A nineteenth century rarity. 

One who will tell you of your faults and 
follies in prosperity, and assist you with his 
hand and heart in adversity. 

One truer to me than I am to myself. 

The Wife's Strike. 

The walking delegate never tired of talk- 
ing of the strike. He held that it was justi- 
fiable if ever a strike was, and he was prc- 
pired to demonstrate that it was perfectly 
proper to strike to secure any desired result. 
He so told his wife, and she seemed to agree 
with him. She said it seemed to be the 
easiest way of enforcing a demand. 

And that night when he came home he 
found that the table was not set. 

" I want a new dress," she said, when he 
asked what the trouble was. 

" I know. You've been bothering me for 

that dress for a month," he said, "but how 
about supper?" 

" There isn't any," she replied. " This is 
a strike." 

"A strike?" 

" Yes, a general tie-up. I've been trying 
to secure a peaceable settlement of this 
trouble for some time, but now I mean to 
enforce my rights." 

" Mary, do you dare ?" 

" O, don't talk to me that way ! If I can't 
get you to arbitrate, why I've got to strike. 
I don't care if it does block the wheels of 

" But, Mary, you don't understand." 

" O, yes, I do. I've made my demands 
and they've been refused. A strike is all 
that there is left, and I've struck." 

" But your demands are unreasonable." 

" I don't think they are." 

" You're no judge." 

" You're the judge of your own demands 
when you strike, and I am just as good as 
you are when I want something. It's no 
use talking. This strike is on." 

She folded her arms in a detetmined way, 
and he subsided. It was perhaps half an 
hour later when he looked up and said: 

" Mary, is the strike still on ? " 

" It is still on," she replied. 

" Aren't you hungry ? " 

" No. I saw that I had something in the 
treasury before the strike was ordered." 

" Meaning the pantry ? " he asked. 

" Meaning the pantry," she returned. 

" I believe I'll get a bite," he said. 

' It's locked," she replied. " The reserve 
is to be used simpiy to keep the strike go- 
ing. You can't touch the striker's re- 

"Ba> careful, Mary," he said, warningly. 
" If I shut off the cash " 

She laughed and nodded toward the 

" I can stick it out a week," she returned. 

Five or ten minutes later he proposed that 
they compromise on a basis of ten dollars. 

" Twenty," she replied firmly. 

"But that means ruin," be protested. 1 
can't afford it." 

"That's your business," she answered. 
" I offered to arbitrate once." 

It was ten o'clock that 'night when he 
finally gave in, and somehow he felt that he 
had experienced a new phase of the strike 
business. It looked different from the other 
side of the fence. — Detroit Free Press. 

Five Public Men. 

Some one figures out that President Har- 
rison has be°nable to save nearly half of his 
salary of $50 000 a year. This is more than 
any other occupant of the White House has 
ever done. 

President James Buchanan left a fortune 
of $200,000, but a large portion of this was 
made long before he became President. 

The fortunes of Presidents Lincoln and 
Andrew Johnson were estimated at $75,000 
and 50,000 respectively at the time their 
estates were settled. 

Attorney-General W. H. H. Miller is said 
to be a rich man. He is a very shrewd law- 
yer and an admirable business man. He re- 
cently invested $40,000 in Indianapolis real 
estate, which p.iys hin> 12 per cent interest. 

Ex- Attorney- General Garland, of Cleve- 
land's Cabinet, is said to have lived com- 
fortably on his salary of 8,000 a year and 
saved money. 


Absolutely Pure. 

A cream of tartar baking powder. High- 
est of all in leavening strength. — Latest U. 
S. Government Food Report. 
RovAL Baking Powder Co., 106 Wall St., N, Y. 

January 21, 1893, 




"^OUNG KoisKS' QobUMJM. 

The Step-Mother. 

First she come to our house. 

Tommy run and hid; 
And Emily and Bob and me 

We cried jus' like we did 
When mother died— and we all said 
'At we all wisht 'at we was dead ! 

And nurse she couldn't stop us, 

And pa he tried and tried — 
We sobbed and shook and wouldn't look, 

But only cried and cried; 
And nen some one — we couldn't jus' 
Tell whd — was cryin' same as us ! 

Our step-mother 1 Yes, it was her, 

Her arms around us all — 
'Cause Tom slid down the bannister 

And peeked in from the hall. 
And ,we all love her, too, because 
She's purt nigh good as mother was ! 

— James Whitcomb Riley. 

"I Once Had a Doll." 

I once had a sweet little doll, dears, 

The prettiest doll in the world; 
Her cheeks were so red and so white, dears, 

And her hair was so charmingly curled. 

But I lost my poor little doll, dears. 
As I played on the heath one day; 

And I cried for more than a week, dears, 
But I never could find where she lay. 

I found my poor little doll, dears, 
As I played on the heath one day; 

Folks say she is terribly changed, dears, 
For her paint is all washed away. 

And her arms trodden off by the cows, dears. 
And her hair not the least bit curled; 

Yet for old sake's sake she is still, dears, 
The prettiest doll in the world. 

— Charles Kingsley. 


[ill seemed to the casual ob- 
server a very grown-up name 
for such a little boy, and espe- 
cially fnr that kind of a little 
boy. He had eyes of a deep 
violet-blue, surrounded by lashes 
which turned up and turned 
down, like those of a French doll; and they 
looked out from a face which was all soft- 
ness and dimples — quite angelic with its halo 
of golden hair. 

But those who knew him best understood 
that he could never have been called any- 
thing else. Even Billy wouldn't have done, 
and as for Willie, or Will — oh ! well, it sim- 
ply would not have done at all. Possibly 
under some circumstances he might have 
been called William, but Bill and the proper 
circumstances did not come together. In 
the first place. Bill nearly always associated 
with men. He liked men who owned dogs 
and canes, and who asked him to go walking 
with them, and who didn't treat him as if he 
had once worn dresses. 

When I first met Bill he was just three 
years old, and in his first trowsers. He 
looked shorter than he felt, and at a distance 
you couldn't be quite sure whether he was 
on his side or his leet, for he was nearly as 
broad as he was long. But it wasn't Bill's 
fault if he didn't look tall. He always stood 
extremely straight and carried his hands in 
his pockets. He did this because most of 
his friends carried their hands in their pock- 
ets, and besides, it emphasized the fact that 
he had pockets. 

What Bill's chirm was is difficult to tell. 
He certainly didn't talk much, but what he 
did say was uttered with a stately slowness 
which perhaps gave it an importance it would 
not otherwise have had; and he very rarely 
laughed or even smiled. Indeed, his un- 
smiling demeanor gave rise to a belief that 
in a former state of existence he was King 
Henry I. But whether or not he was this 
royal personage, slightly softened by time, I 
cannot say; I only know that we became a 
a circle of fawning flatterers around him. 
We vied with each other in our attentions to 
him; and when he honored either of us by a 
visit, we were pretty apt to mention it. 

Why, I've known Brewster, one of the 
best-looking fellows in town, and himself 
immensely run alter, to stand at the top of 
the stairs in the boarding-house, and hold a 
conversation with Bill, who stood at the bot- 
tom, somewhat as follows: 

Halloo, Bill, is that you ? Coming up ? " 
" No." 

" I've got a box of candy in my room." 

" Beel doesn't want any candy." 

A pause in which Brewster tried to think 
what next to say, and Bill sat down on the 
lowest step with his back turned squarely 
toward him. 

" I've pot a new canary in my room," to 
the back. 

No notice taken of this. 

"He's a beauty, Bill, as yellow as an 

" H'm." 

"Want to see him?" 
" No." 

" He's a great fighter." 

As he receives no reply, Brewster becomes 
discouraged and retires to his room, and Bill 
seems to have settled for life on the lowest 

An hour or so after, he enters Brewster's 
room, without any show of undue haste, and 
stands with his hands clasped behind him 
and surveys the yellow canary in its shining 
cage. Then he fixes his host with a cold 
and penetrating glance, and asks — 

" Why— ain't —he a fitin' ? " 

And Brewster feels that both he and his 
bird have fallen in Bill's respect. 

One afternoon one of the fellows — Culbert 

persuaded him to go with him and call 
upon some lady friends who were desirous 
of making Bill's acquaintance, and the two 
started ofT in fine spirits — at least Culbert 
was, for he particularly liked to call at that 
house, and besides, he was not indifferent to 
the distinction which Bill's company would 
give to him in our circle. Of course Bill 
showed no outward signs of rejoicing. The 
visit was a great success. The ladies were 
charmed by Bill's beauty, and at once felt 
his peculiar fascination. At the door, when 
coming away, Culbert lingered a moment 
for a few last words with their hostess. If 
Culbert was occupied. Bill was not idle. 

On the way home darkness overtook them, 
and Bill declared himself weary and willing 
to be carried. So Culbert took him up and 
they jogged homeward. He was never 
much given to confidences, so his weariness 
must have rendered him weak, for Culbert 
was presently amazed to hear a low chuckle 
as he tapped his pocket and said softly, as 
to a willing accomplice: 

" Beel's got it." 

" Got what, Bill?" 

The little hand went into the pocket and 
closed over the treasure. 

"Beel will get the knob the next time." 

Culbert came to a dead halt and asked 

" What have you been doing ? " 

"Beel has got the key;" and in a tri- 
umphant whisper, "They — can't — shut — the 

door — to-night." 

Bill had abstracted the key from the door 
while Culbert was having those last words. 

But though Bill occasionally put his 
friends to confusion, I never knew of but 
one who actually broke with him, and that 
was Brownlee. 

In an ill-advised hour he invited Bill to 
walk forth with him one fair spring day, and 
as the invitation contained a bint that there 
would be a visit to a certain ice-cream place 
for which Bill cherished a tender regard, the 
invitation was graciously accepted. Bill was 
arrayed in his best attire, and many were 
the admiring glances which followed the two 
friends as they swung bravely along. The 
ice-cream treat was to Bill's entire satisfac- 
tion. He refreshed himself with the cream, 
and his remarks about it refreshed Brown- 
lee. When they were about to leave, the 
latter said: 

" Now, Bill, I'm going to take you to the 
barber's with me, and you may see me being 

" Beel will go," was the solemn response. 

"All right then; come along.^' 

Arrived at the barber's. Bill watched the 
proceedings with profound interest. He 
seemed to take a grim pleasure in seeing his 
friend tucked into a chair and evidently ^frj 
combat, his face lathered beyond recog- 
nition. He watcTied keenly the first sweeps 
of the razor down the cheek. Then his at- 
tention was distracted by the sharp click of 
the shearing machine, and glancing into an 
adjoining room he beheld a sight which 
seemed, (or a moment, to curdle his blood. 
Under its gleaming teeth, wrapped in a white 
cloth, sat a man whose locks were falling in 
a shower about him. Bill looked and real- 
ized. The man was having his hair cut. 
Now if Bill had one spark of vanity in him 
it lay in his hair. Not a golden thread had 
ever known the shears, and the threat that 
his hair should be cut was the one threat 
that ever moved him. He must have gone 
through a course of reasoning both swift and 
terrible. If this nsan, both big and strong, 
could be caught and made to sit still in a 
chair, and be shorn until his scalp was laid 
bare, what chance of escape could he hope 
for ? With a stricken heart, but an outward 
calm, he announced with only a little quaver 
in his voice: 

"Beel is going home." 

" Not just yet. Bill, I'm not quite ready," 
cheerily responded Brownlee. 

" Beel is going home." 

" Yes, presently, Bill." 

" Beel is going home now," backing toward 
the door. 

" Bill, don't you dare go," roared Brown- 

Bill made no reply, but continued to back 

toward the door, keeping a fascinated gaze 
upon the awful sight within. When he 
gained the door he turned and flew like a 
bird into the crowded street and disap- 

Brownlee leaped from the chair, shouting 
wildly to him to come back. He saw him 
flash past the window and turn down an- 
other street. He would be lost; the child 
had no idea of his whereabouts. Bill's 
mother had trusted him to bring her boy 
safely back. 

" I must go after him." 

Brownlee and the barber seized a towel, 
and between them they smeared off the 
lather as best they could, and in another 
moment he, hatless and half-shaven, fled 
around the corner after Bill. He saw him 
making for the most fashionable promenade, 
which at this hour was sure to be crowded, 
and he shouted to him hoarsely and excit- 

Bill turned a flushed and terrified face for 
an instant, and then fled on. 

" Catch him ! catch him !" he called to a 
knot of cabmen whose stand they were pass- 

The cabmen joined in the chase. Brown- 
lee saw two of his young lady friends ap- 
proaching. He tried to snatch off his hat 
as he passed by, and realized that he was 
bareheaded. His heart hardened toward 
Bill, who at that moment was struggling in 
the clutches of a cabman. 

" Bring me your cab," was all he said as 
he drew up panting beside them. 

A grinning boy from the barber's shop 
arrived with his hat. 

He and the fugitive got into the cab, and, 
with a face disfigured by flecks of lather and 
rage, he said in a choking voice — 

"Bill, you're a scamp." 

" Beel is going home," answered the 
scamp; and then with just a touch of tri- 
umph in his returned composure, " and Beel 
is going home in a carriage." — Annie How- 
ells Frechette, in the Wide Awake. 

Mother at Prayer. 

Once, says a writer, I suddenly opened the 
door of my mother's room and saw her on 
her knees beside her chair, and heard her 
speak my name in prayer. I quickly and 
quietly withdrew, with a feeling of awe and 
reverence in my heart. Soon I went away 

from home to school, then into life's sterne 
duties. But I never forgot that one glimpse 
of my mother at prayer, nor the one word — 
my own name — which I heard her utter. 
Well did I know that what I had seen that 
day was but a glimpse of what was going on 
every day in that sacred closet of prayer, and 
the consciousness strengthened me a thou- 
sand times in duty, in danger and in struggle. 
When death came at last and sealed those 
lips, the sorest sense of loss I felt was the 
knowledge that no more would my mother 
be praying for me. — Exchange. 

Lemon Sauce. — Boil one cup of granu- 
lated sugar in two cups of hot water, wet a 
tablespoonful of cornstarch in cold water, 
add it to the syrup and cook ten minutes; 
add the juice and grated rind of one lemon 
and a tablespoonful of butter. 

Ginger Pound Cake.— Six eggs, one- 
half pound of butter, one pound of flour, one 
small pint of molasses, one-half pound 
brown sugar, one teacup of ground ginger, 
one glass of wine or brandy, a teaspoonfui 
of soda dissolved in a little vinegar and 
water. Cream butter and sugar together 
then add eggs, beaten separately, and other 
ingredients, soda last. 

Cranberry Sauce.— Wash one quart of 
cranberries in cold water, put them in a por- 
celain kettle, add a pint of boiling water 
cover, cook five minutes, press through a' 
colander, add one pound granulated sugar, 
cook one moment and turn out to cool. This 
mixture should be thick but not jelly, as is a 
sauce. When jelly is wanted, cook five 
minutes after adding sugar. 

Israel Cake. — Take half a pound of 
butter, half a pound of sugar, a good half- 
ounce of cornstarch, three-quarters of an 
ounce of wheat flour (good weight), and 
three eggs. Beat the butter to a cream, 
add the eggs and sugar, and the flour at the 
last. Stir half an hour. The butter ought 
to be rather thick. Butter a shallow sheet- 
iron pan, fill it with the batter about a quar- 
ter ot an inch high, smooth it with the blade 
of a knife, then dust sugar over it, and if 
you wish, some almonds cut into fine shreds. 
Bake in a cool oven, light yellow. Cut into 
small pieces of any shape you wish while 
still warm. 







It will give you many sugKestlons for 
making your bome more beautiful, more 






117-123 GEARY ST., 


(N p. OOLB & GO. X.X.X. 



January fl, 189S. 

From Worthy Master Davis. 

Santa Rosa, Jan. 9, 1893. 

If the Grange has fully established the fact, and 
it is a fict, that farmers can well afford to buy for 
cash, then the Grange has won a great victory. The 
credit system is always a dangerous system. No 
people, no line of trade, can too long prosper on a 
credit basis. " Pay as you go, or else stay at 
home," is the rule of the railroad; they have found 
that to allow Tom, Dick or Harry to have an open 
account is to invite a large percentage of loss, and 
hence they a-k for cash in advance. If the farmer 
will but adopt the plan of buying no more than he 
can pay for, and crop no more than he can culti- 
vate, he will, sooner or later, have the means to buy 
additional lands, horses, houses, and, better still, 
books, papers, buggies, organs, pianos, and the 
hundreds of those things which go to make the 
labors of this life cheerful None of us can afford 
to devote all of the day to the social and mental 
culture of stlf alone, neither can we afford to entirely 
neglect these things for the sole accumulation of 
wealth alone. A happy medium makes the solid, 
safe and popular man or woman. The Grange has 
taught these lessons. Many have profiled by the 
teaching, and we want to urge on lecturers ol sub- 
ordinates to keep up the work so well started, and 
so fully appreciated by many. 

The data lurnished by Governor Markham, in his 
message to the legislature showing the annual im- 
portations of products which ought to be produced 
in Ibis State, is rather surprising. Why is it that 
we have to import such articles as eggs, potatoes, 
meat, honey, lard, etc. ? Surely, Calilornia is well 
adapted to the production of all these. Surely, 
there is good pay in producing them, or importers 
could not buy in eastern or other markets, pay com- 
mission, heavy freight, and take hazardous risks in 
order to supply the people of this State. What 
better service could be done by boards of trade, 
county, district and State agricultural, horticultural 
and poultry organizations than to investigate these 
matters and then assist in developing ways and 
means for their establishment and operation ? Let 
the Order of Patrons of Husbandry see to it that 
these subjects receive carelul attention. Let us 
keep ourselves posted as to the needs of the people 
in this Stale. We don't want them fed on products 
from other sections, which might be better and 
profitably produced in our own fair California. 
" Look well to the West I" and her rights, oppor- 
tunities and profits I 

The question of territorial jurisdiction of subor- 
dinate Granges is one that will, no doubt, soon 
have consideration from the State Grange of Cali- 
fornia. An effort was made at the last session of 
the National Grange to allow members of dormant 
Granges to affiliate with a State Grange on the 
^Vj^eMoi %i. 10, provided said member does not 
live within 15 miles ol a live subordinate Grange; 
and as soon as a subordinate Grange is organized 
within 15 miles of the home of said Patron, he or 
she must affiliate with that Grange. Although the 
committee reported favorably on this proposition 
to the National Grange, that body failed to give the 
necessary vote to secure the purpose of the resolu- 
tion. The question of jurisdiction of subordinates 
is one of great importance, and it will require some 
action on the part of State Granges to make it fully 

Now is the time to suggest amendments to the 
Road Law. Everybody is permitted to have a 
••say " on this subject, as will be seen by reference 
to the proceedings of the legislature. 

Seven members are required to open a subor- 
dinate Grange. Remember that 1 See Digest. 

Senator D. A. Ostrom of Yuba county made a 
strong point when he insisted that the Governor 
should appoint more farmers to office, and espe- 
cially that a farmer should be appointed a director 
of the prisons. 

How many farmers are on the Board of Regents 
of the State University? And yet there is the 
Slate's Agricultural College. Can we have a few 
farmers on the Board of Regents? 

Senator Earle has introduced a bill providing that 
all Regents of the State University shall be ap- 
pointed from the list of graduates till the majority 
of the Board is composed of the alumni of the 

Have you noticed the number of bills which carry 
with them the appropriation of public money ? 

There are several members of the Alliance and of 
the Grange in the Senate and in the Assembly. 
Will they act as a unit on matters that affect the 

Have you noticed the number of bills creating 
places for somebody ? Commissions without num- 
ber, but each one with a big salary provided. 
Haven't we commissions enough and to spare with- 
out creating new ones ? 

Are you going to the World's Fair? If so, visit 
the Grange headquarters. You will be very wel- 
come. " Columbia " will be glad to see you. 

The many friends of Bro. X. X. Charters, one of 
the Executive Committee of the National Grange 
and Worthy Master of Virginia Slate Grange, will 
be pained to hear of his serious illness. All who 
know him will hope for his speedy recovery to 

Sixth-degree certificates will soon be ready for 
distribution . 

San Jose Grange. 

San Jose Grange was honored by a visit from 
Bro. I. C. Steele, State treasurer. Three members 
from Florin Grange were also present. The newly 
elected officers were all in their respective stations. 
The question of surrendering the charter and form- 
ing an independent Order was very pleasantly dis- 
cussed. The question was not proposed with any 
desire to do such a thing, but only for the purpoie 
of weighing the advantages derived from the Stale 
Grange. 'The resolution to withdraw was unani- 
mously voted down. M. J. Worthen, Lec. 

The Secretary's Colomn. 

By A. T. Dbwiv, Secretary State Orange of California. 

ime at 

Bro. R. P McGlincv writes that he 
under pressure of farm work devote his 
present in Sacramento. 

Mrs. L. Krink, whose husband has been treas- 
urer ol Temescal Grange for over ten years, died at 
their residence in Oakland, Jan. i6th. Members 
and many friends who knew her in Sacramento and 
Oakland will lament the departure of so noble and 
kind a Sister and friend. 

Tulare Farmers' Institute.— Under the 
auspices of Tulare Grange, writes Bro. \. J 
Woods, the Tulare Farmers' Institute will meet 
Jan. 2 1st. All Patrons and farmers and their wives 
and families should be present. Every one in- 
terested in rural affairs, social literary enjoyment 
and advancement will be welcome. 


Now is the lime for every true Patron to act for 
the cause of good legislation. Write to the Grange 
Legislative Committee all the information you can 
that may help in urging the passage of the different 
enactments recommended by the Slate Grange. 
Send such letters of introduction to your local 
Senators and Assemblymen as will let your legisla- 
tive members know what your wishes are and that 
you expect them to do their duly with no blinking 
or shirking. Let ihem know that you will support 
them if they earnestly endeavor to do the right. 
Take up questions of importance 10 your locality, 
express the sentiments of your Grange in decorous 
but plain and emphatic resolutions. Sign petitions 
and send early to \. H. McKune, Sacramento, 
lor the Grange Legislative Committee. Prompt 
presentalion will thus be secured for the same 
through our legislative committee and assistant, 

Frtquent consultations between Grange and 
other farming members of the legislature, in favor 
of honest and progressive legislation, we trust will 
prevail, until a strong cooperative power will be 
wielded tffeclively for good and against pernicious 


The Committee met in Sacramento at Grange 
Hall at 11:30 A. M. January 5th. Present :— E. W. 
Davis, G. P. Loucks, B. F. Walton, Cyrus Jones 
and A. T. Dewey, secretary. Visitors : — Daniel 
Flint, W. L. Overhiser, J. D. Hutfman and S. H. 

Merced Grange resolution favoring the continu- 
ation of the Coyote Bounty law was read, and on 
motion of B. F, Walton, indorsed. 

Communications to the W. M. from Petaluma 
Grange and Sister Perry, of Merced, were read in 
regard to locating the next State Grange. The sub- 
ject was made a special order for the next meeting. 

Moved by Walton, and carried, that W. L. Over- 
hiser be authorized to contract with business firms 
in Stockton, and W.W. Greer with business houses in 
Sacramento. Walton was authorized to act as a 
committee to secure contracts with more San Fran- 
cisco business bouses; also personally, or through 
agents, with business houses in other places in the 

The recommendation of the secretary in his 
annual report for a farm to farm canvass, referred 
by the State Grange to the executive commiiiee, 
was duly considered. The following resolution, 
offered by Walton, was carried. 

Resolved, That the sum of $500, or so much 
thereof as may be required, be set apart from the 
Lecture Fund to make a thorough visitation and in- 
spection of the subordinate Granges of this State, 
and a ''house to house" canvass, organizing and 
reorganizing subordinate Granges and building up 
the Order. 

Tbis subject and the appointment of lecturers will 
be continued at the next meeting. 

By the counsel and advice of the committee, 
Chairman Davis appointed the following legislative 
committee: " Tbos. McConnell (chairman), of 
Elk Grove ; J. H. McKune, E. Greer and G. Doty 
111 Sacramento; Geo. Ohleyer Sr., of Yuba City. 
R. P. McGlincy, of Campbell, Santa Clara Co., 
was requested to assist the committee and repre- 
sent the Order before the committees of the present 
legislature. The legislative committee was re- 
quested to meet at the Golden Eagle Hotel, Sacra 
mento, Feb. 7th, 


[Secretaries are requested to send us as early reports 
as possible for publication under this head.] 

MiLViLLE Grange.— Election Dec. 24; officers 
chosen: J. S. Edington, M.; Mrs. A, J. Asbell, O.; 
Mrs. M. W. Webb, L.; F. M. Hackler, S.; L. S. 
Hackler, A. .S. ; Mrs. F. Draper, C. ; Mrs. M. F. 
Nichols, T. ; C. P. Dunham, Sec; Levi Rawlings. 
G. K.; Nissie Kurr, Ceres; Jennie Dunham, P.; 
Elsie Fallon, F.; Clara M. G3er, L. A. S. Date of 
installation, Jan. 21, 1893. 

Elk Grove Grange. — Election Dec. 3; officers 
chosen: Louis Sehlmeyer, M.; Delos Gage. O. ; 
James Caples, L.; Wm. Schaller, S. ; John Crad- 
dock, A. S. ; Mrs. S. Stelter, C; Fred Stelier, T. 
Geo. S. Williamson. Sec; E. W. Slickney, G. K.; 
Miss Maud Caples, Ceres; Miss Mabel Craddock, 
P.; Miss Dora Henley, F. ; Miss Mattie Maholm, 
L. A. S., Thomas McConnell, Trustee. Date cf 
installation, Jan. 21, 1893. 

Florin Grange.— Election Dec. 10; cfficers 
chosen: Milton Casey, M.; T. E. Davies, O.; Sis- 
ter I. A. Casey, L. ; Jesse ("asey, S.; Julius Buell, 
A. S.; Sister Jane Clark, C; C. Fowl. T.; John 
Reese, Sec. ; Arthur Jenkins, G. K. ; Sister Mary 
Davies, Ceres; Sister Blanche GiUnian, P.; Sister 
Laura Jenkins, F.; Sister Martha Davies, L. A. S. 
Dale of insiallation, Jan. 28, 1893. 

March Grange.— Election Dec. 10; officers 
chosen: R K. Stevenson, M. ; Mary Stevenson, O, ; 
Mrs. C. C. Patridge, L. ; Ida Fairlee, S.; Jennie 
Clyma, A. S. ; Mrs. E. Young, C; W. T. Lam, T.; 
Jas. Myers, Sec; J. H. Myers. G. K.; Geitie Wil- 
liams, Ores; Clara Fairlee, P, ; Irene Kingsbury, 
F. ; Tillie Stevenson, L. A. S. ; Aaron Pugh, Trus- 
tee. Date of installation, Jan. 14, 1893. 

Carpinteria Grange.— Election Dec. 5; cffi- 
cers chosen: O. N. Cadwell, M.; Andrew Martin 
O ; Delos Wood, L.; H. D. Woods, S.; Mrs. S. J. 
Wood, A. S.; Mrs. H. A. StinsoD, C; James 

Blood, T. ; H. A.Stinson, Sec; John Pyster, G. K,; 
Mrs. C. Blood, Ceres; Mrs, C. Pyster, P.; Mrs. C. 
Pinny, F. ; Miss Lizzie Lambert, L. A. S. 

Sebastopol Grange.— Election Dec. 3; officers 
choien: James Moran, M. ; Geo. N. Sanborn, O. ; 
Miss Vina Litchfield, L.; Geo. T. Espey, S. ; Charles 
Holle, A. S.; Mrs. Ellen Sheridan, C. ; Chauncey 
Wightman, T. ; Martin Litchfield, Sec; John K 
Howard, G. K.; Mrs. E. Palmer, Ceres; Mrs. Har- 
riei Allen, P.; Mrs. Albee Morris, F. ; Miss Loraine 
H. Lawton, L. A. S.; J. K. Howard, Trustee. 
Date ol installation, Jan. 7, 1893. 

Vaca Valley Grange.— Officers chosen: J. A. 
Wcbiter, M.; P. S. Bragdon, O.; Sister M. C. 
Smith, L.; J. O. Hunt, S.; T. H. Buckingham. A. 
S.; S. Ashley, C. ; Sister H. Barrow, T.; Gertrude 
Montgomery, .Sec; H. A. Loud, G. K.; Mrj. 
Buckingham, Ceres; Portia Hill, P.; Rose Smith, F. ; 
G. G. Smith. L. A. S.; J. O. Hunt, I rustee. Date 
of installation, Jan. 11, 1893. 

Joint Installation by Eden and Tem- 
escal Granges. 

Alter a long lapse of time, the Patrons of Eden 
Grange had the pleasure ol participating in a re- 
union and installation with Temescal Grange. We 
enjoyed the intellectual feast, and that Irom the 
bountifully spread tables so kindly prepared for us 
by the brothers and sisters of Temescal Grange. 

The subjects were such as to make us think of 
life and its realities, Sister Shuey's poem showing 
how very much there is to be develop*?d in moral ex- 
cellence and unselfish living. Bro. Perkins, the in- 
stalling officer, spoke volumes, showing how little 
people ol large intelligence, or "representative 
men," as he called them, thought of true manhood 
or their moral responsibility to themselves and pos- 
terity. How necessary it is for the welfare of all that 
the moral faculties should be equally developed with 
the intellect I In fact, large intellects are dangerous 
when the morals are ignored. As we understand it, 
true manhood and womanhood are attained only by 
cultivating all the faculties that nature has given, 
not lor>h purposes, but for the good that can 
be gained by true living. 

Bro. Blackwood, compared the Christmas times 
of the present with those of his boyhood days, and 
created considerable merriment in his after-dinner 

The music by Sisters Dewey and Lufkin and 
Bro. Alfred Dewey was exceptionally fine, and 
the tribute to "Somebody's Mother" by Miss Bessie 
Bibcock was one of the good features of the day, 

R. W. P, 

The Grangers' Bank. 

The nineteenth annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Grangers' Bank of California was held on 
January lolh, about 9000 shares of the capital 
stock being represented. A dividend of (>% per 
cent was declared, amounting to $53,482.80, due 
and payable February gtb, 1893, and the remainder 
of the earnings carried to credit of reserve fund 
The ninth installment of $10 per share was also 
levied upon the capital stock of said bank. 

The old Board of Directors was unanimously re- 
elected, with the single exception of Dr. T. E. 
Tynan, whose vacant place on the Board has been 
filled by Dr. W. Dickenson, of the same countv 
(Stanislaus), the Bjard now consisting of A. D. 
Logan, I. C. Steele, Thos. McConnell, Seneca 
Ewer, H. M. LaRue, J. H. Gardiner. Daniel 
Meyer, Uriah Wood, H. J. Lewelling, J. W. Mit- 
chell, and Dr. W. L. Dickenson. 

A. D. Logan was reelected president; I. C. 
Steele, vice-piesident; A. Montpellier, cashier and 
manager, and F. McMuUen, secretary. .Stock- 
holders and patrons of the bank generally will be 
gratified at the continuation of an administration 
which has done so much for the advancement of 
the institution. 

Take Care of the 


and the 


Will Take Care of Themselves 

If you only save one or two 
Nickels on each Fifty-cent pur- 

You will be many Dollars 
ahead at the end of the year. 
Send for our new catalogue. 

P&(ific [joast Qonio ^upplj ^ssociatioD, 

U eotlon thii paper. 132 MARKET ST., S. F. 


of the 



Amount of Capital actually paid la U. S. 
Gold Coin, Surplus paid up and Re- 

serve Fund. 

1918,269 IS 

City and County cf San Fiancisco. f 
A. D. Logan and A. MonipBllier being each duly 
sworn, severally depose and say th it th v are respect- 
ively the President and Cashier and Manager of the 
Grantfers' Bank of Calilornia, above mentioned, and that 
the foregoing bt-itemeat is true. 

(Signed) A D LOGAN, President, 
(Signed) A. MONTPELLIKB, Cashier and M'g'r. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 11th day of 
January-, 1893. 

(Signed) JAMES L. KINO, Notary Public. 


OP Till 



At llie Close of BQSiiiess Dtcemlier 31 1892, viz; 


Loans on wheat, real estate and other 

securities $2,068,491 04 

Due f I om banks and bankers 21,678 88 

Real estate 163,716 79 

Office furniture, flxtureg and safe A, 600 00 

Cash on hand 229,883 58 

Total $2,478,750 22 

And said assets are situated in the lollowlog counties 
In the State of California, to-wit: Alameut, Butte, 
Contra Costa, Colusa. Fresno, Merced. Monterey, Placer, 
Stanislaus, -Sutter, Solano, City and County of San 
Francitco, Tehams, Tulare, Yuba and Yolo. 


Capital 6tock paid in U. S. Gold Coin $869,280 00 

Reserve fund $66,979 18 

Dividend No. 18 65,482 80— 112,461 88 

Due de)iositor8, banks and bankers 1,607,008 24 

Total $2,478 760 22 

City and County nf San Francisco, f 
A. D. Logan and A. Montpellier, beini; each duly 
sworn, severally depose an<l say that they ate restiect- 
ively the PretiidcDt and Cashier a-jd Maoagir of the 
Grangers' Bank uf California, above mentioned, and 
that the foregoing statement is trite. 
(Signed) A. I>. LuOAN, Prfsident, 
(Signed) A. UONTfELLIER, Cashier and H'g'c. 
Subscribed and sworn to befor') me this 11th day of 
January, 1893. 

(Signed JAMFS L KINO. Notary Public. 



Sak FaAKCi!>co, January llth, 1893. 
To the Sti^ckholders cf the Orangem' Bank of Cailfo nia: 

Dividend no. is. 

You sre hereby notified that at a meeting of the Board 
of Directors of (he QRAKoaKs' Bask op Calipornia, he'd 
on the 10th instaiit, a Dividend of Six and one-haif (8)) 
per cent, I i|<ial to $6.20 per (hare uii the S^ock u^ou 
which S installments have been paid, and $6 50 per shaie 
upon the sti^ck paid up in full, has been declared pay- 
able February the 9th, 1893. 

A. D. LOGAN, President. 
FRANK Mcmullen, secretary. 



Sam Frakcisco, Jan 11, 1893. 
To the Stockholders of the Grangers' Bank of Califorbla^ 

Tou are beieby notified that at a meeting of the 
Board of Directors of the Orarorrs' Bank or Cali- 
fornia, held on the 10th lost., an as.essment of 
10 per cent ($10 per sharr) ws levltd upon the 
Capital Stock of said Bank. .payab:o Immediately. 
In I' S. G Id Coin, to the Caahler, at the office uf 
the liank, N. W. corner California and Battery streets. 
San Francisco. Any fet ik upon which this as^esemeni. 
shall unpaid on the Ninth day of February, 189S, 
will be delinquent, and advertised for »ale, at public 
auction, am', unless payment is made before, will be 
sold ou the 9th day of March, 1893, to pay said aasess- 
ment, advenibing and •x,,en>es of sale 

A. D. LOGAN. President. 

FRANK Mcmullen. Secretary. 


S. C. White and Brown Leghorns, White Minoicas, 
Barred Plymouth Rocks. My pen (f Barred Plymouth 
Rocks woo second prize at the great Petaluma Show. 

Eggs from Leghorns and HInorcas, $2.60 ptr 13, $4 per 
28; B. Plym'>uth Reck eggp, $3 per 13. Satisfaction 
guarantied to all. 

Care Sania Kcsa National Bank SANTA R0?A, CAL. 


German savings and loan socie cal- 
ifornia street. For the half .tear ending Deo. 31, 
1892, a dividend has been declared at 'he r»te oi five 
and one-tenth (51-10 per cei.t per annum on Term 
Deposits, and four and one-quarter (4 1-4) per cent per 
annum on Ordinary Deposlis, pajable on and alter 
Tuesday, Jan 3, 1893. 

GEO. TOURNY, Secretary 


\% the Largest Illustrated and Leading Agricul- 
tural and Uortlcultuml Weekly of the West. 
E tabllshed 1870. Trial Subs< riptiona, 60c for 
8 moB. or $2.40 a year (tiU further uotlce). DEWEY 
PUBLISHING CO., 230 Market Street, San PraDciaoo, 

January 21, 1898. 






IMEci, cfc Ton tlx St roots 





Operated by one small Boy. No Man required. 



^liudfi tluDwiiig Soil from the Center. 
The Pacific Spader and VInoyard CuItlTator 

does more work In one stroke tbaa a Disc Barrow In fen. 
S)7.ts, to 12 feet. 


San Francisco and Fresno. 


No 6D— 5i.foot Spader le-loch BUdes 

No. 6D— 7 
No. lOD— 6J 
No. 14D— 7 
No. 16D— 8 
No. HUD— 10 
No. 24D— 12 




Fepecially adapted fo pulverizlrg " bottoms" — one 
man and a small boy can operate it. 

Linden, Cal . , Nov. 26, 1892. 
Messrs. Truman, Hooker & Co., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
GenLlemen:-I was induced by your agent, Mr. I. 
0. Fowler, to pur chase one of your PACIFIC SPADERS , 
which I have tested on some very hard 1 and and mus t 
say it does its work to perfection. I will say to 
all who contemplate purchasing a Cultivator to take 
the Pacific Spader every time. I remain 
Yours very truly, 

C. V. Webb. 


Ifyotiwantto know about Cal fornia 
and the PacPc S^att-s, send for the 
the best Illustrated and Leading Fanning and Horticultural 
Weekly of the Far West. Trial, BOc for 3 mos. Two samvle 
oopies. 10c. EstabUshed 1870. DKWKY PTTBLISHINQ 00. 
SaOKarketBt, B. t. 


RIFLES 82.00 



All klDdji cheaper tb«n else- 
where. Before you buy, 
■end ntmmp for catalogue to 


BUGGIES, all sizes, 
PHOTONS, - - - 

$75 to $150, 
$95 to $150, 
$125 to $175, 
$48 to $60. 


All Our Vehicles are Warranted. 

CARTS OF ALL KINDS. $15 to $20. 



- - We Ship to all parts of the Pacific Coast. - - 




January 21, 1898. 

Science In Medicine. 

The recent address at St. George's, Lon- 
don was delivered by Dr. Bowles, of Folkes- 
stone. The lecturer commenced by wel- 
coming the new students, and urging them 
all to preserve the tradition that " a St. 
George's man is expected at all times and 
under all circumstances to be a gentleman." 
The apprenticeship system was announced 
to be dead — defeated by the rapid march of 
science. This led to the main subject of the 
address, "the application of physics to 
physic." It was pointed out that all changes 
occurring in physiological and pathological 
processes formerly supposed to depend on 
that unknown quantity, " vital force,'' were 
really nothing more than the action of the 
recognized forces of nature on the organs 
and structures of the body. Coughing, 
sneezing, snoring, etc, were all shown to 
have immediate origin in physical condi- 
tions. Surgery is the proper application of 
the laws of physics; injured parts and 
broken limbs are kept at rest, dislocated parts 
are placed in their natural positions, redun- 
dancies are removed, and natural deficien- 
cies often well supplied; crooked paths are 
made straight, and blocked and narrowed 
ones made patent; stiffened joints are made 
to naove, crooked limbs put into shape, eyes 
are made to see that would not, and ears to 
hear that could not. 

.Surgery is a department of physics — a 
physical art. Medicine, formerly the region 
of the unkhown and the happy hunting 
ground of quacks, is rapidly following in the 
same lines. The so-called practical man 
and the believer in dogmas and nostrums 
are rapidly giving way to minds trained in 
the laws jf physics. Physiology, Medi- 
cine's forerunner and its handmaid, is 
steadily, step by step, and without prejudice 
elucidating the ways and doings of animal 
life. By instruments of the most elaborate 
and delicate nature, by patient and continu- 
ous observation, by anatomical and histo- 
logical searchings, and by the application of 
the laws of gravitation, chemistry, heat, 
light and electricity, always by ways and 
means connected with physics, we are get 
ting to understand better and more surely 
the movements and functions of respiration, 
of circulation and digestion, of secretion and 
excretion, and finally we hope to understand 
the most subtile and mysterious of all func- 
tions — the operation of the nervous system. 

The lecturer then reviewed the rapid prog- 
ress made in late years in the studies on 
which the medical art is based^ Schroeder 
in Germany, and Pasteur in France, by their 
investigations on fermentation and putrefac- 
tion, and Chauveau on the particular nature 
of contagia, have opened up an entirely new 
world. We have now not only to study the 
causes as well as the changes of the disease 
in the body, but also the doings of the 
bacteria outside the body and within it. In 
view of the more scientific methods of mod- 
ern pharmacology and therapeutics, stu- 
dents were cautioned against long and com- 
plicated prescriptions. Not a single drug 
ought to enter the body except under clear 
intention of what object it is to fulfill there. 
Compounds may be good cookery, but do 
not form scientific medicine. Finally stu- 
dents were warned against mistaken views 
of materialism. The students of the physi- 
cal and biological sciences are emphatically 
the servants of nature. The man of science 
interprets the physical laws, and equally 
with the teacher of religion tells us of the 
greatness and grandeur of the Creator. 
Every discovery of the scientist can only 
tend to increase our wonder at the omnis- 
cience of the ways of God. 

Facial Expressions. — A close observer 
of the facial expressions of different in- 
dividuals, says the Optician, will find a 
great variety in their delineation, based 
almost entirely upon the direction of the 
axis of vision. In children this axis is 
almost constantly parallel, producing the 
impression of thoughtlessness or the child- 
ish, innocent look. With increasing inteli- 
gence, the eyes lose the parallelism by 
being fixed upon objects of investigation. 
All affections of the mmd are now mani- 
fested by certain motions and positions of the 
eyes, which become more and more con- 
vergent. The lurking look of the criminal 
on trial, the watchful scrutiny of the over- 
suspicious, the lustful look of the libertine, 
the piercing glance of anger, the rude gaze 
of the ruffian,' and the fearful glare of the 
maniac, all are modifications of the same 
act, produced by an increasing convergency 
of the axis of the eyes. The eyes of a 
frightened person diverge; the wish to be 
far away from the place of danger causes 
the dilating of the pupils and the opening 
of the eyelids. In old age the axis of 
vision again becomes parallel. The pas- 

sions of former years are calmed, and the 
mind, in a contemplative mood, is now di- 
verted upon its future distant home. At 
last the eye dies in the absolute parallelism 
of the axis of vision. 

Magnets and the Human Organism. 
Experiments have recently been carried out 
at the Edison laboratory by Dr. Fred Peter- 
son and A. E. Kennelly to prove that no 
therapeutic effects result Irom the applica- 
tion of magnetism to the human system. It 
has been commonly supposed for some time 
that the magnetism of dynamos has some 
direct influence upon the bodies of animals, 
and these experiments were undertaken with 
a view to settle the question finally. For 
purpose of experiment the armature was 
taken from a dynamo, and in the cylinder 
formed by the inner ends of the set of pow- 
erful converging field magnets a dog was 
confined and kept for a period of five hours. 
The intensity of these magnets was from 
looo to 2000 C.G.S. lines to the square cen- 
timetre. At the end of the time mentioned 
the dog was set at liberty, and beyond his 
apparent joy at thus being set loose the 
operation did not seem to affect him in the 
least. A boy was also confined for a short 
time in the same position, and was also un- 
influenced. Several other experiments of 
like nature were made. Dr. Peterson and 
Mr. Kennelly conclude from their experi- 
ments that the human organism is in nowise 
affected by the most powerful magnets 
known to modern science. 

Are Yoa Ooing Eaat? 

Take the Santa Fe route. You will find it to your 
iDterest to call on or address the undersigned before 
purchasing tickets. No other line crossing the conti- 
nent can offer you a trip combining equal comfort and 
pleasure. The only line running Pullman palace and 
tourist sleeping cars through to Chicago on the same 
train every day without change. Peisonallv conducled 
excursions throueh to Boston Uave every Tuesday. 
W. A. BISSELL, 650 Market street, Chronicle Building, 
San Francisco. 


We have a lari;e sum of money to loan at a low rate 
of interest on mortgage on ranches. Write to us for 
full particulars. Buy, sell and exchange lands and Im- 
proved farms. Holcom & Howe, Rooms 6 & 7, Sixth 
floor Mills building, San Francisco. 



rate of interest on approved security In Farming Lands. 
A. SCHULLEB, Room 8, i20 California Street, Sao 
f randaco. 

Fruit Tracts 


Near Saratoga Santa Clara County. 


40 Acres— a splendid piece $76.00 per acre 

40 Acres— la acres in prunes 86.00 " 

180 Acres — one halt cleared, all good 

soil 30.00 " 

30 Acres— all in fruit, mostly prunts, 

16 acres full bearing 225.00 " 

IS Acres— Good house and baro, 10 acres fall 

bearing trees; price S6,000.00 

Apply at once. 

42 Market wtreec San Francisco 


We oao send you one of our 


Which Is the result of years of figuring to make the best 
harness ever known tor the money. It Is made from oak 
stock, hand stitched and finished by skillful mechanics, 
handsome (ail nickel or Davia hard rubber trimmings. 

Jaat the Harneu for an BleKsnt Tarnont. 

They sell ere for (36.00, and harness not as good is 
often sold for 936.00 in retail shops. If harness Is not as 
represented, money will be refunded. 

Liebold Harness Go. 

110 MoAllUtar St., San Franotaoo. 

Oollar and Hamea, Instead of Breast Gollari 
S2 OO extra. 

Please state it yoa want single strap Harnesa, or folded 
style Harness, with traces double throughout. 

Tho Recognlzad Standard of Modora 
Piano Mlanufactura. 


22 & 24 li:. Baltimore .St. 148 Fifth Avenue. 

WASHIMGTOM, 817 Pennsylvania Ave. j 

3ged$, l>laiits, ^tc. 

J. p. SWEENEY & CO. 



Seed Merchants. 

Warehouse, 409 and 411 Davis St. 



Bed and White Clover. Alsyke Clover, 

Eeparcet or Sainfoin Olovr, 
Timothy and Orchard Qra's, Assorted Rye Grass, Ked 
Top Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, Mesijuite Grafs, 
Oalon Sets and Top Unlonc. Itfangle and 
Sagar Beets and Oarrota for 0*ttle 
Feed. Also, All Kinds of 


Write for Prices 


Kings River 



General Nursery Stock. 


Some choice Orange and Lemon land planted and 
cared for, at edrock pric.g. 





Leading varieties of PRCNE8, FEAnHES and 
ALMONDS. Clean and heallbv stock. For particu- 
lars address HKRHAN HOU WABZ 
I asth &, O Sts., Sacramento, Cat. 





Apples, Almonds, Apricot, Pear, Prune. Plum, Peach and Cherry. Also fine stock Olives, Oranges, Lemons. 
Nut Trees and Small Fruits; Uagnolias, Camellias, Palms. Large stock of Roses, Clematis, Etc. , Etc. 


Catalogues &Iailed Free. Address 

THOS MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street, San Francisco, Cai. 




Jb"-lr«.JEa JXrO JEI Ffl.XT^JX:t9 on Uyrobolan, Peach and Aimond Roots. 

JB.<ak.XV.TX«X]'X"X' FXI.^X1.S, Apricote. Cherries, Olives, Walnuts, Etc. 

Correspondence Respectfully Solicited. 



For the season of 1892-93 we are prepared to furnish a com- 
plete line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees. Vines, Figs, Small Fruits, 

etc,, on short notice and at reasonable living prices. Our stock is 
free from insect pests, and for strength and health of root growth is 
not excelled, as we give this special attention. 

Nurseries are at Acampo on Stockton R. R., and we have an 
office and tree yard in Sacramento from the ist of December to 
the 15th of April. VAN GELDER & WYLIE, Prop's, 





AIm Fine Stock of Shade and Ornamental Trees, Shiabs, Palms, Bosea and Carnatioin. 


CorreeponUence Solicited. 


A. 'ST'Gi-y Flxxe OEJNTEI^ /\ Ti INT XT US 13 STOCISl. 

SEEDLESS SULTANA and other rooted vines. 

ALMONDS, June Buds of the leading varieties. 

WHITE ADBIATIO PIQ TREES at very low flffures. 


Correspondence aoliclted. Fend for Catalogue. 

XiOXtTO- BUOS c*5 OO.. 

January 21. 1893. 







The Two Best Sblpplngr Varieties for 




Nureeries at Napa, near R. R. Depot, M. J. GROW, 
Manai^er; residence on Second Street, one block from 



The Earliest Yellow Freestone Known. 


The Best Peach Known for Early Ship- 
ment East. 

Reasonable prices to dealers and canvassers. For 
particulars apply to 

W. W. SMITH, TaosTille, 
A. T. FOSTER, Dixon, 
Or, I. H. THOMAS & SON, Vlaalla. 

□E3. J. BO W JiJKT, 


Grass, CloTer, Vegetable and Flower Seeds, 
Oolon Sets. 



Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced Seed Catalogue (or 
1893 mailed free to all applicants. Address 


816 St 817 Sangome Street, San Francisco, 
or 65 Front Street. Portland, Or. 


A large stock ol 

Bartlett Pear Trees and French Prunes 

On Myrobolan Stocks, at Low Rates. 

Also, a general assortment of Apple, Pear, Peach, 
Nectarine, Plum, Cherry, Quince, etc., grown In sandy 
loam, without irrigation, which gives a fine proportion 
of roots I offer no trees but what are grown in my own 
grounds and known to be true to label and free from 
scale bugs. Address: W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaiuma, Cal. 

Owing to age and poor health, I will sell my place and 
business at a bargain. Place consists of 260 (.cres of land, 
good buildings. 60 acres In orchard, and a large Nursery 
Stock, together with horses, wagons and implements, 
complete, for carryiog on the business. A good oppor. 
tunity (or enterprising men with capital to step into a 
good-paying business. For further particulars address, 
as above. 



Robe de Sargent Prunes, 
French Prunes on Peach, Almond, 

Pears, Peaches and Apricots, 

Leading Varieties, in large quantities. 

A General Assortment of Decidaons Fruits 

All our stock Is grown without irrigation and Is guar- 
anteed Drop us a "Card," and we will send you our 
price list. 


San Ramon Valley Nursery, 

Danyille, Cal. 


We Have on Hand and For Sale 

FRENCH PRUNES on Peach and Myrobolan, 1 Year Old. 
CHERRIES, PEACHES and APPLES 1 and 2 Years Old. 
Also a very Large and Complete Stock of SHADE AND 
CalKornia. Write (or Prices. E. OILL, 

28th Stkbut, near San Pablo Ave., Oakland. Cal, 



For 9' le In lots to suit. Write (or prices delivered on 
wharf In San Francisco. For large orders we have special 
Inducements. Address 

W. A. T. 8TRATTON. Petalnma, Oal. 

20,000 June Buds on Almond Roots. 

IXL, Ne Plus Ultra and Nonpariel. 

JAS.O'HARA, Brentwood, Contra Costa Co 


The New Yellow Freestone Peach. 


RIPENS IHMBDIATELT AFTER THE AI,EXANDBR (White Cling), which Is the earliest 
peach in market. 

Fruit is round, of m dium size, VERT HIOHLY COLORED, flesh firm and sweet. 

!■ no D.<w, antrled rarlety. 

Tree healthy, strong grower, and heavy bearer, never having miseed a crop 

A limited number of yearling trees for sale this season. Apply early before stock Is exhausted. 



Tulare County customers can obtain stock from above Company at Farmersville, Tulare Co. 

1,000,000 TREES, 


Fruit & Ornamental Trees i Plants, Shrubs, Roses, Etc. 



640 AOKBS. 



1,000,000 r'n.TTiT tdei.:e:e:s. 

300,000 Gm.^T"Ei vinNTEas. 


Free from Pests and Guaranteed to be Oalifornia Grown. 


Send tor Descriptive Catalogue and Price List. 

GEO. O. ROEDING, Manager. 






Apples, Bartlett Pears, French 

Prunes, Olives. 

Talmonds, peaches, 
apricots, plums, 

nectarines, PRUNES, 


FDEZZlSI^Hr Soft Slrxoll ^^TV^TLtNTJT. 







BIQGS, Butte Co., 


Oakland, ... Oal. 






New American Crape, " The Pierce." 

Olives, Oranges, Lemons and Figs. 

t^^lj^ New California Orange, " The Joppa. 

Shade Trees, E?ergreen3, Sbrnbs, Roses, Climbing Plants, Etc. 

Stnd for cur N-w Catalogue. 



California Paper-Shell, Nonpareil, Ne Plus Ultra and 

. I. X. L. 

A pamphlet on Almonds mailed free of charge on application 
FRENCH PRUNE. All kinds of leading fruit trees for sale. 

Davieville Nurseries, 

A large supply of the GOLDEN PEACH and 
No charges made for baling trees. Address 

DaviBville, Oal. 



,We Are The Only Firm 

Giving to customers casli discounts on orders. We are the 
only Firm distributinir among patrons a year s subscrip- 
tion to 100 agricultural papers without exacTing: any 
equivalent. No other Seed Citalopue, of America 
^ir Kurope, contains so great a variety of several of 
tile standard vegetables, and, in addition, are many 
choice varieties peculiarly our own. Though great- 
ly enlarged in both the vegetable and flower seed depart- 
nu nts, we sendourcatalogue PKBE toall. The three 
warrants still hold good, and our customers may rely upon it, 
that the well earned reputation of our seed for freshness and 
nuritv will continue to be guarded as a most precious part of our 
capital. J. J. H. GREGORY & SON. Marblehead, Mass. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc., Continued on Page 11 



January 21, 1893. 




Out of the 400,000 acre tract of land owned by this Company you can 
find suitable localities for growing cereals, hay, fruit, vegetables, and in faqt 
almost everything that is producible; then your title is solid, and water sure; 
terms are within the reach of every industrious man; you would not locate in 
a wilderness, for there are churches, schools and good society in this locality. 
You will not have to grub out trees or cart away rocks, for the ground is 
ready for the plow. There is an abundance of that necessary element, sun- 
light, and you are not dealing at second hand, you will deal with the owners of 
the soil, who are thoroughly responsible and have a high financial business 
standing in the country; they live up to their promises. Write to the adjoined 
address for maps, magazines, circulars, etc. 



S. W. FERGUSSON Agent. - 

<ij5guJN^BU§ 14.92. 

















Warehouse and Wharf at Port Ooeta. 


Money advanced on Orain In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoea of Wheat furntsbed Shippers at short notlcs. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements. Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description colicited, 

B. VAITBVEBY, Manager. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manager. 


Prioe $ea, Deliversd Anywher* In the 

United States. 
Tbeae Scales have STEEL BEARINGS, Not Wood— 

From 3K to GO p«r sent cheaper than anv other 
Soalee of like quality. All glzea and klnda 
of Scalea always In btock. 

Truman, Hookerlft^Co., Sau Francisco. 


Tlie Best, SlmplMft aad Ctiesp«aft Conpllnv for Taak Ho*p«. 

A Buffldent lap of boop renders it uDuecessary to rivet the hoop. It will tit the circle of auy tank, regardlau uf size. 

Made io sizes to l^t auy width of iron 
PrlcM* $1.00 to 91.00 per Pair. For sale io tb« trade. liberal dlscoanC 1m qaaMtltlM. 


SeHd for C*l»IOKae> 

All klndi and shapes of S*XX.iXIS AXld 3R..A.IB£*fil 
Hade of best Steel with gte»t care, and each die carelu'Iy inspected before leaving the factory. Seod for satalogu 
ontalning over 209 full-sized engravings of Files. 


January 21, 1898. 



6re8der3* birectory. 

six lines or lees In this directory at 60o per line per month. 


BOTNTON BROS., Holllster, Cal., A. & C. C. Bull 
Calves ol best strains tor sale. Write for particulars. 

J. I. PARSONS, Santa Rosa, Cal. Sblre Stallion, 
pure-bred, registered, coming four years old; war- 
ranted a breeder, (or esle; or will trade for yearling 
oattle, town lots or laud. 

F. H. BURKE, 628 Market St., 8. F.; Registered 
Holstelns; winners of more first prizes, sweepstakes 
and special premiums than any nerd on the Coast 
Pare registered Berkshire Pigs. All strains. 

JBBSBYS— The best A. J. C. C. Registered Herd Is 
owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

?. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co .Importer & Breeder 
registered Shorthorn Cattle. Toung bulls (or ale. 

JOHN LiYNOH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 

CHARLES E. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im> 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holsteln-FriesUn 
Oattle. Catalogues on application. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, Breeder of Shorthorns. 
Dealer in fresh Cows, Beef Cattle and Sheep. 

PBROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, or sale at 
my ranch near Lakoport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sao. Co. , CaL , Importer and 
Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

PBTBR SAZE St SON, Lick House, San Frandsco, 
Oal Importers and Breeders, (or past 21 years, of 
«v:>TT rariely o( Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

L. V. WiLLITS, Watsonville, Cal., Black Perch- 
erong. Registered StalltoDS (or sale. 

'UllAA.A.ii NILE8, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 


A. SOHEbLi, Acorn Nursery & Poultry Yards, Santa 
Roaa. Fine trees and pure bred poultry. Price list (ree. 

Oal,, send (or Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, (ree. 

JOHN McFARLINQ, Callstoga, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder o( Choice Poultry, Send (or areolar. Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Plga 

R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 

G. BLiOhl. St. Helena, Brown Leghorns a specialty. 


B. H. OBANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep; also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


H. J. PHILPOTT. Niles, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Tecumseh and other choice strains of Registered 
Poland- China Hogs. 

J. P ASHLEY. Linden, Cal., breeder and Importer 
of Thoroughbred Swine. Small Yorkshire Victoria, 
Essex and Poland-China. Superior stock, low prices. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Clrcolars (ree. 

TYLEB BEAOH, San Jose, Oal., brctdar of 
Ihoraagbbred Berkahire and Xesex Hogt. 


Importers and Dealers 
Direct from Europe, 

EDfiTllBb Sblre Draft, 

Oleveland Bay 
and Oerman Ooach 
199 Elgrhteenth St., 
Loa Angeles, Oallfornia 
Write for Catalogue. 



One and a half miles northeast of San 
Leandro, Alameda County, 
— HAS — 

Every Facility for Breaking Colts Properly. 

Rates Very Reasonable. 


P. O. Box H9 ....San Leandro, Oal. 



ary Surgeons, London, England. Late Veterinary 
Surgeon in the United States Army. Veterinary Con- 
tribator to the " Pacific Rural Press." The diseases ol 
all Domestic Animals treated on Scientific Principles. 
Special attention given to Chronic Lameness and Surgical 
Calls to the country promptly attended to, Telephone 
Ho. 46Sr. 


Farmer ? If so, you know that a 




" x\r -A. TJ I5L E o ^ ig-" 


from 3 to 30 
per cent, 

any other 

Main Wires 







The strongest 
on earth. 

Mann's Green Bone Cutter 


Patented June 16, 1886; August 20, 1889. Canada Patent, June 12, 1890. 

WB WARRANT this machine to cut Dry or Oreen Bones, meat, gristle and 
all, by Hand Power, without clog or diflJoulty, or MONEY REFUNDED. 

will malie them 36 per cent more fertile, and increase the vigor of the whole flock. 

These Cutters are endorsed by all the leading California poultrymen. Send for a 
Catalogue describing all sizes of Cutters and cootaGilng Taulabia information in relation 
to feeding green cut bones. 


Petcltlo Ooast Affenta. PETALUMA, OAL. 


Ducks, Turkeys, Oeese, Peacock*, Etc. 



Publishers of " Nlles' Paclflo'Ooast Poultry and Stook Book," 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
the Pacific Coast Price 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for Information. 


and Holsteln Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cel. 


Exceedingly Fine Breeding Stock For Sale at Reasonable Figures. 


The Beat of Winter Layers. 
FOflSXSS, - Box 251a, - N^f^et Olty, Oa.1 

»?wn BALL BB4ND. 

I Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Gold 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., etc, 

It keeps Horses and Cattle 
healthy. For milch cows; 
it increases and enriches 
their milk. 

«9» Howitr«i !>t., amn 
Frsnelaeo. Oal. 



It Is the Cheapest, Best and 
Most Powerful Grubbing Ma- 
chine in the world, and has 
established antl maintained 
its reputation tor superiority 

fng\'lfeSait*'s°™Shlove^^^^ GIANTS were sold to Minnesota and Wisconsin farm 

prs 'jone Where the LITTLE GIANT is l<no« n the farmer will i)ny no other. One man and { 

cln.nnraboy cau do the w^ n.on. For illustrated Cataloc-ne. prioes, ternis. referenc 

«s, etc., address fvlohiand Gi. OC, iSl^'OUVIlOY, luWil 

DEWEY & CO. {^^i^vi!i^fiV/«iS/ } PATENT AGENTS 

i;rangers' bank 


Incorporated April, ISfi. 

A.athori>ed 0»pltal 91,000,000 

Oapltal paid ap and ReserTe FHnd 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stookholderi. . 73 0,000 


A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT UONTPELLIEB Cashier and Managei 


General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on wheat and 
eonntry produce a speoialtv. 

Durham, Devon & Polled Angus 

Recorded and guaranteed pure brtd, FOR SALE, single 
or in carload lots. Prices very reasonable. Address: 
GEO. A. Wlf EY, 

Oak wood Park Stock Farm, 
DANVILLE Contra Costa Co., Oal. 


A number of pure-bred Angora Goats In lots to suit, 
rhis Is the stock o goats formerly owned by Julius 
Veyand and will be sold cheap for cash. Address 

ERNEST WBTAND. Oolnsa, Oal. 

By using the Pacific Incubator 
and Brooder, which will hatch any 
liind of eggs better than a hen. Inunl. 
versai use. Gold Medal wherever ex- 
hibited. Tboronghbred Poaltry 
ard Poultry Appliances. Send 
8 cts. In stamps for 82-page catalogue, 
with 30 full-sized colored cuts of thor- 
oughbred fowls, to Pacific Tncaba- 




Hand Self- 
Hffljil Regulating 


lU BuccesHful 

Guarnuleed to 
tatch.i Utri/er 
lurrenlai/e of 

fertile ecsN. at 
less t'ost than 
any other Hatcher. 

6E0.H.STAHL, Oiiiniv.llj. 



T U E C comlilnri 

I mo 01 I iiidUtsr 

qlALITlES ur other |ialeiit liila 
and nlll 011.11; ruiilrul llir luott 
ilcliiiin liumo at all tluK's. It la the 


l)ecaiiM' it cjiii iiUo Ik* uno<I us a nillil bit. 

XC Sample mailed 8I.OO. 
u~ Nickel - - . 2.00. 




WMtewasli Yonr Barns anil FcBces! 

Do Blthar Snooessfally. 

Catalogue and testimonials sent by mall, 

Ho- e Spear Street. San Franolsoo. Oal 


Golden Ital- 
ian Queens, 
Teited, $2.00 

each; untested, $1.00 each. L Hives, $1 90 each. l(<iot's 
V groove sections, $5 i er 1000. Dadant's comb founda- 
tion, 68o and 66c a pound. Pmol<erR $1 ench. Globe 
veils, $1 each e>o. WM. STYAN & SON, San IVIateo, Cal. 


Notary Pablie. 



No. 580 Oalifurnla Street, 
T*i«plto«« MO, Hit. lAK r&A«0UVO. OAK 



Januwy 21, 1898, 

1866 Oaklawn Farm. 1H2 

Now the Only Place 

in America where Large Numbers of both Draft 
and Coach Horses can be found. 

90 Perclieron Stallions 


110 Percheroii Mares, 

Largely Brilliant Blood, 

50 French Coach Stallions 
60 French Coach Mares, 

Large, Stylish, Fast, 

Comprise the stock now on liand. 

f ', r^it^ ^''^ Demand for the Choice 
iwwtA Horses always found at 
Oaklawn Farm continues, 
^whilethe hnportersof low 
grade Draft and Coach 
Horses are abandoning the Field. 

It is admitted that the best can only ba 
found at Oaklawn. Remember we give you 
more for the in.inev at Oaklawn than you can 
obtain elsewlierc, with all the advantages accruing 
from long and successful experience and unques- 
tioned reliability. 

If you want to buy Stallions or Mares, 
give yourself a chance to bi»y good 
ones at low prices and visit Oaklawn. 

A Large and Choice Importation Arrived 
August, 1892. 
Separate catalogue for Percherons and for French 
Coach Horses. Say which is wanted. Address 

M.W. DUN HAM, Wayne, Illinois. 


10, 13 and 14 ft. 
Cheaper tbfto any 
Flrst-Class Mill In 
the market. 
ETery On* 
No bearlnKS, nc 
springe, no wheeU 
to get out of order. 
The simplest mill In 
the world. 

lO foot $40 00 

12 foot BO 00 

0111^' ' 14-foot 60 00 

Agents Wanted 


TRUMAN, HOOKER k CO,, Saa Fmclsco or Fresao. 

PorteonsIinproYed Scraper 

Patented Ai ril 8. 1883. Patented April 17, 1883. 

Manofactored by 0. LISSENDEN. 

The attention of the public Is called to this Scrapei 
and the many varieties of work ol which It Is capable 
such as R>ilroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, Levee Build 
Ing. Leveling Land, Road Making, etc. 

This implement wiil take up and carry Its load to anj 
desired distance. It will dibtribute the dirt evenly oi 
dcpo>it its load in bulk as desired. It will do the worl 
o( Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. Thousands of thes< 
Scrapers are in use la all parts of the country. 

1^ Tills Scraper Is all steel — the only one msDutac 
tured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, tour-horse, (tO ; Steel two-horse, $81 
Address all orders to G. LISSKNDEN, Stockton 


1 7 Spear Street, 

San Francisco. 


Send for prices on Sewer Pipe tor culverts, for roads, 
and for draining lands. 

" Greenbank " Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Insecticide. 

Sole A«ent8, 

Wn. fS MARKWT HT., - San Franotdco. 

cvri220 M A R K E T.ST.S.F.-, 
V_£LEVATaR 12 FRONT.ST.S.F.—-*^ 

By Prof. Edward 
J. WIckaon. 


A practical, explicit and compreheustvc book embodylcg 
Lb» eiperience and methodB of buntlreda of euccesafnl 
^owprs. and constituting a trustwortby g'llde by wblcb th'e 
iuexporieuced may succeesfully produce the frultn for which 
• 'al fornia la fimoua. 6O0 pages. Fully lUmtrate 1. PriceJS. 
postpaid. Send f.»r circular. DEWEY PITB LI 8HING 00. 
jjubUBhere, 220 Market Street, Bar Fr»Uf;Uco, 0*1. .^^^ 



COMPLETE EXTERUINATIOK can be eflected only by means of this remedy. Sold by the trade and by the 
manufacturer, J. U. WHEBLBR, Malrose, Alameda Co., Cal. 

WHEELER'S C. B. is of unvarying streneth. Kills I POISONRD WHEAT, EIC, loses Its effect if expneed 
every occupant of the burrow, be tbev one or 100. any time. Kills, if any, only the first animal wi.ich f1nd-< 

Injures o'^thlng ooulside but is burled frcni sight; Is | it (perhaps a sheep, horse or cow) Tn poisoned animal 
safo to handle or na\e about. «ill then po'son the pet dog or oat a' d. de ayiog be- 

Has no •Sect on t e operator; Is not po'aooous nnr c mes cffjnsive. Leaves always enouj;h surflvorito 
injurious to the skio or clothe and once applied is for- require repeating the work indefinitely. It i« more ex- 
ever done. | pensive and of ncver-ceatlng dinger to have abOut. 



Fence Posts will be preserved and you will have 
the laugh on old Boreas by painting them with 

Treat your Mudsills and all exposed Timbers to a 
coat of OARBOLINEUM, saving both bother and 

Let us post you on the merits of OARBOLINEUM. 









People who have been annoyed by the unpleas- 
antness caused by leaky roofs, draughty rooms, and 
the like, enjoy undisturbed bliss after using our well- 
known products. Those who are as yet ignorant of 
their many merits can be enlightened by writing for 
samples and descriptive circulars, furnished free by 




A valuable bo 3k on Good Health witi bs sent f^ee at your req les 

BIrura Company SSO Sans >me fit . San Franoitco. 

X*XX.i3EI)9.(l'^PP^*' ^''^B OlMte of Bl«ura i» used, S«Dt b/ post. 


(Commission Merchants] 

406 S 40 8 DAVIS ST S.F. 


Commission Merchants, 



Qreen and Dried Pruite, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advanoee made on OonslKncaenta. 
808 A; 310 Daria St., San ^ranciico. 

[P. 0. Box 1M8.1 
IfCanilKDmento Solldtod. 


fiOl, 508, 506. 507 Ai 608 Front St, 
And 800 Waehlngton 8t, SAN TBANaSCX) 



AND wool.. 


GommissiOD lerchants. 



418, 416 A 417 Waebln«ton St., 
(P. O. Box 2098.) SAN FRANCWOO. 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 OnUfomla St., S. F. 
Uembera of the San Francisco Produce ExchaDg*. 

JVPersonal attention jlven to sales and liberal adTMioci 
made on eonslgnnients at low rates of Interest. 

[■8TABL1SEU) 186^1 




80 Olay Street and 28 Oommerclal Street, 
Sai Fkincihco, ClL. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produce. Poultry, Game, EgK 
Hi es. Pelts, T-illo», etc, 422 Front St., ao'i 221, 22f, 
226 ind 337 Washington St., San Fraocisco, Cal. 





Indlcestlon, lllll..ui.nci«, lIpo.lBchr, Conntl- 
p.ll'n,, » I.lver l rouble., 

OITenKlrc Bi-t-ath. unil all <IliM>rder» of the 
Htomaoh, l.lvt-r wiul IttiwcU. ... » 

Kipans Tabulea contnln nothlnK Injurious to 
the most delitate constitution. I'leafant to toko, 
safe, effectual. Give Immediate reUcf. 

Sold by dniKPriiits. A trial bottle sent by mau 
on receipt of 16 cents. Address 


III n U n 1 Uining, Ditching, Pumping, 

■ ■ r I I Wind and Sleam: Heating Boiltrt, Ac. Will 
WW ^MlMlMpay t/ou to aen^ 25c. for Encyclopedia, of 

1500 Engravings. The American Well Works, Aurora,lli 
elso, Ctucago, 111.; Pallas, Tex.; Sydney, N. S. W. 

January 21, 1898. 



fflarkat Review. 

San Fbancisco, Jan. 18, 1893. 
The past week has developed a decidedly better 
feeling In the wheat market, and Saturday and 
Monday positive activity was noted. Quotations 
have advanced materially, both at home and abroad. 
There has been no decrease of stocks, but buyers 
have been forced to meet sellerb' figures. The gen- 
eral tendency was upward until yesterday, when 
some weakness was developed in placei, but more in 
the line of futures. For sample trading there was 
no dpcrease ia figures, but late advances held firmly. 
There h«.s been some talk of an advance in grain 
bags, bat it is entirely speculative and has no sub- 
stantial foundation. It is too tarly to sell bags, 
except for speculative purposes, and an advance or 
decrease in prices at this time must be based on esti- 
mate^ of the volume of the coming crop about which 
little or nothiiig can be positively known, to say the 

Though wheat has advanced, local flour prices re- 
main the same, owing to the fight among millers The 
combine stays with its determination to keep prices 
down to a minimum, and of course millers outside 
the combine hive attempted to make no advances 

Local trade in barley has been light. Prices are 
fairly firm, under light receipts. 

Oats are in the same condition as a week since. 
Black are dull, white moderately active. 

Corn is firmer, with decreased supplies. 

Beans keep up well Pinks and Bayos meet good 
shipping demand. Llmas are oflF. 

There is a better demand for rye, particularly for 

Dr.ed peas vary a great deal in quotations. 
Poultry and Eggs. 

The poultry market is off again, and quotations are 
down. There is little demand. Wild game is also 
in liberal supply. 

Eggs are notable for their unvarying good quality. 
' W. (;. Price & Co report good sale for choice An egg 
corner in Chicago ha't sent prices up ther«, and. if it 
is (■usiaincd, it will hrtve a similar effect beie, 
eastern imports having already lessened materially. 
Dealers, however, say they expect the corner to 
burst, aad prices here to go still lower. Quotations 
are : choice ranch, 34 @ 35c ; choice store, »1 @ 32!^ ; 
choice fresh eastern, 30c ; choice cold storage 25 @ 26c. 
Other quotations are nominal. 


The milder weather hdk ciused a better demand 
for fresh fruit, and the markut is better than for 
some time. Oranges, however, continue to come in 
freely. A pr ■mlnent local dealer says in reference 
to dried fruits. 

" The drie J fruit market is in better shape than it 
hat been for years past at this season of the year 
January and February are usually considend dull 
miinths here, and enstern buyers have been in the 
hahit of coming out and picking up 'snaps' as 
holders who have carried over fruit as late as this 
are generally In a condition to take any reasonable 

•' The present session is an exception, as stocks are 
almost entirely cleaned up from first hands, and are 
concentrated with firms who are holding them at 
prices which the eastern trade is gradually taking 
hold of. , . , 

■' The fact is that wiih the exception of raisins and 
prunes there aie but few goods that can be quoted 
out in carlots, and even the amount of these two 
varieties is much less than is generally estimated. 
It is doubtful if there are over 150 or 200 cars of 
^ai^in^ remaining in growers' and packers' hands, 
while fully half of these are off grades, which do 
not come into compf tition with good stock. 

" shipments ol prunes have been quietly going out 
until it is doubtful if there are over 50 cars left in the 
State. The consumption on this coa^t and the ad- 
joining terriiories should easily take care of this 
amount, even were there no further eastern de- 
mand, which in all probability we will have. Tak- 
ing it altogeiher, the dried fruit situation is in re- 
markably fine shape, and parties having any l.-ft 
can hold with every assurance of good prices. Evap- 
orated apples are higher. 


Potatoes are, in some instances, quoted still higher. 
Early Kohe and Salinas Burbanks have both ad- 
vanced. Dealers (.ay they expect free receipts in a 
day or two, and then a weaker tone. SweeiS are 
weak, and have suffered a decline. 

Onions have advanced a little. 

New vegetables have been in light supply, and the 
market Is in fairly good condition. 

Butter and Cheese. 

Butter is weaker, and quotations are down. Re- 
ceipts are plentiful, and only a very fancy article 
meets good demand. Dealers will shade prices on 
packed stocks in order to sell. 

Fancy cheese is firm, while other varietiei are not 
BO strong. 

A still further advance is noted in hams, California 
and Eastern. Still higher prices are to be expected. 
The situation is not at all relieved in the E->5t, and 
the upward tendency continues its effect here. 
Wool is stagnant. 

The hide market is weak and slow. 

Beef and mutton are in good supply. 

Hogs bring full prices. 

Honey is scarce and firm. 

Hay is down, and prices have fallen off. 

Local Tonnage Statistics. 

The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage here and on tne way to this and 
neighboring ports yesterday morning : 


189.S. 1892. 

fihartered for grain 37,738 61 073 

Miscellaneous charters 9,901 i7,907 

Disengaged 133,754 72,409 

Totals 181,393 154,386 

At neighborine poits— 

Total tons for 1893 26,482 

Total tons for 1892 50,730 

tonnagk on tub way. 

1893 1892 

To San Francisco 250,006 235,l 37 

To San Pedro 7,474 4.349 

To San Diego 17,308 20,50,! 

Totals 274,788 259,858 

Grain Futures. 


The following are the closiag prices paid (or wheat options 
per otl. (or the past week: 


Tbunday Belnjd 

Friday 6al0id 

Saturday . .. HlHtl 

MoDday SsOOfd 

Tuesday 6s01il 

Feb. Mar, April. May. June 
Sslijd 6>003d 6B00Sd 6b03 d 6.s 3Jd 
SslOfd GaOO a BsOOJd 6s02 <i tj802}d 
fsUSd fisOl d 6s02 d 6s"3 d fis 3id 
Bs Mlid 6sO.'}d 6s03»d 6a'.4 d 6905 d 
6s0lid 6s01id 6s02|d 6i:03|d 6»04id 
The (ollowing are the prices (or CaU(omia oareoes for off 
coast, nearly due and prompt shipments (or the past week: 

O. O. 

Thursday... 308M 

Friday SOsSd 

Saturday.. 30s9d 

Monday SlsSd 

Tuecdiiy 31s3d 

N. D. Market (or P. S. 

3089d Quiet 

30b9d Firmer 

3089d Firm 

3lB6d Quiet but steady 

3l86d Firm 

$1 34 J 
1 33a 
1 33J 
1 33g 
1 343 
1 34 
1 35? 
1 35J 
1 34| 
1 i3i 

P. S. 

San Francisco. 



Thursday, Ugh«st *.S1 30 

" lowest "1 30 

Friday, highest *1 33| 

" lowest *l 30 

Saturday, highest »l 35 

" lowest *1 3H 

Monday, highest "l 35 

lowest *1 32i 

Tuesday, highest *l 35 

lowest *1 32i 

"Sample market - choice milling. 
The following are to-day's recorded sales on Hall : 
Wheat - Morning— Informal: May — 1400 tons, 
400, S1.33S; 23'JO, .S1.33J per ctl. Regular session; ffo sa'ea" 
A(ternoon-May 100 tons S1.33S; 200, $ 335; 700, $133} 
9iJ0, $l.33|; 100, §1.31; 300, $l.S3i; lOO, $1.3JJ per ctl. 


Thursday, highest *lllO 

lowest.. "lOO 

Friday, highest '100 

" lowest *10C 

Saturday, highest 8 ^ 

" loAvest 81i 

Monday, highest 81 

" lowest 81 

Tuesday, highest *97i 

" lowest *87J 

".Sample market, choice brewing. 
The (oUowing are to-day's recorded sales on Call: 
Barley— Regular session: No sales. A(ternooD 
100 tons, 84Jc; 10, 8l|c per otl. 






General Produce. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. January 18. 1892. 

BEANS AND PEAS. [Do country m'ls. 3 90 @ 

Bayo, ctl 2 60 2 60 'Superfine... 2 60 (a 

Bu'.ter 2 75 # 3 to I NUTS-Jobbino, 

Pea 2 6U (a 2 75 IWalnut.s, hard 

Red 2 75 @ 3 00 ehell. Cal lb. . 6 (a 

Piok 2 25 (rt 2 60 iDo soft shell... 8 @ 

Small White... 2 60 @ 2 75 i Do paper-shell. . lu @ 
Large White... 2 40 # 2 1,0 AlmondB, f-ftsh'l 12 @ 

Lima 2 90 @ 3 0(1 ^ Paper shell . 13 @ 

Fid Peag.blk eye I 10 w 1 65 ] Hard shell 7 @ 

Do green 2 00 (g 2 25 I Brazil 10 @ 

Split 4 60 @ 5 50 !P,caus, small.. 8 <s 

3 00 

Oal., poor to 

fair, lb 15 @ 

Do g'd to choice 20 @ 
Do Creamery. . . 
Do do Giltedge. 
East rn, lad e. . 
Oal. Pickled .. 

Oil. Keg 

East'ru Cr am'y 

Oal. choice 


D.) fair to good. 
Do Giltedged.. 

D . Skim 

Young America 

Oal. "as is," doz 20 @ 

Do shaky 15 <a 

Do candled 30 @ 

Do choi .e 32!i«« 

Do fresh laid... - <fi 
Do do s'lcd whte — @ 
Eastern c o 1 d- 

storage 25 (ft 

Do fresh iiSiC* 

Do selected - @ _ 

Outside prices for aelectediDo dresaed 
largo eggs and Inside prices' All kinds of 

28 @ 

15 @ 
20 ■'" 
20 @ 

10 L<S 

]4 (a 

6 (a 



Do large 14 _ 

Peanuts SlQi 4 

Filbt rts 10 @ 12 

Hickory 7 @ 8 

Cheitnuts .. II @ I2J 

Sllverskin . I 15 (a 1 20 

Eiver Reds. 46 @ 66 

Karly Rose, ctl. 1 00 O 1 10 
feerlets . 80 ® 90 

Burbaok H ed's 75 (g 86 
Do do Salinas.. ) 30 (g) 1 40 
Do do Oregoii.. 1 15 i.- I 25 

Sivcet 50 @ 75 

Extra choice sell for mor- 
64 money 


Hens, doz 5 50 (M 7 00 

Roo^te s, old . . 6 1 (a li 60 
Do young. fi 00 (a 7 00 

Broilers, small. 4 00 @ 4 £0 

Do large 4 50 @ 5 60 

Fryers 5 fO @ 6 50 

Ducks . . 6 00 @ 6 60 

Do large 7 00 @ 8 00 

Geese, tair. 1 75 ^ 2 25 
Turkeys, gobl'r. 16 <Q 17 
Turkeys, nens. . 15 16 
~ " " . 15 @ 18 
oultry, if poor 

for mixed sizes-small eggs. or small, sell at less thari 

are hard to sell. quoted; if large and in good 

FEtfiD. condition, they sell Cor more 

Bran, ton 14 00@ 16 00 than qui.ted. 

Feedmeal 25 0"® 26 00 , 

Gr'd Barley.... 19 00 « 19 60 !Manhattan Egg 

Middlings @ 21 00 Fo(.d (Red Ball 

il I ake Meal.. @ 35 00 

Manhatan Horse 
Foiid(Hed Ball 
Bran I) in 110- 
Ib. ^ abinets. . . 


Branri) in 100- 
tb Cabinets... — (§11 60 

Quail, per doz.. ' CO (g 1 25 

(3 8 00 ! Ducks 1 00 (a 1 25 

Do Mal'd * doz 3 00 S 3 60 

Compressed . . 7 00@ 10 00 Do Sptig 2 ( C @ 2 25 

Wheat, per ton. 8 Ou.i Do Teal 75 @ 2 OJ 

Do choice ..— (!? 13 50 Do Wiilgeoo 2 00 (te - 

Wheat and oats 8 OOS 11 00 !Do smad I 50 W - 

Wild Oats 7 00® 9 UO Gray Geese. . . 3 00 @ - 

(Udtivated do , 6 (Ow 9 00 Do White 1 50 @ — 

Bariey 6 00(3 9 Oi ]Do Brant 1 25 @ 1 75 

Alfalfa 8 00(cS M 60 Snipe 2 00 @ - 

Clover 8 00(g) 9 50 |Do '';ngli3h, doz 1 50 @ 2 00 

Straw, bale 35(3 60 Do Jack, per doz 75(8 125 

GRAIN, ETC. Uite, let doz.. 1 00 (a) 1 .^5 

81} Rabbits, laige.. 1 25 @ 1 50 
1 00 @ - 


now, large... 1 u^sv"^ i uo 

1 sniaU 1 05 (g 1 074 

ts. milling...! 35 @ 1 374 
ed, choice 1 3"4(« 

Barley, feed, ctl 80 (tf 

Do good 80 (a 

Do choice 8i}(g 

Do 1 Tewing 9/ (g 

Do do choice. . . 93m 

Do do Giltedge 974@ 

Do Ohevalier. .. 80 (a 

Do do Gi.tedge.I 15 fte 

Buckwheat 2 25 @ 

Corn, white. ...1 024(a 1 075 
Yellow, large...! 02J(a 1 05 
Do - 

Do good 1 34 @ 

Do fair 1 30 @ 

oo common....! 25 (a 

Surprise I 45 @ — — 

Black feed 1 05 § 1 15 

Do seed 1 174(3 1 30 

Gray 1 3 i @ 

Rye 1 !24@ 

"Wheat, milling 
Gi t dged. .. 1 2im 1 35 

Do choice 1 26?M 

Do fair lo good.! 2.^4(ff 

Shippiog.choioel 26}@ 

Do good I 26 (a 

Do fair 1 224@ 

Oomm jn I 20 W 

Sunora 1 20 @ 


1892, (air 17 @ 

G .od 18 (a 

Choice 19 @ 

Eitra,city mills 3 90 @ 

Do small 

Oal. bacon, 
heavy, per lb. 12 @ 

Madium 12 @ 

Light 14 @ 

Lard lOm 

Cal sm'k'd beef. 114@ 
Hams, Cal salt d 154^ 
Do Eastern ... 17 (§ 

AKaKa 94@ 

Clover, Red 16 @ 

White 30 (a 

Flaxseed 2 25 ® 

Hemp 44 @ 

Mustard, yellow 7 (Q 

Do brown 5 (a 

Fall, 1892. 
1 174|S Joaquin, plain 64(g 
Do mountain. . . 

Do lamb 

Northern Choice 
Do Defective. . . 

"o Lamb 10 @ 

HONEY -1892 CBor 
White C( mb, 

2-lb frame 

Do do l-lt> frame 
White extracted 

Amber do 

D&rk do 

Beeswax, lb 

1 30 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Oholoe seleoted, In good packages, (etch an advance on the 
q lotations. while verr poor grades sell Ibbh than the lower 

g iiotatlons. 
Umes, Hex .... 5 00 @ 5 60 

Do Oal — & 

Lemons, box. ... 2 00 3 60 
Do Sicily choice 6 00 ® 5 50 

Apples 35 (9 65 

Do Choice 75 ® 1 25 

Do Extra choice 1 61) (3 1 75 

Pears 25 (g 1 00 

do Winter Nells 1 00 @ 1 50 

Versimmo' s 50 (g ! 00 

Oranges, pr bx- 
Navels,River'de I 50 <a 2 50 
Do, Butte Co. . . 3 00 (ip 3 50 
-eedl'g.River'de 2 00 W 2 25 

Do, Fresno 2 00 @ 2 50 

Do, Butt : Co. . . a 1 @ 2 25 
Extra choice (rult (or special 
purposes sells at an advance 
on outsi Je quotations 
Beets, sk - @ 75 

January 18, 1892. 

Ukra, dirt. Vb.... 





Parsnips, otl. , . . 

1 Ou 

1 5U 

Peppers, dry, lb 




Turnipi, ctl. 


Cabhago. '00 Ibn 



Garlic, ¥ » . 


Mar'(at .Squsish, 


6 00 


9 00 







Mushrooms,^ tb 
Do, Common... 







Tomatoes, box. 



1 25 

String Bean'. . . 






Green Peas .... 









t^.'.;^,^^^.,...-.,...^..^,, ...... 


For Rare new Tropical (ruit 
and ornamental plants and 
trees. Palms, Ferns, Orange 
Trees, Pineapples, Bamboos, 
Aquatics, Etc. 

Plants safely shipped every- 
where. Send stamp (or new 
and full catalogue which tells 
all about this subject. 

Oneoo , FIh. 

T. WaIjB. Perkins. Cal., breeder o( registered 
Berkshire Hogs and Plymouth Rock fowls. 



The best, most economical, simplest on the market for 
pumping or any purpose whfre a cheap ana reliable 
power ij requirid. Send for catalogue and testimonials. 

M. A. GRAHAM, Inventor and Manuf'r, 

106 Beale St.. San Francisco. 



Send (or Illustrated Descriptive Oitalogue and Price List. 

Offlce and Works 14 and 16 Fremont St., San FrsDoisco. 

Formerly 18 California Street. 


^ S cI'JiiEl' IDIIP.^ 

One gallon, mixed with 60 gallons of cold water, will dip thoroughly 180 sheep, at a cost 
of ( ne cent each. Easily applied; a nouriaher of w*. ol; a certain cure (or SCAB. Also 

X.t±'ttle's pA.'texx't PoxTcrdex* "XJXT^. 

(POISONOUS). Mixes Instantly with water. Prevents the fly from striking. In* 
two-pound pacliage there is sullicient to dip 20 sheep and in a seven-pound package 
theie IB sufficient to dip 100 sheep 

O^OC'X'OXU', BBTiT. cfis CO., 
(Successors to Falkner, Bell & Co.) 




JOHN P.iLOGDE 811 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

Orders solicited and County Rights (or sale. 

•? -.*'r:-.^:vg-: -.. 



Etc., Etc, 


Absolutely Guaranteed. 

It Marks. It Furrows. 

It Drops. It Covers. 



A Boy Can Operate It. 
Cuts Potatoes for Seed Faster 
than Eight Men Can by Hand. 
Will Pay for Itself In One Day. 


Simple In Construction. 

It consists of a series of knives 
secured in an openinff of the table. 
Tlie potato is placed in a pair of 
ihinged jaws above the knives, and by 
a plunger the potato is cut at a single 
stroke and tlie eyes divided in a most 
satisfactory manner. The screen be- 
low^ frees the seed from dirt or chips 
and more thoroughly prepares the 
cuttings for planting. 



Tho price places it within 
the reach of all. 

Thoroughly practical. 

Plants 10 to 12 acres per 

tXTRA SLIDES for planting 
PEAS. BEANS, etc. with 
every machine. 

Furnished plain or with 
fertilizer attachment. Ca- 
pacity of distributing: from 
twohundred toonethousand 
pounds per acre. 

Catalogrue of potato and 
corn planting' machinery 
FREE. Address 


TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco and Fresno, Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



January 21, 1893 

One of the acknowledged evils of our 
modern times is the attempt by capital to 
centralize the commercial interests of the 
country in a few hands controlled by such 
vast capital as to be able to dictate both to 
dealers and consumers the prices that they 
shall pay for the necessaries of life. 

This has given rise to many of the social 
strifes that have been agitating our country 
during the past few years. The people have 
felt the necessity of combining in order that 
these monopolies might not completely 
crush them; hence we have societies, both 
secret and general in their declarations, 
whose real aim is mutual protection. 

The "Grange" movement among the 
farmers was perhaps the earliest association 
of this kind, and in its wake have followed 
numbers untold. 

How well they have succeeded is difficult 
now to tell, but ihat they have not been en- 
tirely successful is apparent to all. 

The Home Knowledge and Supply As- 
sociation is one of the new ventures asking 
for public favor, its object being to so unite 
its members in one common source of sup- 
ply as to be able to secure the lowest pos- 
sible prices on all the necessaries, as well as 
the luxuries of life. 

The Home Knowledge and Supply As- 
sociation had its first rise in Canada, where 
for years past it has been doing a large busi- 
ness, covering not only the Dominion of 
Canada, but the entire Northwest. At a 
more recent date a similar association was 
organized in Chicago, having the same ob- 
ject in view, and its spread was unprece- 

Within the last year the Canada and Chi- 
cago associations consolidated, with a capi- 
tal of three and a half million dollars, and 
will hereafter be conducted under one man- 
agement, with Chicago as headquarters. 

The first general branch office was estab- 
lished in this city in April last and incorpo- 
rated with a cash capital of one hundred 
thousand dollars, and since that time it has 
been actively engaged in California, to the 
great benefit of those who Look advantage 
of its offers, as testimonials now on file in 
the office of the association will testify. 

Every member of this association be- 
comes at once, by virtue of his relation to it, 
entitled to wholesale prices and trade dis- 
counts, and all other privileges that the com- 
bined mfluence and purchasing power of the 
association can bring to him. 

He buys $i worth of goods or $ioo worth 
of goods at the same ratio. Through the 
association he deals direct with manufac- 
turers and publishers, and thus saves the 
enormous expense and profit of middlemen. 

The association delivers to each member 
a certificate of membership for life and a 
catalogue of general merchandise, farming 
implements, carriages, wagons, etc., together 
with book catalogues and general stationery 
supplies, which give them both the retail 
price and the price they are entitled to 
through the association. 

As the financial standing of the associa- 
tion is guaranteed and their purchasing 
power unlimited, we know of no one in 
which the old adage of " a penny saved is 
two earned" can be better put into prac- 

This association invites an investigation 
as to their method of doing business, ability 
to benefit members and their financial stand- 
ing, feeling assured that those who take ad- 
vantage of this plan will not only save them- 
selves money but will also help to stamp out 
the centralization and monopoly power. 

The *' Oriental " Oas Engine. 

Pumping plants for irrigation and other purposes, 
operated by gas engines, are working so successfully 
and taking such hold upon popular favor that it is 
well to call attention to the fact that the " Oriental," 
manufactured by M. A. Graham, corner of Beale 
and Mission streets, this city, now stands at the 
bead of the class, as the following testimonial (one 
of many) givesample proof : 

San Bernardino. Sept. 7, 1891. 

Af, A. Graham Esq., Oriental Gas Engine 
Works, San Francisco— D'e.KK Sir: 1 have been 
Ibinkiiig you might t>e pleased to know just what 
my gHS engine is doing. I am using a centrifugal 
pump running I200 revolutions per minute, raising 
12,000 gallons of water 40 feet high per hour, and 
15,000 gallons for every ^^allon of gasoline used, so 
that it only costs nie about one cent per 1000 gallons 
pumped. Every one wants to know the cost, and 
this is the estimate from a summer's tiial, and I do 
not think I am using more than one-half of the 
power of my six horse engine. From my experience, 
I do not think you could dn better than to recom- 
mend the use of the centrifugal pump where large 
quantities of water are required. My engine and 
pump work to perfection. You can start the engine 
with the belt on, as it offers little resistance until 
the pump gets in motion. All who have seen my 
engine pronounce it the best in use, and you can 
refer to me with confidence at any time. 

Yours truly, 

J. R. Palmer. 

Alneer Bros., Seedsmen, Rockford, III., who 
have an advertisement in this issue, enjoy the full 
confidence of the seed-buying public. So they 
should, as they are reliable and fill orders promptly. 


They are made of the Very Best Material. Corrosive Washes DO NOT injure 

the valves, plunger-packing or cylinder. 

Tour neighbor will tell you that he can spray MORE TREES ITS A DAT with the Bean Pnmp than with any other 


The BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., San Jose, Cal. 

Fnmping Machinery. 

The irrigation of arid lands in the West is at- 
tracting so much attention among practical and 
moneyed men at the present time, and the area of 
such lands now being supplied with water by various 
means is increasing so rapidly, that skillful hydraulic 
engineers find their knowledge and the product of 
their experience in daily demand. Among those 
who are making the problems presented by the 
above conditions a specialty, the recently-established 
firm of Perkins, Brandt & Co., whose engineering 
and pump works are at 117 Main street, is coming 
into prominence by reason of the superior class of 
work in this line that they are turning out. 

Parties who contemplate improvements of any 
nature requiring water especially for irrigation or 
town supply will do well to consult with Mr. P. B. 
Perkins, the senior member of the firm, who has 
had extended experience in engineering works of 
this kind in more than twenty diffjrent cities and 
towns of the Middle and Western States, and whose 
ability is well known and acknowledged. 

A Safe and Economical Motive Power. 

Attention is called to the advertisement in another 
column of the Golden Gate Gas Engine built by 
Adam Schilling & Sons at their machine works, 
Nos. 2ti and 213 Main street. These engines are 
constructed upon scientific mechanical principles, 
are safe and cheap to operate, have been thoroughly 
tested, and are giving entire satisfaction in the 
many places where they are being used. For rais- 
ing water and a hundred other uses where a light 
motor ranging from one to twenty horsepower is 
required they are unexcelled. 

f hey are especially adapted for combined har- 
vesters and have been running two successfully the 
past season, and orders for several more for the 
same purpose are being filled. A circular giving 
particulars as to special merits and cost of the 
Golden Gate Engine will be mailed upon ap- 

Send at Once for a Calendar for 1893. 

Messrs. Frank Brothers, 33 and 35 Main street, 
this city, one of the largest agricultural implement 
firms in the Pacific States, are sending to all who 
apply for them, a very handsome calendar for 1893. 
This widely known house is handling the Walter A. 
Wood harvesting machinery, in such general and 
favoriie use wherever harvesting is done in any part 
of the world. They also carry a fine line of farm 
wagons, carriages, buggies, carts, etc. In addition 
to which, they are the sole agents on this coast for 
the celebrated Columbia Steel Windmills and the 
Buckeye pumps. Illustrated catalogues will be 
mailed upon request. Give a careful look at their 
large advertisement on another page. 





If you want Purr Frr^h C AUC 
.SVjJ.rV.,.,;,, direct from wHVC 
KrowpFH, send for our B''fi\iti/ul 
r/>':'^'l C'utaloirue tuaiUd Free. 
Pkt'9 only 2 and 3 ct«. ifirket 

WhoC"'lf T^'irr Li^. MONEY 



Instead of a f^trgle tooth, drawinii straight through the ground, the teeth are attached in pairs (nliich have a 
spread of seven inches) to a short beam. Every t >o h Das a quarter turn (to the right or left rpspectivel> ), tbus 
present ng a cutting edge to the ground, and giving to each the position anil appearance of a moldhoaid of a plow, 
or the shovel to a cultivator. Ihis foim of tooth, together with the relative positions assumed by th3 tee'h to each 
other, gives to them the power of cutting and pulverizing tough soils, and hard, baked ground, which is possessed 
by n J i>th* r form of tooth yet invented. By this peculiar disposition of the teeth, they have the advantage also, 
that one acts as a brace or landside to the other, and oo prevents their clogging, which is a serious fault cxl^tlDg in 
all spring t oth borrows whose teeth are made of on', long, continuous spring. In the " BULL DOG " HAKR< WS 
the short beam which holds each pair of twisted teeth is attached by a stiff spring to the main framework of 
the tool, Thus these implements have the combined elasticity which exUts in the teeth themselves, and In the 
spring which attaches the short beam to the cultivator frame. Hence the barrow retains all the vibration ntcea- 
any tor the succesi-tul working and cleaning of the machine, whilst it is also stiff enough to be held oown to Its 
work in the most obstinate soils without difficulty. 

8HAPE OF TEETH.— As the teeth present to the soil a shear or cutting edge, they are enabled to do the meet 
thorough work in hard ground, and, in fac^, the peculiar cons ruction all through of the "Bull Dog" Harrows 
adapts them (or successful working in soils where no othrr tools of the kind can he usej. 


Can saye big Money by ordering from a CASH HOUSE and paying " spot cash " for 
everything. Take what you want. Cartage free. Must Reduce Stock. 

High grade Table Peaches, 1500 dozen ; closing quickly at iX.IT-, 

Finest Sugar Corn, guaranteed, 2000 dozen . $1.26. tl.Sn. 1.5<» 

-Eastern String Beans, just arrived by sail, will go at 1.00 

I'irjc .\pple. put up in California, full svrup, $1.75 : Eastern outputs $1.7n. 2. a. 5 

Tie Blackberries, 1 gallim tins, $4.0(>. $4.25 ; Plums, Grapes, Apples, Peaches, all very cheap. 

.lams, in 1 pound glass jars, fine Eastern pack. $2.0U ; .lellies. nice varielv 1.85 

Brown Sugar (unlil advanced), in 100 lb. sacks. $3.7 5, Gold. C.*4. Ex. C. $4 .'2.1, White, $4.90, 5.00 

Syrup, choice family grade, bbls., 31 gals.. I7c ; gal. kegs $1.40 ; 1 gal. cans 35 

Oysters, we have only the leading packs; standard Is $1.00, or 28 (new) 2.00 

Clams, we offer fine Eastern Is at $1.25, or 2s at $1.75. They will 

Sardines, finest brands of imported, overstock, by sea, say $1.3.5, $1.40, Sl.iSO, 1.60 

There is nothing in general use for housekeeping, or family 
keeping, or storekeeping that we cannot furnish you and save 
you a nice profit to begin the new year. Try it. Send for our 
general list, free, or add 10 cents for postage on a 72-page book of useful 

»mitti's O-A-SH store, 

474-426-418 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




..Send for Circulars.. 

H. M. NEWHALL & OO., Agents, 

309-311 Saneome Street San Franolaoo, Cal. 

January 21, 1893. 




B R O 13 M: ^ RE 


Palo Alto Stock Faum. 


Electioneer, Qen. Benton Piedmont. Eros, Fallis, 
Hambletonian 725, Kentucky Prince, Messene^er, 
Duroc, Sultan, Arthurton, Del bur, Mohawk Chief, 
Norway, Mambrino 1789, etc., etc. 


Nephew; Azmoor, 2:20)4; Electricity, 2:ll%\ 
Whips, 2:21 yi; Piedmont; Alban, 2:24; 
Langton, 2:26>^; Good Gift; Lottery; 
Hugo, 2:27>:j:; Sport, 2:22%. 

The sale will take place at 11 A. M. , FRIDAY, JANUARY 91, at our 

Oatali'gaes are being prepar«d and will be forwarded upon application to the 

KILLIP & CO , - - Live Stock Auctioneers. 







-D8E — 

One pound to 5 gallons of water. 

Thoueands of Orchardists testify to its 
value, ustDfc it in pr'^ference to all other 
preparations. Where the Red Seal Is ap- 
plied it kills the insects and at the same 
time forms a coat'nif through which 
others canrot pene'iate. When used In 
the abov* proportions, it Is a 


Put up in SIFIINO TOP CANS so that 
any quantity may he used and the bal- 
ance preserved uninjured. 


124 California !)t , San Franclaco. 



The Red Seal Lye is indispensable. 

USED AS DIRECTED it will take the 
place, and at 75% less cost, of all other 
alkaline preparations, soaps, etc., now on 
the maiket. ONK, CAN will make I O to 
18 lbs of Hard Soap, or >00 lb . 
of Soft Sos p. See Directions in Can. 

It cleans floors, kills roaches and bue« 
of all kinds, cleans milk vessels, tin nr 
wiod: ke<ps farming implements bright 
and free from rust; is a perfect disinfect 
ant; softens water, washes dishes and 
clothfs; and can be put to a thousand 
uses in place of soap or other prepara- 


p. C. TOMSON & CO., 

Manufacturers Fhiladelpliia, Pa. 

Seeds, Mapl3, ttc. 

Palm and Citrus Nnrsery 



And all Citius Trees in variety. 

ORNAURNTAL TREl!:S, best adapted to California and 
its subtrojiical sections. 

A Ur^e sUck of CHBRIUOTA (Custard Apple) and 

The J vVA PLUM (Eugenia Jambolana), a handsome 
fruit-bearing tree from Java, mailed free for 30o. 

Send for Descriptive Catalogue. Address: 


f'a-'tft "arbara 

. . Oallfornta. 



2129 Tenth St., Sacramento, 


Grown in the open ground, namelv: MANZANILLO nt 


French and Tragedy Prunes. 

I. X. L. , Nonpariel and Ne Plus Ultra Almonds. 

Foster, Mary's Choice, Susquehnnna, Salway, Muiran'l 
NIchol Cling Peaches-ALL NUMBER ONE. One-year- 
olds on peach roots— 4 to 6 feet. 

For further particulars, addres'i 

Room 42 Flood Building SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 


If you want a new pi' m, large in size, very prolific 
bearer, brl( ht cherry red, ripens early In June, splendid 
shipper, flavor of the most exquisite redolence impossi- 
ble to describe, send ti 

Choice trees by mail postpaid, 60 cents each. Dor- 
mant buds, half price. 




Money made by liuying my seeds. 
35 pktsSI.OO. 2cto5cpkt. 

I'reseiits with every order. .Send 
postal card with name and ad- 
dress for catalogue. 

A. R. AMES, Madison. Wis. 


Fresh : 


, for nirilu 

nfjO^rmiyuifitJ a Qualities 
iiiiiv2, :l & 4e per laige pkg, 
5.o<')0,000 jXiiri lti/ ETtrn» with 
eiders tins year. Beautiful lllua 
Colored SeeiUS Plant Catnlofrue 
FREE to all wlio aHdressat once 
Backford Seed FarmB, 
No. 2i3 Main St., Roclirord, 111. 


Tbieir culture and care ; how the fam- 
ous D. &, C. Roses are grown on their 
own roots at rose headquarters and 
how any one can grow roses and 
other flowers successfully. All this 
and more is told iuournew "(r'«irfe to 
Rose Culture." A handsome book 
which illustrates and prices all the 
best flowers. We mail it free together 
with a copy of our grand Floral Maga- 
zine, "SUCCESS wttli FLOWERS." 

Send us your address. 

Bo,t Growers and ^Vest Grove, Pa. 

4000 to 60i0 healthy unirrigated 

Peach Seedlings ! 

Must be sold for land cUariog. Address 
Look Box 994, Winters, Yolo County, Cal. 




Freight paid on 500 or over of above surplus stock. 

A fine lot of F&UliES on Myrobolan and 

Mnir Orange Cling and other PEACHES 
All Srst ilass and raised without irrigation. 
New price list free on application. Correspondence 


A Large and Extra Choice Stock of 

Fruit, Shade and Evergreen Trees 
and Flowering Shrubs. 


The Largest and Best Stock of CamelllaB, 
Azaleas and Ubododendrona, consist- 
iDg of the Best Earopean Sorts. 

Nui series at Millbrae. Greenhouses and Office and 
Salesyard at Baker and Lombard Sts., San Francisco. 


F. LUDBMANN, Pacific Nursery, 

Baker & Lombard Sts., San ITranclsco, Cal. 

Send for Price List. 



Nursery Stock. 

Send and get book on Olive Culture. 


Pomona, Oal. 


In Variety. 

Prices and a Pamphlet on Olive 
Culture in California Mailed Free. 



Pomona, - L'^s Angeles Co , Cal. 


For sale at bed-rock i rlces. We a>e again in the mar- 
ket with Clean, Healthy stock, grown entirely without 


Canada Nursery, Redwood City, Cal. 


Eleven years experience has taught me how to 
PROPBRLT root the Olive. No artiflcial heat used. 

Montecito P. 0., Santa Barbara Co. lal 


Illustrated = 
= Catalogue 

FOXl 1893 

Is now ready and has been mailed 'V^'D 

to our regular customers. Others can 

receive a copy by remitting twenty cents, which may 

be deducted from the first order sent amounting do 

one dollar. 

^heiiWood jiall flur^erj Co. 


100,000 EXTRA FINE 


Apple, Pear, PIqcq. Oherrv, Peach, Apricot 
Nectarine, Quince, Orape Vines 
and Small Fruits. 

600,000 FRUIT TREES! 

Oranse, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Japan Persim- 
mon, and all kinds of Nut-Bearing 
Trees Shade and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 


Ask for Prices. 

James T. Bogue. Marysvilie. CaL 


Importers and Growers. 
Standard Fruits, Shade Trees, Shrubs 
and Ornamentals, 

No Irrigation. Free from Pestfl* 

Write for prices and catalogue to 

DUANB BROS., Martinez, Oal 


for Nurserymen, dealers, or commercial planters. 

in car loads or box lots. 
See our prices before buying. They are very low 


Apple Ki-afls at <S3.50 per thousand. 

Prune <;ratt!4 (on Mariana ^itocks) at S9 cer m. 

Pear tJrafts at iSS.OO perm. 

All lirst class and best of material used f o Dw 


No. 1, graded 3-16th,and all up at $4.10 per m: 
and Pear Stocks, same grade, at Sr.. 'SO perm.f.o.b. 
i-'ree of disease. We are strictly wholesalers, and 
grow nothing but the above stock. Our trade has 
tcrown to immense projiortions (second to none) 
through the merits of our goods. 

Send for sample.s. For full particulars, address 
H.C.fciltA VES & SONS, L,ee'8 Summit, Mo. 



and reap a rich 
harvest. They are always reliable, 
always in demunii. alwavH the best 


For 1893 is invaluable to every Plaiit(.'r. J 
Jt y.i an encyclopedia of the latest farming j 
information from thehighestauthoritiua. j 
Mailed Free. 



^ Common-Sense 



For 1893 

OCUT PPCP 116 Pi ges, 200 Fine Engravings. Full of, 
OCIwl rnuC useful and instructive information. ^ 

One of the Most Ileliable Catalogues published. < 
All kinds of Guaranteed Garden, Flower and Field' 
Seeds, Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Small Fruits. < 

The Great FREEMAN POTATO Given Away!: 

Choice Roses, Flowering Plants and Bulbs. | 
German Hares, &c., dkc. Address 

SAMUEL WILSON, Seed Grower, Meclianicsville, Pa. 




I Why Not Procure the Best Direct from the Crowers? Our iiluatratcd Catalogue, over IM 
pages, offers one of the most complete stocks in the 0. 3. at right prices. Free to planters. Send for it to-d»y_ 


I THE STORRS & HARRISON CO., Painesville, Lake Co., 0. 



January.21, 1898. 


Leads the Van. It Sets the Pace and Others Follow 


Our aew 8-lDcb Steel 
Qaag has met wltb 
splendid Buccesa. It 1b 
good, strons, durable, 
light draft, easy to 
handle and made of 
the very best material 






BzaKSeratlon when 
we say the OLIVER 
line of plows for or- 
chard and vineyard 
work is the best and 
most complete of any 
on the market to-dav. 


Has Adjustable Handles and Reverelble, Self-Sharpenins 
Shares and Slips. 


Has Adjustable Handles, nnd is fitted with Chilled or 
Steel Bases, as desired. 



37 :B.a:A.RB;:ET street. 

.SA.:N CISCO, C-A-X.. 






PBB8NO LBVaLING SCRAPER 4-horee. 6 ft; 3 horse, 4 ft; 2-hor8e, 8 ft. 8 In. 

. V? ''»°dled by one man, and either two larite or four ordinary boraes; has capacity of from 16 to 20 cubic feet of earth; Is constructed 

of 3.16-lDCb steel, and baa a 12-lnoh catting blade that can be replaced when worn out. Total weight is about SCO pounds. 


Our Dandy Wagon' 









10, 12 AND 14-FOOT. 

The Only MUl that 
Stood the Test 
during the recent 
Heavy Storms. 

Its Simplicity — There 
in no comt/licited ma- 
chinery to fret out of 
O'der, and but three 
bearin s to oil; all b'^xea 
Arfi babbited ard flt'ed 
with large oil receptacles. 


We guarantee the ALAMEDA STEEL WINDMILL, »hen properly set up, 
to withstand any wind that does rot unroof hoases or overthrow its tower, and 
that It will run easier and with I'-ss noiie, pump roo'e water, regulate better 
and develop more power than any other mill of like diameter in existence. 

Vehicles and Agricultural Implements of every Description. 


Rushford Farm Wagons and Pacific Spadan. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., San Francisco and Fresno. 

Vol. XLV. No. 4. 


Office, 220 Market St. 

The Sacramento Exhibit. 

We present herewith the piece de resistance of the Sacra- 
mento county exhibit at the Northern Citrus Fair now in 
progress in the Mechanics' Pavilion in this city. This is 
the citrus locomotive which our reporter described in full 
detail in last week's Rural, and concerning which he ap- 
prehended such dire ills if the orange horse should take 
on the functions of the iron horse whose semblance he as- 
sumes. The 

shows. The eflFort of the county in thus making known 
her resources and achievements will unquestionably re- 
dound to her own benefit and that of the State at large. 

The date of opening for the southern citrus fair at Ool- 
ton has been fixed for March 15th, and the close for 
March 22d. Senator-elect White has been invited to make 
the opening address; ex-Seijator Edmunds of Vermont, 
now at Redlands, has beeq^nvited to speak Monday, the 

The Advance in Pork. 

exhibit is cer- 
tainly a striking 
one, and one of 
the most pop- 
ular in the pa- 

Unquestio n - 
ably, there is 
something very 
proper in Sac- 
ramento model- 
ing the chief 
feature of her 
display as she 
does. Histori- 
cally, the choice 
is significant, 
for Sacramento 
men projected 
the first over- 
land road, and 
was the basis of 
operations and 
supplies for the 
most difficult 
construction on 
the line. Even 
though the 
main offices of 
the railway are 
in San Fran- 
cisco, Sacra- 
mento has al- 
ways retained 
most important 
features of the 
work. Another 
point of fitness 
in the symbol- 
ism of the loco- 
motive lies of 

course in the eminence of Sacramento in the great eastern 
fruit-shipping trade, for, though there are many terminals 
nowadays, Sacramento is the point of dispatch for the 
upper two-thirds of the State, and not seldom the products 
from the far south pass through her portals. 

Our report last week enlarged upon the great variety of 
the Sacramento exhibit, of which, in fact, this citrus-piece 
is little more than an ornament. The whole range of 
field, garden, orchard, vineyard and household products is 
fully represented, and each in almost endless variety. 
Such an exhibit is merely an exponent of the diversity 
and extent of the resources of the county, and no one was 
surprised that the highest awards at the fair should be 
commanded by such merit. 

Sacramento county is unquestionably one of the best of 
the State. Her rich lowlands and warm uplands, her 
park-like expanses of wooded plains, her rich river-bank 
orchard lands, and her vast area of rich bottoms, afford 
opportunity for the widest range of husbandry, and no 
specially of agriculture but can find fitting place within 
her boundaries. She does in fact already give a prosper- 
ous home to all the leading industries, as her exhibit 


20th, and Governor Markham, his staff and the legisla- 
Idture are also expected to be present. The pavilion is 
now nearly completed and will be the largest and finest in 
the State, outside of San Francisco and Sacramento, and 
the best arranged for exposition purposes. Judges will be 
appointed by the Southern California World's Fair Asso- 
ciation. The event will altogether be a notable one in 
the history of southern Oalifornia fruits. From prepara- 
tions, it is certain to comprise many splendid displays, on 
a larger and more expensive scale, perhaps, than has been 
heretofore attempted, in view of the fact that this is 
World's Fair year,'and the fair will be in effect a dress 
parade for the big show at Chicago. 

On Wednesday of this week the State Floral Society 
made a very welcome addition to the display in the 
Mechanics' Pavilion in the form of winter bloom of all 
kinds, chiefly from the suburban gardens of Alameda and 
San Mateo counties. Though the weather has been 
trying, a most beautiful display was made, sufficient to 
convince the distant visitor that Oalifornia winter bloom 
is not a fiction. 

A healthy indication of the sound condition of the pork 
and provision market throughout the United States is the 
absence of speculation and the fact that purchases are al- 
most altogether by consumers or for actual consumption. 
The shortage in the product appears to be genuine, and 
the steady rise in prices due to natural and explicable 
causes. The advance must of course stop in time, but the 

best authorities 
agree that the 
end is not yet 
in sight. The 
deficit in stocks 
cannot be to- 
tally overcome 
until, in the 
course of na- 
ture, pork sup- 
plies are in- 
creased and 
meats dried and 
salted. Califor- 
nia is not noted 
as a pork pro- 

Local c o n- 
sumption, in 
fact, not only 
exhausts the 
home supply, 
but requires im- 
portations from 
the East. Un- 
der ordinary 
c i rcumstances^ 
there is money 
in hog- raising, 
sy stematically 
and i n t e 1 1 i- 
gently engaged 
in; and now, 
with unusual 
c i rcumsiances, 
those who have 
hogs and pork 
products to sell 
have much rea- 
son to be satis- 
fied with the 
condition of 

things and also much reason to believe that the same 
conditions will hold for weeks, perhaps months. 

It is likely also that the increased attention to hog- 
raising, certain to ensue from these conditions, will be 
helpful to the grain market. Here is an avenue for the 
disposition of barley and corn. The low prices of these 
products justify their copious use for feeding purposes, 
and surplus stocks may be partly and even largely dis- 
posed of in this manner. If so, the result of course will be 
an appreciation in values, or at least it will contribute to 
that end. 

The home consumer in San Francisco and other places 
has the most convincing reasons to believe that " eggs is 
eggs" when he is compelled to pay prices ranging from 25 
to GO cents per dozen the year around for this delectable 
poultry product. And when he comes to investigate the 
subject his wonder is aroused to a very elevated pitch that 
the entire population doesn't go into the poultry business, 
and get rich in a few years. The inducements for poultry- 
raising are certainly very strong in California. Hen 
" fruit" is not much below citrus fruit in merit and value. 



Janaary 28, 1893 


By The Dewey Publishing Co. 

Office, 220 Market St.; Elevator, 12 Front St., Son Francisco., Col. 


appears, all suUcribers paying »3 In advance will receive 15 months (oue year 
sidUweekBl credit. For »2 In advance. lU months «1 '° •^vance, Bve 

months. Trial subscriptions for three months, paid In advance, each 60 cents. 

J Wttk. I Month. S Montht. 1 Year. 
Per Une (agate) «M * 6M *2200 

onflirh^l'.~:::::::::::::::::::::: 1:" \m 

Larue advertisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notlce.s, legal 
advertisements, notices appearing In aitraordlnary type, or In particular parte 
of the paper, at special rates. Four insertions are rated lu a month^ 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday eve ning. 

Registered at 8. F. Post Office as aecond-class mall matter. 

ANV subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the R0BAL Px^s*' ""^ 
a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the columns of the paper 
or by personal letter. Th e answer wiU be given aa promptly as practicable. ^ 

AI.FRED HOLM A M Oaner«l Mana ger 

San Francisco, January 28, 1893. 


J LLUSTRATIONS.— Sacramento Oounty Exhibit at the Citrus Fair, 69- 
EDITORIALS —rhe Sacramento Exhibit; The Advance in Pork; Mis 
cellaneoui, 6'J. The Week; A Neglccied Fruit; Miscellaneous, 70. 
From au Independent .Standpoim; Miscellaneoue 71. 
MlSCELLANEOr.S.— Gleanings; Inforinatiou for Winegrowers; The l-.el 
River Creamery; No Tax for L'nbearliig Fruit Trees: AmendmenlB to 
the Wright Act; Drninage and Reclamation (.'onvention, rl. I roper 
Use of MiU for Children; Health Hints; Carson Valley Ranchers and 
Millmen, S4. Agrienllural Wealth; Crop Conditions the World Ov^r; 
Wide or Narrow Tires, SO. „ . ti...,i. 

HORTICULTURE.— Year's Work of the California Union; Taxing Fruit 

Trees. 73 Sonoma at the Citrus Fair, 74. 
THE VINEYARD.-Vineyards of Napa county, 74. wh«ot 
CEREAL CROPS.-Wheat Output for 189L'; The Growth of Wheat 
Plant 74 

POULTRY YARD.— Dressing Poultry; Chickens Hatched for January; 

"Lee" and His Mate; Poultry Notes, 75. „ ^ „ ^ „ . „, 
THE STO :K YARD.— Feed with a Generous Hand; Care and Feed ol 

Horses. 75. Horse Notes. 76. 
SWINE Y'ARD.— Hogsin Humboldt County; Take Care of the Hog, .6. 
THE DAIRY —Feeding the Heifer for Milk; How to Care for Churns: 

Senator Ragsdale's Imitation Butter Bill. 7ti. Both Bills the Same,. .. 
SHEEP AND WOOL.-Wool and the Tariff, 77. ^„ , , 
RURAL IMPROVE.MENT.— specifications for Road Contracts, a. 
THE A^'lARV.— Beekeepers at Los Angeles, 77. 
METE0K01.0UICAL. -The Weather for February, 77 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— The Pumpkin Pye; When My Ship Comes In; 

All Because I Forgot; Pomegranates— Dyspeptics' Delight; A Young 

Lady' s Rules; Statistics of Statesmen: Words to the Wise, 78. Early 

Postal Charges; About Biblical Authors, 79. 
DOMESTIC IX'ONOMV -Sundry Recipes, 79. _ 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— The Raggedy Man; Railroad Signals, j 9. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES.-80. , ,„ , . , ■ 

PATRONS OF lIUSBANiiRY'.— The Morals of Business; A Live Grange 

Meeting; San Jose Grange— It Still Lives; \ Fine Meeting at Eik 

Grove; The Grange Field; The Secretary's Column, 82. 


Fruit Stocks— Thomas Meehan Ik Sons. Germantowu, Phila., Pa. 
Agricultural Implements -Deere Implement Co. 
Parlor Furniture— California Furniture Co. 
Pumping Machinery— Perkins, Brandt .s Co. 
Harrows— Byron Jackfou. 
Cultivators— M. McLeod, Los Angeles. 
Squirrel Exterminator- F. E. Browne, Los Angeles. 
Trees and Hlanis- Hutchinson A Sanborn, Oakland. 
Spaders- Truman. Hooker .t Co. 
Electric Motor— W. C. Harrison & Columbus, O. 
Grub and Stump Machine— Jame.s Milne & Son, Scotch Grove, Iowa. 
Nursery Stock— W. E. Callahan & Co., Salt Lake City. 
See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

Old residents of the interior valleys of the upper half of 
the State do not recall a more lasting or penetrating fog 
than that which they have lived in during the present 
month. The record of sunshine would perhaps almost 
rival the best deeds even of London fogs. The tempera- 
ture, too, has ranged low, and therefore the fog has pro- 
duced <in uncommon chill. Naturally there has arisen 
much discussion in the valley as to the source of the fog 
and the reason of its long continuance. Recourse was had 
to P. T. Jenkins, forecast official of the weather bureau, 
who explained it as follows: 

I can best explain it by reference to these weather maps. 
You see, here in Nevada and Utah is a high central plateau. 
Oil this plateau there is now and has been all through the 
month a vast area of high barometer. All the low or storm 
centers penetrating tbe coast are pushed north to the region of 
low barometer. So long as this lasts we shall have dry cold 
weather, and as long as we have a " high " on the east we shall 
have north winds. It will last until the conditions change, 
and will probably be followed by heavy rains. 

The promise of heavy rains will enable our interior 

friends to endure more fog, for just now there is not a little 

apprehension on the rain total, especially in the upper 

part of the San Joaquin, where the rainfall has been very 

light indeed. The northern part of the Sthte has done 

better, in fact, much better than it usually does, and this 

leaves a notable deficiency southerly. January has, in 

fact, proved very dry so far. The following figures are 

furnished by the weather service: 










a 1 K) 









CD 1 

7Q M 

y 1 : 








3 91 


4 38 

5.21 5 08 
4.18 2.94 
1 501 2.61 
4 49 4.19 




These figures show that Mr. Jenkins' heavy rains will 
be welcome. 

A Neglected Fruit. 

We have been putting in our leisure time this week 
pruning apple trees and naturally our cogitations have fol- 
lowed the fortunes of this old king of temperate-zone 
fruits in this world-renowned fruit region. The apple in 
California is certainly almost in the position of a king 
without a kingdom. Follow our horticultural discussions 
and publications and seldom will a voice be raised in 
honor of this old monarch. Even throats which have not 
forgotten the delightful sensations produced in other days 
and in other climes are now filled with melodious tribute 
to nearly every other fruit on the list. And yet the apple 
is still every inch a king, and, if we mistake not, will era 
long assert his right to reign. 

There are several reasons, no doubt, for the present rush 
to plant every other imaginable fruit and to neglect the 
apple. First, vast areas of the State are not suited to 
apple-growing; in fact, the greater area of those parts of 
the State which are now considered by planters will do 
much better for some other fruits. Second, the result of 
attempting to produce apples in improper situations and 
soils has resulted in disappointment. These two reasons 
are, of course, sufficient to justify those who are endeav- 
oring to sell orchard lands in our warm valleys in urging 
the claims of other fruits, and as the portions of the State 
which are now chiefly engaging the attention of land- 
developers are in the main of this character, it is well that 
they say little of the apple. 

But this wise disregard of the apple in certain parts of 
the State leads dwellers in other parts, in many cases, to 
act unwisely. Unquestionably there are many lands which 
could be well set to apples which are now being otherwise 
planted because of the undue noise which is made about 
other fruits. The fabulous reports, or at least the unwar- 
ranted conclusions which are drawn from isolated facts, 
are giving some fruits undue prominence or else are lead- 
ing to the planting in larger areas than are likely to be 
profitable. The new planter, lacking insight or experience, 
is naturally influenced to hold that to reach success in 
fruit he must plant that which is most written and talked 

We apprehend this tendency is leading toward disap- 
pointment, in that either an excessive production is fore- 
shadowed or else, in individual cases, fashionable fruits are 
carried into situations in which they are not likely to suc- 
ceed. We question whether the tumultuous rush after the 
prune will not soon lead to loss and hardship. No doubt 
the capacity of the American people for prunes is large, 
but the prospective product, if all recent plantings thrive, 
is immense. No doubt both in this State and farther 
north much land is being given to prunes which could be 
more profitably turned into apple orchards. We are not 
so apprehensive about the peach. The peach product will 
stand considerable expansion, and the requirements of the 
tree in soil and weather will stand as a fixed barrier 
against undue extension of its area. If the peach is car- 
ried too far into the apple country, nature will relieve the 
trees and enrich the planter with the treasures of expe- 

We are disposed to ask for the apple a fuller considera- 
tion from those who are planting in the cooler climates of 
the State. In the upper counties, especially near the 
coast, or at elevations on the higher foothills and in the 
mountain valleys, vain eflorts are now being made (o in- 
troduce the valley fruits which will not, in all probability, 
be satisfactory, and even more unwise investment is urged 
in semitropicals. It would be far better if the owners of 
such lands would direct their enterprise in lines for which 
their lands are especially fitted. 

We get not a few inquiries, for example, about the olive 
from those who should pursue other lines, even from 
regions in which a good apple product might be ex- 
pected. The olive, in spite of all that is said about it, has 
its future still to demonstrate, and the grower will have 
the burden of assisting in this demonstration. The apple 
goes at sight if it be a good one, and no one should enlist 
even in apple-growing without assuming the fullness 
of the effort to rescue the fruit from its insect foes and 
handle it in the most intelligent and careful manner. To 
those who will do this and have suitable soils and climates 
at command, we believe there will be more in good apples 
than in any other fruit, and far more than in many fruits 
which are now most written and talked about. 

The repeal of the ordinance employing fruit inspectors 
in Butte county has created some feeling among growers, 
and a meeting will be held at Oroville February 6th to 
discuss the matter, and to take measures for its reenact- 
ment. There ought to be one opinion only among super- 
visors and fruitmen: Any moderate expenditure, that 
adequately protects growers from invasion by pests and 
diseased trees, is not only justified, but is absolutely im- 
perative, if the industry is to be nourished and promoted, 
and if dangers are to be reduced to a minimum. 

The American Trotting Register Association has prac- 
tically rejected Stamboul's record of 2:07*, made at Stock- 
ton, November 23, 1892. At a recent meeting the associa- 
tion passed a resolution, requiring the Stockton society to 
furnish affirmative proof by January 27th that the per- 
formance was in strict conformity with the rules of the 
association, Rnd this the Stockton society, through its sec- 
retary, says it cannot, or will not, furnish. While it ma^ 
be, and probably is, entirely true that the record of 2:07i 
is authentic, still, the performance was so irregular that 
little fault can be found with the national association for 
its action. The protest of one of the judges, published 
two weeks since in the Rural Pbess, shows clearly that 
those who were witnesses of Stamboul's performance 
against time were not united as to its merits. It is as well 
that the matter be dropped. Other records made at 
Stockton are also thrown out. This action is not be- 
lieved to be justified. 

Assemblyman Taylor of Marin county has intro- 
duced in the State legislature a bill of particular im- 
portance to the live-stock industry. It provides for a 
system of live-stock pledges to secure the payment of 
money, which enables the borrower to retain possession 
and use of his horses or cows or other live stock during the 
existence ot the pledge. The bill is drafted in great detail 
and contains a stringent penal clause against any one who 
may fraudulently sell incumbered live stock without sup- 
plying the purchaser with written notice of the existence 
of any incumbrance on the stock sold. This provision 
does not make it necessary for the buyer to have made a 
search of the records to ascertain if stock is incumbered. 
The purpose is to make it possible for stockraisers to sell 
on partial payments with a degree of safety, and for all 
persons to secure a team for hauling on the same terms. 

The fruitgrowers of Cloverdale, Sonoma county, have 
perfected an organization to be known as the " Oloverdale 
Citrus Fair Association, "and elected the following ofScers: 
President, J. B. Armstrong; vice-president, W. T. Brush; 
secretary, G. B. Baer. A display of fruits is to be made 
Friday and Saturday, January 27th and 28th (the present 
week), at which it is to be shown what Cloverdale and vi- 
cinity have already done in the way of producing citrus 
fruits. Judging from the few specimens now on exhibition 
at the Northern Citrus Fair, Cloverdale oranges are enti- 
tled to be called first-class and of the highest and best 
quality. Sonoma county citrus fruits may in time take the 
same high rank as her wheat and other agricultural prod- 

AssEMBLYMAK Price, of Butte county, has introduced 
in the legislature a proposition for a constitutional amend- 
ment, which provides, among other things, that " growing 
crops, unbearing fruit trees, unbearing vines, property 
used exclusively for public schools, and such as may be- 
long to the United States, this State, or to any county or 
municipal corporation within this State, shall be exempt 
from taxation." The exemption of school property is, of 
course, the law at present. A bill has also been intro- 
duced to exempt all who are engaged in horticultural, 
viticultural and kindred pursuits from license taxes. The 
object of this latter measure seems to be to exempt from 
such taxation producing venders of farm and other prod- 
ucts in cities. 

We have received the programme for the Farmers' In- 
stitute which will be held in Malaga, Fresno county, on 
Saturday, January 28th, beginning at 10 a. m. and con- 
tinuing through the afternoon and evening. Mr. John S. 
Dore will speak on " Second Crop of Raisin Grapes," Mrs. 
J. M. McLean on " Can We Lighten Household Cares," 
J. H. Harding on " Highways and How Best to Maintain 
Them." Prof. Wickson, of the State University, will lec- 
ture on " Scientific Feeding." Recitations are expected 
from Miss Boyd and an essay from Miss Hatch. The meet- 
ing should attract attendance from a large area. 

Prof. Martin Kellogo has been duly elected presi- 
dent of the University of California, thus ending a long- 
pending issue aa to who should fill that important office. 
Professor KellogK was the almost unanimous choice of the 
faculty of the institution, and this should be looked upon 
as high testimony of his fitness. He has been associated 
with the institution from its beginning — in fact he was a 
part of the teaching force of the earlier institution upon 
which the University was in part established. Ho will 
prove a most satisfactory officer, and we trust he will not 
hesitate about accepting the charge. 

The sale in New York of trotting stock from the Palo 
Alto farm began Tuesday. Forty-eight horses were sold 
for $15,130, a rather low average of $315 20 per head. 
The attendance was small and the bidding tame. . 

Packers and shippers of late apples are now having 
their busy season. The market shows occasional soft 
spots, but on the whole prices are very satisfactory. 

January 28, 1893. 



From an Independent Standpoint. 

The storm which followed the election of Mr. White at 
Sacramento was more furious than the storm which pre- 
ceded it. It will be remembered that White's strength, 
as developed on the first ballot (taken Tuesday), was s'xty 
votes, or just half the membership of the legislature — one 
less than the requisite majority. The opposition con- 
sisted of fifty-two Republicans bound by caucus agreement 
to vote for some man of their own party, and eight Pop- 
n lists under similar pledge to vote together for Tho^. V. 
Cator. In the case of the Populists, the engagement to 
stand together had taken the form of a written agreement 
signed by each member of the caucus, and further 
strengthened by mutual promises personally given and 
accepted. And yet — in the face of this apparent dead- 
lock — Mr. White received sixty-one votes on Wednesday's 
ballot and was declared elected. There were two traitors, 
Kerns, a Populist of I-os Angeles county, who broke his 
pledge by voting for White; and McGowan, a Republi- 
can of San Francisco, who remained away during the 
hour for voting. Either Kern's vote or McGowan's 
absence would alone have given White the election, but 
it was the former that raised the tempest. 

When Kerns, in response to the call of the secretary, 
answered "White!" there was a great sensation. 
" Bah ! Bah ! Bah ! " shrieked Populist Bretz of Alameda, 
"while the Democrats, to whom Kern's vote meant victory, 
roared in approval. What followed we quote from the re- 
port of an eye-witness: 

Bretz, tall, pale and trembling, arose and addressed the Chair, 
" I wish to change my vote," he said " and to give my reasons. 
Whereas nearly every Farmers' Alliance and nearly every 
People's Party County Convention has sent up resolutions ask- 
ing the Populists to stand together, and whereas Mr. 
Kerns " 

" A point of order," came from at least three Democrats; 
" the member has no right to criticize the vote of another." 

" The point of order is well taken," ruled Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Reddick, who presided. 

The Sergeant-at- Arms moved down near Kerns, as some of 
the Populists glared at him with fierce indignation. 

" I'll not name any member," continued Bretz, two bright 
spots burning on his cheeks and his eyes dilated with excite- 
ment; " but inasmuch as a solid agreement was signed by the 
Populists to stand together, I charge that this party was 
wrenched from our ranks by the corrupt use of money, and 
that Marion Cannon was the negotiator." 

" Liar ! " shrieked Cannon from the rear of the chamber, and 
he was seen making his way toward Bretz, his eyes burning, 
his face pale and his teeth set. 

W. D. English and others restrained him. 

" I move that the words be taken down," shouted Mathews 
of Tehama. 

" So ordered," said the president, calmly. 

" 1 wish to say that this charge is a personal one and not 
authorized by me," said Vann, the Populist from Colusa. " He 
has been a close friend of Cannon, and after going over to that 
gentleman sat down and cried. No one knew just what to do 
or what to say." 

Bretz's tremendous accusation had rattled the entire conven- 
tion. The majority was angry. There was a desire to punish 
the daring Populist, but just how to do it was not plain. 

The secretary did not get Bretz's exact words. When he read 
them they were far from correct, and Bretz, somewhat dis- 
mayed by the sensation he had caused, crawfished just a 
little. " And we believe Marion Cannon was the negotiator," 
he corrected at first. Afterward he crept back one more notch 
and desired his words to stand, " We bplieve this was accom- 
plished by the corrupt use of money, and believe that Marion 
Cannon was the negotiator." 

" He said Marion Cannon was the negotiator," cried McElroy 
of Alameda. 

" I did not," retorted Bretz, denying, like Peter, from fright. 

In the mean time motions were popping like corks at a ban- 
quet. A dozen men were talking at once. 

Bretz jumped to his feet again. " The Democracy does not 
grasp the situation here," he said, vehemently. " You are on 
a slumbering volcano. I " 

" Point of order — point of order," came from half a dozen 
chairs, men swinging their arras and cracking their voices in 
the hope of catching the President's eye acJ ear. 

'• I've been pronounced a lunatic," shrieked Bretz, looking 
not unlike a violent specimen of one. But he was not per- 
mitted to go on. so he took his hat and left the room, after 
having cursed Kerns and muttered that his life was not worth 
the snapping of a finger. 

Cstrom's motion that further proceedings cease was finally 
adopted in the midst of a confusion which prevented any one 
from knowing what he was voting upon, and the election of 
Stephen M. White as United States Senator was declared. 

But a gloom had settled over all the place. The Lieutenant 
Governor had lost control of the body. 

" I move that the words uttered be referred to the Assembly," 
said Matthews of Tehamn. 

" They're going to expel him," whispered a lobbyist. 

But the president ruled the motion out of order, and Sen- 
ator Ostrom rose to quiet the riot of angered feelings. He 
begged for mercy, and said that men were hardly responsible 
for words spoken in the heat of defeat. " I move that further 
proceedings under the taking down of the gentleman's words 
be disptnsed with," he concluded. 

"I second the motion, said Senator Noble Martin from the 
corner directly behind Bretz, •' and I suggest that the gentle- 
man be arraigned before the Lunacy Commission to see 
whether or not he should be sent to Stockton." This did not 
have a soothing effect on Bretz, and every one was uneasy, 
overheated and perturbed. 

And thus was a Senator of the United States elected by 

the legislature of California. 

In the evening following the events above narrated, the 
Populist assemblymen and the members of the Populist 
State and county committees, who were in Sacramento, 
held a meeting and adopted a series of resolutions in con- 
demnation of Kerns and of Cannon. After reciting the 
general facta o( the situation and setting forth the pledges 

which Kerns gave to his fellow Populists, the statement 
continues : 

Whereas, Said Kerns frequently declared his intention to 
keep his agreement with his party, and on the 18th day of 
January, 1893, at about 11 a. m., assur<>d his confreres in the 
name of Christianity and conscience not to injure said party by 
voting against its candidate upon said day; and. 

Whereas, Within a few moments thereafter Marion Cannon 
did w'jisper to said Kerns, and instantly thereafter said Kerns 
left the assembly chamber and met one John Gaffey, an open 
agent of the Democratic candidate for United States Senator, as 
authentically reported, and spent about two minutes with said 
Gaffey, and came back into the assembly chamber and within 
a few minutes thereafter said Kerns could not be got to keep 
his said promise, and did, without leaving said chamber, and 
upon the first ballot in joint assembly, without giving his party 
a living chance, vote for S. M. White, the Democratic candi- 
date, thereby electing him and depriving the People's party of 
a possibility to elect i's candidate; and. 

Whereas, Said action of said Kerns was false and treasonable 
and an outrage upon the People's party, and humiliating, dis- 
graceful and an infamous wrong to over a million of People's 
party voters of this nation, now struggling to enact measures 
which can only save the nation from terrible evils; and. 

Whereas. In spite of all said resolutions. State, national 
county and city, and in the face of and against the protest of 
the People's partv of this State and nation, Marion Cannon, 
claiming to be a People's party man, Congressman-elect in this 
State, did do all in his power to defeat "Thomas V. Cator, the 
People's party candidate, and did undertake to influence the 
various members of the People's party to be false to their party 
and to its resolutions; and 

Whereas, In order that it may be known to all the world 
that we do defend the honor of the great mass of honest 
voters thus betrayed, and to the end that it may be known 
that Cannon and Kerns are no longer to be trusted as People's 
party men, be it 

Resolved, That we do hereby denounce their action and 
recommend that they be spurned and cut off from fellowship 
in the party and denounced as traitors to the People's party 
in every part of the State and nation; and be it further 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to James B. 
Weaver, Anna L. Diggs, the National Committee, and to our 
members in Congress. Signed in the presence of each voter. 

Charles E. Barlow, 
A. Bretz, 
P. R. Adams. 
Massey Thomas Jr., 
W. A. Vann, 
C. F. Bennett, 
H. J. l. Jacobsen, 

Populist Assemblymen. 

We, the undersigned, members of the State Central Commit- 
tee of the People's party and of the People's party of the State 
of California, present in Sacramento and having been present 
at and during the occurrence of the circumstances above re- 
lated, do hereby indorse the action and concur in the state- 
ments of the members of the legislature as above expressed and 
by them signed : 

E. M. Wardeli.. Chairman State Central Committee. 

J. E Camp, Treasurer State Central Committee. 

B. W. Batchelder, Chairman Los Angeles county. 

E D. Cooke, Santa Ana, Orange county. 

E. M. Piercy, San .lose. 

H. D. Barber, Chairman Glenn county. 

Barnaby Dougherty, San Francisco. 

Bdrdett Cornell, Summerland. 

A. W. Thompson, San Francisco. 

John S. Dore, Fresno. 

Charles A. Lee, Fresno. 

A. B. Sanborn, Sacramento. 

Thomas Porteos, Chairman Central Committee, Lake county. 

And thus were Kerns of Los Angeles and Marion 
Cannon, its foremost leader and member-elect of Coneress, 
read out of the People's party of California in so far as the 
gentlemen whose names appear above were able to do it. 

When Assemblyman Bretz made the charge that Kerns 
had sold out, and that Marion Cannon had conducted the 
sale, he was very angry and excited to the highest degree; 
and no doubt he did not carefully measure the full mean- 
ing and force of his words. It probably did not occur to 
him that he would be called upon to prove what he said. 
But however this may be, a committee of seven members 
of the Assembly was on Thursday directed to examine 
into the charges. They summoned Bretz, Senator-elect 
White, John T. Gaffey the manager of White's campaign, 
Marion Cannon, Kerns and a dozen others, and as we 
write (on Tuesday) their investigation is still in progress. 
Bretz, when put to the test, broke down completely; he 
had no proof to offer, and could only reiterate that he 
believed that Kerns had sold his vote and that Cannon had 
been the negotiator. Senator-elect White swore that he 
had paid no money to Kerns or anybody else for support, 
and that he had not even paid the expenses of Cannon's 
trip to Sacramento. He regarded Cannon as his friend; 
as he did Kerns. He urged Kerns to be a candidate for 
the legislature and secured for him the Democratic in- 
dorsement. " I will say," he said, " that the People's 
party of Los Angeles county has favored my election; that 
E. M. Wardeli, chairman of the county committee, has 
been here to advocate it, and that the party indorses every- 
thing that Mr. Cannon has done in my behalf. I am 
responsible for the integrity of Mr. Kerns and Mr. Can- 
non, and the man who makes assertions against their 
honor makes them against mine." 

Mr. Cannon admitted that he was friendly to White be- 
cause he (White) had assisted his candidacy for Congress. 
He would have preferred a Populist, but regarded that as 
out of the question. "I know of no money," he said, 
" being used by White corruptly in his effort to obtain the 
senatorship." He denied absolutely that he had in any 
corrupt way endeavored to secure Kerns' vote for White, 

and said that it had been understood all along in Los 
Angeles county that Kerns would vote for White. 

The testimony of Gaffey, White's manager, was that in 
his conversation with Kerns just prior to the ballot neither 
the senatorship nor Kern's vote was mentioned. He de- 
nied any knowledge of the corrupt use of money in 
White's interest. 

Kerns testified that he know of no money used to pro- 
mote White's election; no effort had been made to cor- 
ruptly influence his vote, that the senatorship was not 
mentioned in his conversation with Gaffey Just prior to 
the election. 

On Tuesday, as we write, the investigation is still in 
progress, but no testimony has been brought forward in 
proof of Bretz's charge; and the impression is general that 
he will be dicmissed from the Assembly for having uttered 
a false and malicious libel. 

In the course of Mr. GaflFey's testimony it was developed 
that one Chamberlain (an alleged lawyer who during the 
investigation was representing Bretz's interest) had offered 
to sell him four Populist votes. This made somewhat of a 
sensation; and Chamberlain explained that it was merely 
a ruse designed to test the methods of White's campaign. 
This excuse of course did him no credit and the Assembly 
at its next meeting barred him from the lobby — an act 
universally commended. 

Mr. Bretz had just gotten thoroughly into hot water on 
account of his hot charge of corruption, when an exposure 
was made which utterly destroyed his own character for 
sincerity. Thisnew sensation was the bringing forth of the 
following document, which is a copy of a pledge given by 
Bretz during the campaign last October to the Democratic 
manager of Alameda county. 

Alameda, Cal., 10—27—82. 
To the Executive Committee of the Democratic Delegation of the 
Forty- Seventh Assembly District of Alameda County, Cal.— 
Messrs : I hereby pledge myself to your delegation that I will, 
if elected to the Assembly for this district, support the Demo- 
cratic caucus nominee for the United States Senate in case it i.s 
not possible to elect the People's party nominee. This uledge 
is made and delivered with the understanding that it shall not 
be made public in no case except that I fail to keep it. It is 
also understood and agreed by both narties that it shall re- 
main in possession of the Alameda Democratic club, and if I 
am not elected it is to be returned to me immediately after the 
election. And if I am elected it is to be returned to me 
as soon as I have voted for the Democratic nominee. Truly 
yours, ^. Bretz. 

Thus it appearts that if not a trator to his party in the 
exact sense that Kerns was, he at least is wanting in 
straight-forward character. In the face of this document, 
it is not to be denied that he is not a man worthy of re- 
spect or worthy of being trusted by his own party. 

We have given to this matter the lion's share of our 
available space, in the belief that the readers of the Rural 
Press would rather have an unbiased statement of the 
facts than a statement of opinions concerning them. 

Later. — Since the above was written the Legislative 
Committee appointed to investigate Bretz's charges have 
rendered their report to the Assembly, declaring the 
charges to be absolutely unsupported by evidence and 
recommending that Bretz be expelled from membership 
in the Assembly. The report is signed by five of the 
seven members of the Committee. As yet, action has not 
been taken upon this report, but the general belief is that 
Bretz will be summarily dismissed. In that event, a spe- 
cial election would have to be called to fill the vacancy. 

A coRRESPONmsNT to a San Francisco paper from Niles 
says that a new bird has been seen in the orchards this 
season helping the orchardists. It is a small, round- 
bodied bird, resembling the native canary somewhat in 
plumage and size, but with , large, round eyes and an ex- 
ceedingly long bill. It hugs the limbs closely, and strips 
off, one after the other, the scale, both old and young. It 
does not disturb the buds, which on some varieties of trees 
are beginning to swell. This is the second bird, a stranger, 
which has made its appearance in the orchards within tw 
months, and both are insect-eaters. 

A San Diego man is just back from the East with the 
somewhat unusual information that the reason eastern cap 
italists object to investment in California irrigation bonds 
is that its mortgage tax is low. This is probably the first 
case on record where any capitalist, or set of capitalists, 
in any part of the world has been found who objected to a 
low tax-rating of mortgages. Next thing, moneyed men 
will ask for a high assessment on stocks and bonds. They 
do so want to relieve the farmer of his present inequitable 
burden of heavy tax payments. 

Senator Ostrom has introduced in the State legisla- 
ture a joint resolution, authorizing Gov. Markham to call 
an irrigation congress, consisting of twenty delegates each 
from all States and Territories west of the Missouri river, 
to meet in California not later than Sept. 1, 1893. The 
last irrigation congress was held at Salt Lake. Inasmuch 
as California is the leading irrigation State, it is consid- 
ered proper that a similar convention assemble here. 



Jannary 28, 1898. 


Thb corner stone lo the proposed Anaheim sugar beel factory wil' 
be laid next month. The time to plow for beets is now. 

Thk good-road agitation has reached Ventura county. It should 
be carried into every locality in the State. Bad roads are a high tax. 

San Bernardino County paid out during 1892 $17,214 for in- 
spection of fruit trees, and all taxpayers there agree that it was 
money well spent. 

A SMALi- discussion has arisen as to which produces the best 
fruit-Ontario or R'verside. A fair and impartial compromise would 
be that both raise the best. 

California will have five times as much space in the Horticultural 
Building at the World's Fair as any other State. That's somewhere 
near California's relative size horticulturally. 

The dollar rate on freights established by the Santa f "e has been 
canceled, and the rate will be restored to $1.40 on the 2Sth. Dried 
fruit will be rushed forward in the meantime. 

As NEAR asjmav be at present ascertained, the'annual consumptioD 
of orang s in the United Slates is about 5.500,000 boxes of, say 150 
oranges each, or a total of 825,000.000 oranges. 

The Sonoma county supervisors have cut down the compensation 
of fruit-tree inspectors' to $t per day, and have encountered a quan- 
tity of criticism by fruitgrowers and the public generally. 

The Times estimates that the number of trees to be planted in 
the Santa Maria valley this season at from 65,000 to 70,000. Fruit 
trees are now much cheaper than heretofore, being from 12 to 15 

The shioments of California canned fruits to England are growing 
rapidly. In 1890 they amounted to 60,000 cases; in 1891, to 180,000 
cases, and this year they are expecied to show a total of nearly 350, 
000 cases. 

P'IRED by the successful example of California. Chicago proposes to 
hold a great orange show at the big exposition. If the exhibits are as 
unique and striking as those to be seen to-day at the San Francisco 
Fair, thry are certain to attract universal attention. 

The legislature is asked to divide Butte and create the new county 
of Bidweli. Of course the old county wants the legislature to enact 
prohibition ag>inst it, thus proving to Brother Bidwell that it is pos- 
sible sometimes to have too much even of a good thing. 

The Pajaronian reports that the construction of the big drainage 
ditch has wrought commendable results in Pajaro valley. Much land 
has been reclaimed that was once chiefly valuable for duck ponds. 
The only ones that complain of the new order of things are the ducks. 

Commencing January 2Sth, the Santa Fe will meet the Southern 
Pacific's cut rate of 50 cents on barley from California to Chicago. 
The Santa Fe will make the same rate to Chicago, St. Louis, Kinsas 
City and Colorado common points. A better Eastern market for 
California barley is opening up. 

.\ re.sident of Nevada City wagered $10 ihit he could hit a 
chicken once in three shots, at a certain distance. He fired once, 
missed the chicken, and was arrested for shooting a pistol in the city 
limits. It was a put-up job, but the marksman has not up to date 
discovered where the laugh comes in. 

The dry weather in Lower California is becoming seriou'. Never 
before in January have cattle been unable to find feed on the valley 
lands. The animals are forced to the hill';, where they browse on 
brush. The season is the driest in eighty years. Here is a chance 
for some ambitious rainmaker to do a real service. 

The Martsville Appeal urges the county to bjnd itself for good 
roads and bridges. Correct. It is the cheapest and easiest way to 
provide lunds. Let the county bequeath to posterity good roads 
and make posterity help pay for them. Meanwhile the interest 
charged on the bonds is rarely burdensome or excessive. 

An effort is being made to induce the Southern Pacific Kailroad 
Company to make a rate, during the World's Fair, from Chicago lo 
California and return, equal to the reduced fare from this State to 
Chicago and return. The design is, of course, 10 attract visitors from 
the Fair 10 California. The railroad company is said to be favorable. 

The Los Angeles Express complains that lemongrowers down 
there do not give the " best attention to the curing of ihe fruit." If 
we are to judge from the quality of much of the California product, 
Ihe Express is woefully mistaken. As a matter of fact, lemon- 
growers are now giving the best attention to the curing of the 

The Santa Rosa A'f/«^//<.a« is disposed to boast that ''flowers 
bloom in California while people are freezing to death in the Missis- 
sippi valley." It is strange how people of the Eist will persist in 
running such desperate risks winter after winter, and live and die a 
green old age— some of them— without ever seeing Ihe land of sun- 
shine and flowers ! 

The colored prizefighter, Peter Jackson, is Announced to play the 
part of Uncle Tom in " Uncle Tom's Cabin." There will be little 
novelty in that. Now, if Mr. Jackson will only essay an original 
character, like Little Eva or Marks' mule, for which he is doubtless 
as fit as for Uncle Tom, his fame would deserve to mount to the skies 
in an undying blaze of glory. 

Two farmers near San Jose have had a desperate quarrel and have 
gone to law t)ecause one killed the others chickens, which were tres- 
passing on his field, and tossed them hack over hisrival's fence. The 
chicken slayer does not seem to have used all his opportunities. 
Some people might not have been so considerate as 10 return them 
back over the fence or any other way, even after death. 

The Tubbs' Cordage Company, which has a monopoly of the Cal- 
ifornia output, is endeavoring to show the Folsom Bsard of Prison 
Directors that the establishment of a State cordage factory at Folsom 
of 3,000,000 pounds annual capacity, will result in the shutting down 
of the Tubbs' works. The total consumption of the Slate, they say, 
is 7,000,000 pounds, while their capacity is 12,000,000. 

A VALIJED southern California paper rushes forward with the un- 
impeachable testimony of a tramp printer who has traveled extensively 
in nearly every Slate in the Union, that "Ontario is the 
prettiest town in the United States." Of course a good deal depends 
on the point of view. This particular peripatetic witness may have 
been moved to give his enthusiastic utterance by the splendid walking 
condition of Southern California roads in winter. 

Horticultural Commissioner Berry, of Tulare county, recom- 
mends planting olive trees 25 feet apart, and to use trees two or three 
years old. He also thinks they should tw planted early in Ihe winter 
on the north and east sides of the foothills in that county. Mr. 
Berry thinks the olive will thrive without irrigation, if planted in 
Ihe locations named and believes the demand for the products of the 
olive tree will outrun the supply for at least the next 30 years. 

For the year just ended, California shipped nearly 10,500,000 gal- 
lons of wine lo New York alone, an increase of something less than 
1,000,000 gallons compared with' the.(previous year. With the in- 
crease in the consumption of wine thus shown and the virtual cessa- 
tion of wine-grape planting, better prices for grapes may be con- 
fidently looked for shortly. Another factor toward the improvement 
of the market for the vineyardist is the continual advance made in the 
quality of the wine product. 

Following is a list of members of the newly-organized San Jose 
Floral Society : Mrs. S. A. Barker, Mrs. D. C. Vestal, Mrs. S. L. 
Ingall, Mrs. J. H. Stark, Mrs. Mary Pillot, Mrs. R. B. Dunlop, 
Mrs. J. R. Bailey, Mr. and Mrs. William Beauchamp, Mr. and Mrs. 
H. A. Brainard, Mrs. D. A. Smith, Miss Minnie Ridley, Miss Lois 
Peckham, Mrs. S. W. Boring, Dr. Alida S. Avery. Mrs. Georgia Mc- 
Bride, Mrs. L. J. Walkins. I. A. Wilcox, A. K. Whitton, A Block, 
Mrs. Annie Brown, Mi's A'laline Bovie, Mrs. Carrie Stevens Walter, 
Mrs. Dr. Cochrane, E. M. Ehrhorn, Mrs. M. S. Brown, Mrs. C. D. 

Wright, Capt. Frank Dunn, Mrs. W. C. Kennedy, Mrs. G. A. 
Byron, Mrs. J. H. M. Townsend, Mrs. J. C. Black, Mrs. McKenzie, 
Miss Anderson, Eugene T. Sawyer, Prof. Emory Smith. Mrs. J. H. 
Russel, Mrs. O. L. Wheelock, and one or two others who have not 
yet signed. 

The Record-Union wants the catfish killed and the Marysville 
Democrat says ten tons of catfish were sold from one market in Sac- 
ramento last winter. The Orovile Register adds that if the quantity 
taken from the Feather river between Marysville and Oroville could 
be known, it would amount to hundreds of pounds daily. Poor 
families find them a cheap and palatable dish, A very happy com- 
promise might be reached by striking out the "fish" and weeding out 
the numerous cats so bountifully cultivated in some spots of this fair 

Fresno county has paid out in the past two seasons $305,236,15 in 
canning fruit. The division of expenditures is : 

Fruit $ 117. t2t '9 

Labor .S7,3'9 04 

Cases 9,7'9 't 

Sugar, including freight 33,911 10 

Cans, including freight 66,619 10 

Labels, including freight 4.2H 08 

Expenses, freight, etc '6,334 29 

Total $ 305,236 15 

Three hundred carloads were shipped East. 

Information for Wine-Growers. 

St. Helena, Jan. 14, 1893. 

At a meeting of the Wine-Growers' Union of Napa 
county, held at St. Helena on January 7th, 1893, the com- 
mittee appointed to prepare and mail to winegrowers in 
California a circular or notice stating the present condition 
of the wine market and the probable outlook for 1893 and 
1894, Oeg leave to submit the following statistics as regards 
the amount of wine on hand in both city and country cel- 
lars before and after the vintage of 1892. These figures 
are substantially correct. 

The following amount of wine includes that on hand 
previous to vintage of 1892, made during vintage 1892, 
and grand total of amount of wine on hand December ist, 

Gallons. Gallons. 

Wine on hand before vintage of 1892 16,500,000 

Wine made vintage 1892 11,500,000 

Total wine on band December ist, 1892 . . . 28,000,000 

Our yearly export trade is about 12,000,000 

Our yearly coast trade is about 6,500,000 


Which deduct from total on hand December 

isl, 1892, leaves 9,500,000 

Or only enough for six months trade. Of course 

we will have the vintage of 1893 to draw on, 

but it is not yet on the vines and therefore 

hard to estimate, but in view of the ravages 

of phylloxera and the various other diseases 

common to vines, increasing age, frost, etc., 

a conservative estimate would be not more 

than the vintage of 1892, or 11,500,000 

Making 21,000,000 

For the trade of 1894, of which 11,500,000 
gallons is green wine and not fit lor con- 

Taking for the yearly trade. ... 18,500,000 

And allowing nothing for increased demand, we 

would have left at the commencement of 

Ihe vintage of 1894 only 2,500,000 

But we believe our export trade is from 2,000,000 to 
4,000,000 gallons more than these figures, as Bonforfs 
Wine and Spirit Circular gives the receipts for New York 
alone at 10,000,000 gallons in 1892, and certainly the rest 
of the country must use more than 2,000,000. 

In view of the foregoing facts, why should we sell our 
wines at ruinously low prices, when by standing firm for a 
few months longer there is no reason why we should not 
obtain at the least 1 5 cents per gallon net, delivered at the 
nearest shipping point, for our 1892 wines, and at the least 
20 cents and upward per gallon for older wines. 

We would urge upon all winegrowers the importance 
and necessity of standing together to obtain a living price 
for our wines. 

In conclusion we would say that, with the short crop of 
1891 and the half crop of 1892, if now is not the time to 
hold for a living price for our wine, we have no prospects 
for the future but bankruptcy. Respectfully submitted, 

Committee Wine Grower.s' Union of Napa County. 

The Eel River Creamery. 

Mr. C. E. Soear, of Waddiogton, Humboldt county, 
sends to the Western Watchman the following, as the 
showing for Eel river creamery, which he thinks will chal- 
lenge any creamery in the State: 

Since May loth to December 22d. we bought 2,105,608 
pounds of milk, for which we paid $20,296.95, an average 
of 96,'/2 cents per hundred. 

Butter made from the said milk, 94,770 pounds; averag- 
ing 24 pounds of milk to one of butter. 

Cash received for butter, $24,260.47, Average net price 
received for butter, 25 >^ cents. 

Profit on hogs, $723. 

Profit on skimmilk, or skimmilk sold, $36,06. 

Paid for wood for next year's use, and butter-boxes, $1,- 
364.30; and after paying all expenses of creamery we have 
a neat little sum of $1,147.93 on hand; have declared a 
dividend of 20 cents on the dollar, and still have a small 
sum in the treasury for some improvements which we are 
now making, among which is a No. i scales, so that we 
can weigh our hogs in and out. 

Further, we claim to have the richest test of milk, ac- 
cording to the Babcock tester, of which we have been able 
to learn. If any have a better showing we would be 
pleased to hear from them. We have as high as 5 5-ioths, 
and we have become satisfied that the Babcock tester is 
the only honest way of buying milk. Each one being 
gauged to just what he produces, it has a tendency to im- 
prove the stock, for there is a great difference in the milk- 
giving quality of cows, and also in the flow gained from 
difTerent kinds of feed. A great deal can be learned on 
this one point among dairymen. If we change the feed, 
we find that it changes the milk immediately 

No Tax for Qnbearing Fruit Trees. 

Assemblyman Price, of Butte county, has introduced a 
resolution submitting a constitutional amendment to the 
people, which, if adopted, will remove the tax on unbear- 
ing fruit trees and vines, as well as upon growing crops. 
The full text of the resolution is as follows: 

" Resoh'cd, By the Assembly, the Senate concurring, that 
the Legislature of the State of California, at the 30th ses- 
sion, commencing January 2, 1893, two-thirds of all the 
members elected to each house ot said legislature votiner in 
favor thereof, hereby propose that section i of article XIII 
of the Constitution of the State of California be amended 
to read as follows: 

"Section \. All property in the State not exempt under 
the laws of the United States, shall be taxed in proportion 
to its value, to be ascertained as provided by law. The 
word property, as used in this article and section, is hereby 
declared to include moneys, credits, bonds, stocks, dues, 
franchises and all other matters and things, real, personal 
and mixed capable of private ownership, provided that 
growing crops, unbearing fruit trees, unbearing vines, prop- 
erty used exclusively for public schools, and such as may 
belong to the United States, this State, or to any county or 
municipal corporation within this .State, shall be exempt 
from taxation. The legislature may provide, except in the 
case of credits secured by mortgage or trust deed, for a de- 
duction from credits of debts due to bona fide residents of 
this State. 

"Section 2. The proposed amendment shall be sub- 
mitted to the people of said State at the next general elec- 
tion, said proposed amendment having been first, prior to 
said election, published one month in two newspapers in 
every county where newspapers are published, by order of 
the county clerk of the respective counties; said publication 
shall be in daily papers where daily papers are published 
in counties." 

Amendments to the Wrig;ht Act. 

The legislature is now considering amendm»nts to the 
Wright Irrigation Act, and the irrigation committees of the 
two houses were to have met Thursday night for their con- 
sideration. A proposition has been advanced for the 
Governor to call an irrigation congress, of 20 delegates 
from each of the States and Territories west of the Mis- 
souri river. 

What the friends of the Wright Act regard as a most 
important amendment is one providing that there shall be 
appointed by the Governor, and approved by the Senate, 
a State Irrigation Commission of three members, one of 
which should be an engineer. This commission should 
proceed to examine without delay all the districts in the 
State, so as to ascertain if they can secure a good water 
right, and if it is feasible to put such water on the lands of 
the district, and that the plans for putting on such water 
and distributing it are feasible and practicable, cost of the 
works, etc. If, upon such examination they find the plans 
practical they shall report the same to the Secretary of 
State, who shall have printed a steel plate bond in the sum 
of $1000 each — this bonH shall be uniform for all the dis- 
tricts, changing only the name of the district and other 
data connected with the various district bonds. When the 
Irrigation Commission reports to the Secretary of State 
that a given district is properly organized and its system of 
irrigation has been approved by the commission he shall 
issue to such district, bonds in blank for the use of such dis- 
trict, with a certificate thereon under seal of the State that 
this bond is issued by said district; that such district was 
organized under the laws of the Stale; that its organizition 
and authorized issue of bonds have been confirmed by the 
court, and that the proposed system of irrigation has been 
examined and approved by the State Irrigation Commis- 
sioners. In order that the State may be reimbursed for 
any expenditures incurred under the provisions of this 
act it is also provided that each irrigation district shall annu- 
ally pay into the State Treasury a sum equal to one dollar 
on each thousand dollars of authorized bonded indebted- 

Drainage and Reclamation Convention. 

A Drainage and Reclamation Convention, comprising 
delegates from various Sacramento valley counties, met at 
Sacramento last week. David Lubin, of that city, was 
chairman, and the session lasted several days. The pur- 
pose of the convention was to hear plans and propositions 
for the purpose of determining practical methods and pro- 
viding ways and means for relief or the permanent reclama- 
tion of the overflowed land of the Sacramento valley, and 
for averting the danger threatened by the annual floods of 
the Sacramento river and tributaries. 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas, It appears from the report of the engineers to the con- 

P'irst — That there exists an area of 805,030 acres of submerged 
lands in Sacramento valley, partially reclaimed by existing works con- 
structed and miintained against adverse natural conditions under in- 
creasing burdens of cost by reason of Ihe absence of a comprehensive 
system of reclamation embracing the entire area; second, that to 
make the construction of such complete and comprehensive system 
of reclamation thoroughly effective is possible at a cost per acre of 
less than the cost per acre of the partial reclamation already effected, 
and that the engineering data already exists for the planning of such 
a svslem; 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that a complete, 
comprehensive system of drainage and reclamation should be planned 
and constructed as an entirety. 

Resolved. That it is Ihe sense of this convention that this end 
should he secured from the legislature that is now in session. 

The estimate of the engineers was that the expense of 
reclamation and other necessary work for confining the 
rivers in their proper channels would be $8,000,000 to $10,- 
000,000, covering a period of five years. 

A memorial is to be addressed to the legislature asking 
early legislation. 

January 28, 1893. 




Year'8 Work of the California Fruit Dnion. 

At the annual meeting of the California Fruit Union, 
Wednesday, January i8th, at Horticultural Hall, 220 
Sutter street, the Secretary, L. W. Buck, presented on be- 
half of the trustees the following report of the work of the 
Union for 1892 : 

The retiring Board of Trustees are pleased to be able to 
make as satisfactory a report as they do to you, and we 
believe they are entitled to the friendly feeling, confidence 
and support of all fruitgrowers within the borders of our 
glorious and prosperous State. 

We have received from stockholders as payment for 
stock the sum of $15,533, and have paid back to stock- 
holders and shippers, in the form of dividends, rebates and 
claims collected from transportation companies, more than 
$95,000. While very few who originally subscribed for 
stock expected to ever receive any revenue from same, ex- 
cept a general and indirect benefit by having another outlet 
for their fruit opened to them, whirh they could avail them- 
selves of by shipping in large or small quantities, and only 
paying freight at carload rates, there have now been de- 
clared six dividends of six per cent each, amounting to 36 
per cent of all moneys paid-in for stock, as well as a much 
larger amount which has been paid the shippers in the 
shape of rebates and reclamations collected from transpor- 
tation companies. 

We may, therefore, claim with much satisfaction that 
the Union has been and is self-sustaing. 

The shipments this year have generally been satisfac- 
tory, and while the fruit crop of California was not a la ge 
one, shipments have exceeded those of any previous year, 
and prices have been in most cases fairly good; hence we 
may safely say that the fruit crop of the State brought 
more money than any previous year California fruit 
shipped East this year met less competition from domestic 
fruit than in any previous year, excepting 1890, since the 
organization of the Calilornia Fruit Union, owing to 
failure of the fruit crop in many parts of the eastern 

Our books for the season just past show that we have 
shipped to Union agents 1694 cars, of which number 1041 
were refrigerator cars, contaming 12 tons or moie per car, 
and 562 ventilated cars shipped by freight, leaving only 91 
cars shipped by passenger train. This season there has 
been a larger number of cars shipped, or sold to be ship- 
ped, to parties not agents of the Union than in other years, 
and of which the Union has no record, which, if added to 
the number named above, would make an equivalent of 
over 2500 cars of ten tons each shipped by members of 
the Union. 

The number of stockholders has increased by 21 new 
subfcribers, there being now issued and fully paid up 
14 565 shares. 

The number of shippers increased from 453 last season 
to 544 for 1892, which certainly shows that the California 
Fruit Union is surely gaining in favor and confidence with 
the fruitgrowers of the State. 

The shipments were made from some 38 different ship- 
pins; points, as follows : 

Vacaville, 320; Loomis, 5; Newcastle, 142; San Jose, 
265; Winters, 119; Sacrampnto, 314; Placerville, 2; Rasin, 
I; Butler, 5; Stockton, 3; Egget's Switch, 3; Los Palmos, 
4; Marysville, 15; Suisun, 61; Fresno, 42; Davisville, 20; 
Martinez, 8; Fowler, 33; Tulare, S7; San Lorenzo, 36; 
Florin, 44; Malaga, 39; Natoma, 52; Snnoma, 15; Wrights, 
12; Pleasarton, 2; Hemme, 18; Armona, 2; Biggs, 9; 
Madera, 2; Hookston, 5; Gridley, i; Acampo, i; Hollister, 
i;Selma, i; Hanford, 2; Yuba City, i; Penryn, 32; total 
number of carloads for the season, 1694. 

The markets to which the above-named shipments were 
made were as fo'lows : 

Chicago, 715; Nf^w York, 365; Boston, 99; New Orleans, 
62; Louisville, 7; Minneapolis, 156; St. Paul, 68; Omaha, 
102; Kansas City, 28; St. Louis, 52; Philadelphia, 40; total, 
1694. . 

The duplicate account of sales of shipments made thus 
far received show that 1,233,239 packages of fru't sold for 
$1 908,219 12 gross, out of which were deducted $700,409 04 
for freight. $143 323.14 for cartage, commission and storage: 
a total of 842 732.18, leaving $1,065,486.94 as net money re- 
ceived by the shippers. There are quite a number of 
cars containing in part or all late pears, which have not 
been closed cut and will add considerable to the gross 
figures given abo"e. These figures do not give all freight 
charges on very much of this fruit, as there had already 
been paid local charges either before or after being loaded, 
and before reaching loading or common points of ship- 
ment; hence from the net money must be taken charges 
for local freight, boxing, packing, paper and loading ex- 
penses, which will reduce the net money received by the 
shipper considerably. 

The gross sale per package in 1892 was $1.54; the gross 
charges, 68 cents. 

The average freight per package in 1891 was 55 cents, 
and in 1892 was 56 cents. In making these figures, each 
package is figured as a unit, regardless of size or weight. 
The reason for the increase in 1892 was largely owing to 
increased refrigerator charges from points outside of Sac- 

The cherry shipments were not as heavy in 1892 as in 
1891, but the results were generally very satisfactory. Bart- 
lett pears generally arrived in good condition and sold well, 
owing to a light Eastern crop and consequently diminished 
competition. Plums of all kinds were light in California, 
and consequently only moderate shipments were made at 
very satisfactory prices. Peach shipments were very heavy 
and realized fair prices, except in few cases where local 
supply was heavy and markets overstocked; but those ex- 
ceptions were of short duration, and as a rule we may say 
that owing to the light crop in the main peach- producing 

sections East, the peach shipments were profitable. Apri- 
cots were shipped in considerable quantities from the earlier 
sections of the State and sold well. 

Late pears, as far as sold, have done much better this 
year than last, owing to a light apple crop in many sec- 
tions of the East. 

Grape shipments were fairly heavy, but the general qual- 
ity of grapes sold was not good, being small and inferior; 
still they sold fairly well, especially a few of the last cars 
shipped. The first car of fruit was shipped from Vaca- 
ville, May 20th, and the last from Wrights (Santa Cruz 
mountains), November 27th, making a shipping season of 
six months and seven days for 1892. 

Under instructions given to the board at the last annual 
meeting, your president and secretary attended a meeting 
of the Transcontmental Railway Association, held at San 
Diego, where we made an eflFort to secure lower rates of 
freight, a schedule-time fruit train and a minimum weight 
of ten tons for all cars. We succeeded later in getting an 
assurance from the railway company here that, while it 
could not reduce the rate, it would put on a fast through 
freight train which would carry our fruit from Sacramento 
to Chicago and equivalent points in 120 hours, at a flat 
freight rate. This, in the early part of the season, was, 
with few exceptions, carried out; but, as the shipments in- 
creased in volume, delays came thick and fast, until the 
time from point of shipment to Chicago and equivalent 
points was generally eight or nine and sometimes as long 
as 10 or 12 days. The worst service being during the 
warme;^t part of the summer at a time when the supply of 
refrigerator cars was exhausted, or very light, shippers 
were forced to use ventilated cars to ship in, hence the fruit 
would not stand the time taken from point of shipment to 
selling point, and consequently some heavy losses were 
sustamed by the shippers — in many cases the fruit not sell- 
ing for nearly enough to pay freight charges, to say nothing 
abnut other expenses that are necessary to add to the fruit 
in the orchard. 

We hope that you will take such measures as you deem 
best to try to induce transportation companies to give us a 
reliable fast-time schedule, for that is absolutely necessary 
to success, as well as a lower rate. From all indications 
at present, the crop in California promises to be a large 
one, and a large quantity must be moved East to relieve 
our local markets. 1 would also call your attention to the 
re'rigerator-car service. We should make an effort to get a 
reduction in the charges that they exact from us, for while 
the number of such cars used has largely increased, and 
should enable the company to afford the service cheaper, 
they have advanced charges from many points in the State. 

The financial condition is clearly shown by the annual 
balance-sheet made up to January 14th. 

Out of the rebates sent the Union we have paid all ex- 
penses, such as telegraphing, telephoning, salaries, station- 
ery and general office expenses, while a dividend of 6 per 
cent on all fully-paid stock was declared and a small sum 
was placed to the credit of the reserve fund and a rebate of 
one-third of i per cent was declared to members of the 
Union on the gross sales of their shipments. The amount 
paid as rebates and dividends reduces the net commissions 
made by shippers to about 6 6 10 per cent, leaving only 
about six-tenths of i per cent to cover all expenses of con- 
ducting the Union. Financially, the Union has certainly 
done well and will be appreciated, I think, by stockholders 
and shippers, who are the recipients of the moneys di- 

The Union was formed and is a cooperative organiza- 
tion, working for the interests of the fruitgrowers. Its plan 
of operations is such that all fruitgrowers or shippers can 
ship in large or small quantities at carload rates. The 
Union looks after all expenses, such as billing, telegraph- 
ing, and exercises a careful supervision of fruit en route, 
governed by accurate telegraphic information of the differ- 
ent markets, in regard to their wants and supplies, where- 
by one market may not be overstocked while others do not 
receive a reasonable supply. And again we have secured 
as our agents in the respective cities where we have agen- 
cies, the very best and most reliable men, from all of whom 
we require a good and satisfactory bond, which makes a 
safe guarantee that the shipper will receive all moneys due 
him for shipments, and which is received by him direct 
from the agent who sells the fruit, in the shape of a com- 
plete statement, accompanied by a check covering the net 
proceeds of each and every shipment made. And we fur- 
ther keep a record of all shipments made and returns re- 
ceived, which has often been of much service in tracing re- 
turns lost or miscarried. All information received by wire 
regarding sales is mailed to all parties interested at the 
earliest possible moment, thereby keeping them well 
posted. We would further advise the formation of local 
cooperative organizations, whereby a nuTiber of growers 
can work together and load cars at their nearest station, 
thus saving local freight and the rough handling and delay 
which fruit often gets when shipped to the larger loading 
points in small lots. Thesp local organizations should then 
work with the California Fruit Union as a central organi- 

In the debate which followed the reading of the report, it 
was stated that, as a rule, European shipments had not 
been satisfactory. It costs $600 a car for refriijerator ser- 
vice to New York, but to Liverpool the cost is $1400. The 
loss, however, had not fallen on the shipper, but upon the 
railroad and refrigerator company. Mr. Fergusson of the 
Kern County Land Cpmpany saw California pears sold in 
London at a shilling each, while French pears were selling 
at four pence. He asked why there was such a difference 
in the price and was told there was a like difference in the 
quality. Ther^ would be no great profit for us in shipping 
to London at $800 a carload, but it would give us an outlet 
for our surplus and relieve our home market. 

Mr. Block of Santa Clara was pleased to know that the 
railroads were so considerate as to share losses with the 
producers, and hoped they would continue in their good 
work. He did not wish them to lose money, but was glad 
to know that they were so willing to assist the farmers, and 

suggested a vote of thanks to them, which suggestion was 
carried out. 

L. W. Buck stated that all the fruit shipped East early 
in the season and up to the middle of July arrived in good 
condition and sold well. When fruit arrived in Chicago 
the fifth or sixth day after shipment, it always arrived in 
good shape; but when it vns longer on the road it was bad. 
Some fruit was packed and shipped in bad condition, and 
he instanced a lot of blackberries which he had seen in 
Chicago that were moldy when opened As the fruit is all 
sold by auction, there can be no favoritism shown, and if 
the shipper does not get good prices for his ftuit, it is bis 
own fault. Another point which was to be worked for was 
the making of ten tons a maximum carload. On the east- 
ern roads 12 tons is the maximum, and when fruit is packed 
12 or 15 tons to the car, it is not sufficiently ventilated and 
is liable to spoil. 

A. Moger of Newcastle wished to explain about the 
blackberries. " t am a great hand to experiment," said he, 
" and I sent a shipment of raspberries through. These 
did so well that I next tried blackberries. They were 
packed in larger boxes and closer together, and were nine 
or ten days on the road." 

Resolutions were adopted requesting more rapid train 
service and cheaper refrigerator cars. 

The nominating commi'tee reported a board of directors 
as follows; L. W. Buck, Vacaville; W. B. Parker, Vaca- 
ville; J. Z. Anderson, San Jose; A. Block, Santa Clara; H. 
W. Meek, Haywards; J. C. Boggs. Newcastle; Webster 
Treat, Davisville; R. C. Kells, Yuba City; and David 
Reese, Florin. On motion, Sec'y Lelong cast the ballot 
of the meeting for the whole ticket. 

A short discussion followed as to the best method of 
packing fruit in ventilated cars, after which a vote of thanks 
was tendered to B. M. Lelong for his services and to the 
State Board of Horticulture for the use of its hall, and the 
meeting adjourned. 

Taxing Fruit Trees. 

Following is the address of the committee appointed at 
the recent meeting of the Southern California Pomological 
Society to secure reform in the matter of the taxation of 
growing orchards: 

To the People and Press of California: At the Novem- 
ber meeting of the Pomological Society of Southern Cali- 
fornia, the undersigned were appointed a committee to 
promote the adoption by the present legislature of such an 
amendment to the Constitution of the State as will confer 
upon the legislature the power to exempt fruit trees from 
taxation, permanently or for a term of years prior to full 
bearing, as in the discretion of the legislature might seem 

In pursuance of that appointment, and in the performance 
of what we conceive to be an important duty, we deem it 
of consequence that we make a brief appeal to the press 
and people of the State to aid the society in promoting this 
object. It is believed that the horticulturists of the State 
are almost unanimous in favor of such action being taken 
this winter in order that on the earliest possible day an 
amendment to allow such exemption may be submitted to 
the people, and it is hoped and believed that a majority of 
the people engaged in other pursuits would favor such an 

It seems to us but just that we should be placed on an 
equal footing with the other agriculturists of the State 
whose products, under the denomination in the Constitution 
of "growing crops," are exempt from taxation. It is not 
possible, in the brief space allowed to us in a paper of this 
kind, to present and urge the many reasons which occur to 
us, and which, we trust, will occur to a majority of the peo- 
ple, why we should also be protected and encouraged by 
an equal exemption. Certainly we may be allowed to say 
that we now take it that we are discriminated against, 
and that it would seem that we were to be permanently 
discriminated against if we should be denied the privilege 
of even obtaining "Sn expression of public sentiment on the 

We think it is a fact not to be disputed that farm lands 
all over the State devoted to raising the products now ex- 
empted from taxation by the terms of the Constitution are, 
and have all along been, valued for purposes of taxation at 
greatly less rates than lands devoted to horticulture; and 
while we will not deny that after fruit trees get to profitable 
bearing, such lands are considerably more valuable than 
what are known as commo"n farm lands, we conceive that 
their considerably enhanced value each succeedinr year 
until the trees come into full bearing ought to be sufficient 
to insure that we will bear our share of taxation without 
being discriminated against for years before we even begin 
to obtain any reward for our expenditures and labor. 

By the terms of the Constitution fruit trees are assessed 
separately from the land as improvements, and are taxes as 
such, but singularly enough for the purposes of taxation 
they are regarded as growing improvements. The effect is 
cumulative, unlike other improvements. We find at hand 
for convenient use a schedule of the rates of assessment of 
fruit trees, which obtain in this State, in the late proceed- 
ings of the State Horticultural Society, as furnished by its 

Fruit trees — First years, $15 per acre; second year, $20; 
third, $30; fourth, $40; fifth, $50. 

Citrus trees— First year, $50 per acre; second, $75; third, 
$100; fourth, $125; fifth, $150; sixth. $200; seventh, $225: 
eighth, $250; ninth, $275; tenth, $300; eleventh, $325; 
twelfth, $350; thirteenth, $378; fourteenth, $400. 

Vines — First year, $15 per acre; second, $20; third, $35; 
fourth, $40; fifth, $50. 

Thus it will be seen that our lands are taxed a great deal 
higher than lands devoted to ' growing crops;' our trees 
are each succeeding year taxed higher and higher, until, in 
the case of citrus trees, the fourteenth year, and vines until 
and including the fifth year, and when we meet with mis- 
' adventure and our trees bear nothing at all, the increased 



Janujurj 28, 1898. 

valuation goes relentlessly on. Without being so intended, 
this looks like a menace and penalty. 

We therefore respectfully yet earnestly, in behalf of the 
Pomological society and by its authority, appeal to the 
prejs and to the people generally, to give us their hearty 
support in urging upon the legislature to afford us the relief 
we ask. Rspectfully, * Franklin Blades, 


H. W. Kruckeberg, 
M. B. Campbell, 
C. C. Thompson. 

Sonoma at the Gitrns Fair. 

The general attractiveness and varied and interesting 
features of the northern citrus fair have been the means of 
filling the great pavilion with throngs of visitors day by 
day. The fair has now been in progress nearly 20 days, 
and the fruit exhibits have apparently lost none of their 
freshness and uniqueness, nor has their general accepta- 
bility been diminished by the continued scrutiny and 
criticism to which they have been subjected. The value of 
the fair — both in artistic features and in its instructiveness 
as to the capacities of northern California for citrus fruit 
culture — has been amply and finally demonstrated. The 
fair has paid for itself many times over, and in many 

The Sonoma county exhibit is now in position, and the 
Rural Press is able this week to give a review of its most 
conspicuous features. The location of the display is under 
the main gallery, off to the right from the general entrance, 
between Sacramento and Humboldt counties. In dimen- 
sions it is about 60x25, therefore occupies about 1500 
square feet. The general arrangement of the exiiibit is as 
follows : 

Plan of Sonoma County Exhibit. 

The variety of articles, and the character and quility of 
most of them, are not excelled by any other collection at 
the fair, not even excepting Sacramento's great showing 
and exceedingly wide range of products. One of the first 
things that strikes the eyes is a collection of the indigenous 
products of Sonoma county, among which may be men- 
tioned the following : 

Wild Grapes, 


Wild pears, 

" tomatoes, 

" grasses, 

" herbs, 

" coffee, 

' ' peas, 

" honey, 

" potatoes, 

" teazle, 

" buckeyes. 
Acorns (20 varieties) 
Clover (15 varieties), 

" red berries, 
" raspberries, 
" currants, 
" peppernuts, 
" raanz^nita berries, 
" puU (cattaels), 
" pampas grass, 
" everlasting flower, 
And many others. 

The fair managers offer a premium for the best collec- 
tion of indigenous products, and this has been entered into 
competition for the prize. The wild coffee is a singular 
product. It grows plentifully in Sonoma, and it is sup- 
posed to have been used by Indians for medicinal pur- 
poses. The shell and kernel are akin in appearance to 
the cultivated coffee. There is some hope that a new 
variety of domestic potato may be obtained from the wild 

But the native products of Sonoma, though very numer- 
ous and interesting, are by no means the chief features of 
the show. A faint notion of the .diversity of products of 
that well-known and prolific county may be obtained from 
the following incomplete enumeration of articles shown at 
the fair : 

Grains (40 varieties). 










Mineral waters. 
Wild game. 

Citrus fruits. 

Deciduous fruits. 

Preserved " 



Dairy products. 










Etc., Etc. 

It should be mentioned here that the display is under 
charge of Mrs. F. Purrington, of Green Valley, to whose 
individual effort is very largely due the presentation at the 
fair of this admirable collction. The grains, shown in 
sheaf, in sack, and in glass, were almost wholly raised on' 
Mrs. Purrinjiton's place, 12 miles ftom Santa Rosa, from 
seed secured last year at ihe State University. The de- 
sign was to produce a number of samples for exhibition 
at the World's Fair, but lack of funds — no appropriation 
for thit purpose has been made by Sonoma county — has 
caused a change of plans. The specimens of grains are, 

without exception, creditable, many of them being more 
than usually fine. 

A pumpkin weighing 310 pounds — Mrs. Purrington says 
she knows it weighed 310 pounds, because she had to pay 
freight on it to San Francisco by weight — was once a shin- 
ing, gorgeous, prodigious part of the Sonoma exhibit. It 
seemed destined to go thundering down the ages as the 
most tremendous pumpkin grown since that momentous 
day when the much-troubled Peter — everybody knows 
his sad marital history — found a giant pumpkin that made 
a satisfactory abode for the wife he had not been able to 
keep otherwise, and insured his domestic peace forever and 
a day. It was a veritable Jumbo among pumpkins — a veg- 
etable Colossus. But alas! all flesh is grass and pumpkins 
seem to have no higher destiny. On the very first night 
the yellow giant was placed in the pavilion it was attacked 
by vandal rats, who broke through the hard shell, ate the 
seeds and gnawed the very heart out of the helpless mon- 
ster. The result was that the walls collapsed and the old- 
junk man filled his wagon with the wreck next day. 

An American flag, made up wholly from silk cocoons, is 
an inviting feature. It is Sonoma county silk, and Mrs. 
Purrington is the producer. She has a number of silk- 
worms on her farm, and about 700 mulberry trees, full- 
grown, raised for the purpose of feeding the larva; and pro- 
ducing silk. The silk has been pronounced of first-class 
quality, but heretofore little has been done commercially 
for the reason that there has been no local market. But 
now there is a brand-new silk factory at Petaluma, and silk- 
growers in that vicinity need have no further trouble in 

A reproduction of the symbols of Flora, Pomona and 
Ceres, as found in Grange halls, is very interesting, not 
only to members of that Order, but to the public generally. 
The three characters are appropriately and artistically rep- 
resented in flowers, in fruits and in grains. 

Raisins of fine quality are a useful display. 

On a section of madrone wood is painted a very pretty 
snow scene. The artist is a young lady relative of Mrs. 
Purrington. " I raised both the wood and the artist," said 
Mrs. Purrington, laughingly. 

A coat, made from the skins of a fox, wildcat, coon and 
squirrel, shows that Sonoma's products extend from things 
raised from the earth to things that move upon it. 

The range of nuts includes Spanish and domestic pea- 
nuts, almonds, filberts, walnuts, chestnuts, and others. 

A taxidermy collection of Sonoma animals — pigeons, 
snipe, owl, quail, ring-tail cat, and so on, made by James 
Wilson, a boy, is much admired. 

A model of the Purrington farm, with miniatures of the 
house, corncrib and other buildings, and with showings of 
various soils, grains, flowers and grasses, form an interest- 
ing feature. 

A castor beanstalk, 14 feet high; a wild grapevine, 34 
feet long, and a blackberry-vine, 20 feet long, are shown. 

The display of jams and jellies is excellent and much 

Last, and not least, come the Sonoma oranges and lem- 
ons, grown near Cloverdale. Navels and Seedlings of ex- 
cellent appearance and color are shown. A group of 
Navels came from a tree two years old. This exhibit 
amounts to a demonstration that Sonoma is in the citrus 
belt, and that such fruits can be grown there with profit. 

On the whole, the Sonoma county collection is very 
complete and very tastefully and satisfactorily presented. 
It merits and receives the attention of many visitors at the 


Merced county is represented at the fair by a display of 
cotton, fruits and grains in glass, and other things. The 
leading and most noticeable feature is a variety of native 
grasses. The exhibit as a whole is small, but altogether it 
is excellent. 

©HE VlJ^EY/rRD. 

Vineyards of Napa County. 

E. C. Priber, commissioner for the Napa district, has 
made his report on the vineyards of that section to the 
Board of State Viticultural Commissioners. This report is 
summarized as follows: 

The present report on the condition of the vineyards of 
Napa county was undertaken by the Board of State Viti- 
cultural Commissioners with a view of ascertaining what 
decrease in the acreage planted in vines in that county has 
been caused by the phylloxera in the past two years, as 
well as to give as much information as possible regarding 
the success of the various resistant stocks in different soils, 
etc., and other matters pertaining to viticulture in the 
county of interest to grapegrowers, winemakers and wine 

In 1890, when the last census was made, Napa county 
reported 18,229 acres planted in vines. The present re- 
port shows 16 651 >^ acres. It will thus be seen that the 
decrease has been very considerable. 

The phylloxera is reported to have reached a point about 
three miles abive St. Helena, and it can be but a question 
of a short time until the Calistoga vineyards suffer as have 
those of the lower valley. 

At present there are 507 vineyards reported in Napa 
county, and of these 244, or nearly half, report the existence 
of phylloxera. This will give an idea of what can be ex- 
pected to occur to the vineyards of the entire valley within 
a few years. Wherever resistants have not been planted, 
the death of the vines appears only a question of a short 

In the tables the acreage reported as infested by phyl- 
loxera is certainly misleading, as is also the reported acre- 
age good for one more crop, the acreage that will be dug 
up for causes other than phylloxera, and probably the 
cooperage. It is difficult to secure correct information as to 
stocks of wine on hand. 

The reports of wine stocks were given in confidence. 
The different cellars reported an aggregate of slightly over 
5,000,000 gallons of wine in the valley. The stocks of two 
cellars in Napa had to be estimated, as well as the cooper- 
age in the same, the owners refusing to supply such infor- 

The canvass was made by A. Warren Robinson of Napa, 
under direction of Commissioner E. C. Priber and the Ex- 
ecutive Commitie of the Board. 

In tabulating the returns thus obtained, the county was 
divided into five districts: First, in and around Napa; 
second, farther up, from Yountvilleto Rutherford; third, in 
and about St. Helena; fourth, Chiles and Conn valleys; 
and fifth, in and about Calistoga. 

The recapitulation of the total is as follows: 

Total nuratjer of vineyards 507 

Vineyards reporting phylloxera 244 

Total acres in vines 16,651 K 

Acres in bearing 14,240^ 

Will replant this season 4o6)j 

Will be dug up for causes other than phylloxera 184 

Infested by phylloxera 3,246 

Same good for but one crop more 756 

Planted to resistants, 2007 }4 acres as follows: 

Riparia i,6g8}i 

Lenoir MSH 

Rupestris 19 

Californica ^. 35 

.-Fslivalis 9 

Planted to resistants (same as above) 2007 X uteres : 

Grafted and in bearing 842K 

Grafted and not bearing 591 

Not yet grafted 573H 

Crop, 1892, tons 27,083 

Cooperage, 12,989,000 gallons: 

Oak 3,662,500 

Redwood 9,326,500 

Ct^flEAIa QrOPS. 

Wheat Output for 1892. 

The Agricultural Department at Washington makes the 
following estimate of the wheat output of the United States 
for 1892: 

States and Territories 


New Hampshire.. 



Rhode Island 


New York 

New Jersey 





North Oan lin».... 
South Carolina.... 









West Virginia 












South Dakol 

North Dakota 




New Meii ■<> 












38 000 


* 76,653 

518 837 
94 705 




1,751 249 
3,552 626 
631 063 
1,986 686 

1 253,564 

2 868,729 




6 101' 
76 951 



3 012,057 

38,022 000 
23 854,n0» 
39 885.000 
8 814.000 
2,504 000 
1,693 000 

7,144 385 


872 390 


26,526 651 
17.873 247 
4,354 336 
14 403.474 
1,452 126 
132 622 
1,015 763 

Total I 38,564,4301 615,949,000$ 322,111,881 

The Growth of the Wheat Plan^. 

Stockton, Cal. 
To THE Editor:— An interesting fact in agriculture, if 
it be a fact, came to my knowledge recently. It should be 
made known to all farmers, if you have not already pub- 
lished it. 

From ample observation it is reported that shrunken 
wheat, when sown for seed, will produce a Mler crop than 
plump wheat. This is said to be the observation of R. 
Richards, Esq., a large farmer on the San Joaquin. Like 
many discoveries, this was made by accident. 

Running short of good, plump wheat on one occasion, 
while seeding, he sowed some 50 acres with small, shrunken 
wheat that had been set aside for chicken-feed. He was 
surprised to note that those 50 acres turned out the best 
crop he had. 

At first thought we can hardly imagine why this should 
be so, but the chief reason doubtless is, that either by 

January 28, 1898. 



weight or measure the farmer will sow a certain numb«r of 
bushels to the acre, and the shrunken wheat will give to 
the land more kernels to the acre that the good wheat; 
therefore, the growing grain will stand thicker and more 
stalks to yield heads. 

Touching this subject of growing seeds, I was surprised 
to note, a year or two ago, that a prominent California 
scientist approvingly quoted the absurd doctrine that " the 
seed must die " before it can sprout and grow. Whoever 
will stop and analyze the question will see the impossibility 
of such a state of matters occurring. For a seed to die 
would be the end of it, so far as its being is concerned. To 
die means to decompose, to disintegrate, and the elements 
thereof to return to air, earth and water from whence they 
came. To die is to rot and become offensive to smell. 

On the other hand, the germinating seed does not die, 
nor rot, nor disintegrate, nor became offensive to smell. It 
only softens to become sufficiently fluid or liquid to be ab- 
sorbed, and the elements thereof rearrange themselves in 
the form of roots and stem. At an early time in this 
growth, if the roots and stem be weighed, says Dr. Draper, 

it will be found their weight will be the same as that of the 
original seed, minus the water absorbed. 

To call this softening and redistribution of seed elements 
a death and disintegrating process, is a contradiction in 
terms. It is as fallacious and absurd as to call going to 
sleep a death process. A. S. Hudson, M. D. 


Dressing Poultry. 

Nearly all markets require poultry to be picked dry and 
to be drawn. The former requirements secure better keep- 
ing, scalded poultry becoming discolored much more 
quickly than that which is picked dry. The latter require- 
ment does not add to the keeping qualities, but secures the 
removal of the offil. Poultry that is to be killed for mar- 
ket should be kept without feeding for 12 to 24 hours to 
secure perfect emptiness of the crop. When the crop is 
entirely empty, it becomes unnecessary to open the fowl in 
front, and leaving the skin unbroken at the front of the 
breast causes the poultry to look better. Bat if there be 
any grain in the crop, the crop should be removed, as the 
grain will soon become sour and affect the flavor of the 
meat. In picking dry, the fowl should be killed by either 
decapitation, stickine a knife through the throat and sever- 
ing the large veins and windpipe, or by cutting a slit across 
the roof of the mouth. As soon as the fowl is dead — and 
many pickers do not wait for this— the large feathers of the 
tail and wings should be pulled, and then the softer feathers 
plucked. The dressed fowl should be bung to cool off, 
and if then the head be not severed, it can be, and the skin 
of the neck drawn over the end and tied. Neatness in the 
dressing adds much to the salability of poultry. When 
one kills for his own use he will find the labor much less to 
scald the fowls, but when he kills for market he must con- 
sult the requirements of his market. — American Agricul- 

Poultry in the Barn. — The barn should not be used 
as a poultry-house. The farmer who will not provide a 
place for his hens is sure to have a filthy barn, as the hens 
will roost on the rafters, on the troughs, or wherever it is 
most convenient. It may be mentioned, also, that lice will 

thrive in a barn as well as elsewhere, and they multiply 
very rapidly under the conditions afforded by a bam or 
stable. Even during the winter the warmth of the stable 
will be sufficient for their propagation. The work of clear- 
ing a barn or stable of lice would discourage even the most 
industrious. — Farm and Fireside. 

Chickens Hatched in January. 

D. Edson Smith, of Santa Ana, gives the following ad- 
vice: " Chickens hatched this month, if properly cared for, 
will make early layers next fall when eggs are command- 
ing good prices. My laying hens are kept in a small 
enclosure th^ year round. It is the most satisfactory way 
to me. They have warm, tight houses, 12 to 15 in a house. 
The houses are thoroughly cleaned weekly, and thoroughly 
disinfected with dry wood ashes, filling every crevice with 
it. The occasional spraying of the inside with a hand 
pump, with carbolized whitewash, also aids in keeping 
everything sweet. For food I give them at night all they 

will eat of cut alfalfa hay two parts, bran three parts, mixed 
stiff with milk or a meat stew. For exercise I give them 
whole beets and cabbages, and King Philip's corn on the 
ear. I keep before them plenty of pure water, broken 
glass and brown green bone. The egg production is en- 
tirely satisfactory. The White Leghorns and Indian 
Games are my favorites." 

Poultry Notes. 

Overfeeding is false liberality. Underfeeding is expen- 

Dry, clean and light poultry houses are indispensable to 

As a rule the hens with the largest combs will prove to 
be the best layers. 

A small flock well attended pays better than a large flock 
poorly cared for. 

Broad roosts, raised not over two feeet from the floor, 
are the most comfortable and most sensible. 

It is capacity for taking on flesh rapidly that makes a 
breed or a bird valuable for the market grower. 

No vegetable makes better succulent food for the hens 
in winter than the beet when boiled or pulped in a root 

Select only the very best of your birds to breed from, 
and select them for their laying qualities, rather than for 
their feathers and form. 

There is no green food equal to chopped onions, both 
for the adult stock and young chicks. Onions are not only 
invigorating, but are excellent when the fowls are subject 
to colds. 

Give so't feed to the poultry in the morning and whole 
grain at night. Scatter a little wheat or other grain in the 
scratching places to keep the fowls busy scratching through 
the day. 

Wheat is, and will continue to be, one of the best foods 
for laying hens, as it contains the elements that stimulate 
egg production. It is best to feed moderately, owing to its 
fattening qualities, as fat hens soon forget how to lay. 

Poultry Need Attention. — Eggs and fowls form so 
large a portion of our foodstuffs, especially where fresh beef 
is not easily procured, that poultry should be as carefully 
provided for as other live stock. 

"Lee" and His Mate. 

The illustration on this page shows a pair of fine Ply- 
mouth Rocks belonging to Mr. Thomas Waite, of Perkins, 
Sacramento county, and exhibited at the recent poultry 
show at Petaluma. They are the fine cock Lee, and mate. 
Lee was imported by Mr. Waite, and is one of his prized 
possessions. The pair won first prize for the best pair of 
Plymouth Rocks at the last State Fair at Sacramento, and 
they were also two of four taking first premium in a pen. 
Lee and mate are a handsome pair and attracted much 
attention at Petaluma. 

Mr. Waite, who is widely known as an intelligent and 
progressive breeder of thoroughbied poultry, is also a 
breeder of Berkshire hogs and standard horses. 

Small Turkeys. — Except during Thanksgiving and 
Christmas, the small turkeys are in more demand than are 
the large sizes, though there is a class of customers that 
prefers large birds. The greater number of sales, however, 
are of turkeys which weigh not over ten pounds each. 
Small families care but very little for extra large birds, as 
the cost is increased by the weight, and the small birds 
serve better. Others prefer to buy two small birds rather 
than a single large one. We mention this matter for the 
benefit of those who have late turkeys, and which were 
rather small for Christmas. Good prices will hold until the 
broilers begin to come in heavily, when turkeys will sell 
somewhat lower in price. — Farm and Fireside. 

Feed With a Generous Hand. 

All through this chapter I have endeavored to convey 
the impression that the calf, the steter, and the cow are liv- 
ing machines for the concentration of hay, grain, and 
grasses into human food. The successful operation of 
these machines depends upon the manager and is con- 
trolled by inviolable laws. Often it would seem from ap- 
pearances as though the stockman was hostile to his cattle, 
and regarded every pound of feed given them as so much 
material filched from the feed bin to his personal loss. 
The man who v/rote in a letter that he had a wife, three 
children, and six cows to support, doubtless took just this 
view of the situation; had cruel Jate thrust 10 or 20 cows 
upon him he would have broken down entirely under the 
burden. With some the greatest effort in conducting feed- 
ing operations seems to be the study of how to save a little 
feed and still keep the animals in existence. 

The successful feeder works on exactly the opposite 
principle. He fully appreciates the fact that an animal in 
order to be profitable must be liberally fed. He under- 
stands that first of all it must have sufficient food to carry 
on the bodily functions and maintain life, and that no re- 
turns can come to the owner if only this amount of food is 
supplied, and that all increase in weight, fat, and all yield 
of milk come through the excess of food over the wants of 
the body. This leads him to breed and select animals 
with large consumptive power, a strong digestion, and to 
feed them up to their limit so long as they are useful. If 
our farmers only fully understood the first great law of stock- 
feeding and acted intelligently thereon, our stock interests 
would be revolutionized. 

" The eye of the master fattens his cattle." I wish this 
legend could be written over the door of every feeding 
stable in the land, for it expresses a most important truth 
in concise form. If a man has no natural liking for the 
stock business it is really useless lor him to attempt that 
vocation, for the art can only be acquired by students hav- 
ing a certain natural adaptation. If one has this love for 
the business, then by patience and study the details can be 
worked out. First comes a love of order and regularity, 
which are of prime importance at all times. Stock must 
be fed with great regularity and in the same order, day by 
day, and all possible violent changes in feeding and hand- 
ling avoided. The feeder should move among his animals 
quietly and in-a way to win their confidence, which is easily 
acquired and as easily lost. As he passes among them 
daily in his round of duties he should have a quick eye to 
scrutinize every member of the herd and detect any little 
irregularity or trouble. He avoids disasters or serious 
accidents by constantly sttidying the little comforts and in- 
dividual wants of the animals under his care. He feeds 
with a liberal hand and none of his animals lie down 
hungry or discontented. . 

The successful management of live stock is dependent 
upon good judgment in handling the cattle. If one lack 
this, all his other qualifications count for but little. He 
may understand the theory of cattle-breeding and how to 
compound rations from a scientific standpoint; he may 
know the chemistrv of the foods he handles and of the 
bodies of the animals to which they are fed; he may have 
the literature of the stock business at easy command, but 
if he lack sympathy for his animals and judgment in 
handling them all his knowledge is of no avail. — From Prof. 
Henry's contribution to " Special Report on Diseases of 

Care and Feed of Horses. 

It is apparent to an indifferent observer, says a writer in 
Farm Life, that the general run of farm horses do not have 
that smooth and well-cared for look that the majority of 
the horses of the city possess; though the latter, on an 
average, do vastly more work in a year than the horses 
upon the farm. The secret of the matter is in the care and 
the feed. Farm horses invariably eat too much hay, which 
distends the stomach when taken in large quantities, pre- 
vents that organ from doing its full duty, but makes the 
horse dull and weak. 

Many farmers have no regular ration for their horses, 



January 28, 1898 

but throw down a forkful of hay almost every time they 
enter the barn. As a result, many of these horses are eat- 
ing hay from morningtill night to the manifest disadvantage 
of the haymow and the manifest disadvantage also of the 
horses, whose bodies become distended, skin dry and coats 
rough, while the digestive organs are thrown out of gear, 
so that the animal's whole system becomes impaired. The 
farmer declares he cannot affjrd to feed such a ration as is 
fed to horses in city stables. Well, the value of the hay 
that is worse than wasted, when fed in the enormous quan- 
tities mentioned, if expended for grain, would make a vast 
difTirence in the condition and appearance of the horses, 
and would involve no extra expense whatever. This is a 
point that farmers ought to consider, for on it hinges a 
horse's efficiency in doing his work well. 

A small ration of hay fed wiih regularity three times a 
day, and a suitable grain ration carefully incorporated with 
it, with water twice a day, and a thorough grooming, will 
make of a spiritless, rough-coated horse with distended 
body, in four cases out of five, a much more alert, a hand- 
somer and vastly more efficient animal. As to the amount 
of grain that shall help to make up a ration, that must de 
pend on circumstances, the ability of the owner to provide 
the grain, or perhaps better, his inclination to provide the 
grain, and also the work which the horse is called upon to 
do. The thing of chief importance is to get the farmers to 
discard a part of the hay ration and substitute for this dis- 
carded hay at least its value in the more condensed nutri- 
tion of grain. 

Horse Notes. 

The draft horse must increase in popularity as a most 
profitable and substantial branch of agriculture. So long 
as the cities and factories continue to grow, so long will the 
demand for good draft horses continue and good prices be 

A great reform is needed in the care and keeping of 
farm teams. We should cire and feed better. Galls on 
horses get worse on the farm than on the road. If their 
breasts and shoulders are well-washed with cold water, to 
which is added a little alum, they will rarely bfcome 
galled, but once formed are hard to cure. I have used al- 
cohol and camphor with success. — B. J. Hall, Dutchess 
county, N. Y. 

When a healthy horse is enjoying perfect rest his pulse 
beats at the rate of 4t times per minute; that of an ox, 52 
times, while in sheep and hogs the average cardiac pulsa- 
tions are 76 per minute. As a rule, arterial pulsations may 
be felt wherever an artery crosses a bone, or is otherwise 
forced outward too near the surface. In horses the pulse- 
beats are usually examined on the chord which crosses over 
the bone of the lower jaw, just in front of the large, 
rounded " hinge curve." 

William Ralston of Saratoga, N. Y., is trying to breed 
white horses. He has quite a large stable of white brood- 
mares and some horses, but so far his efforts have been 
quite discouraging and unsatisfactory. Pure white horses 
are rare and quite valuable on account of their color. They 
are in demand for ladies and children, and a span com- 
posed of a pure white and a jet-black horse are considered 
quite stylish. Mr. Ralston has found that his white mares 
urop colts of any color, and that white colts are quite as 
apt to come from dark-colored parents as from white ones. 

Pure bred stock, if not of the " fancy " strains, is be- 
coming cheap enough so that the farmer has but little ex- 
cuse for breeding from grades, if he wished a justification 
for saying that he " could not afTord " to get better stock. 
Now he cannot afford to use an animal that is not of a 
standard pure breed for any purpose. The horses used 
upon clay roads or the p'airie roads, where there are 
neither rocks nor stones, could easily get along without 
ever being shod, if they were used carefully at firtt, and 
their feet well taken care of. But we doubt if they could 
do as well upon the rocky hills of New England, though 
some exceptionally tough hoofs may be able to endure it 
if only given short drives at a slow speed. 

Hogs in Humboldt County. 

Laribee, Cal. 

To THE Editor:— At length the the doors of the "Stock 
Yards " south of San Francisco are thrown open, and by 
the first of the new year they will be ready for business in 
the various departments. 

This is an institution that should prove of great benefit 
to this county, and among other things it should furnish a 
market for Humboldt hogs. 

The freight per steamer should not be so great as to eat 
up all the profits, especially when the business assumes 
sufficient volume to warrant a stock boat to run into Eureka 
and take an entire load of live stock for the San Francisco 

No matter what line of action is carried out to cut up the 
large ranges, where there are grain or other kinds of farm- 
ing, fruit, irrigating tame grasses, or what, it is hard to take 
any course where hogs cannot be raised with more profit 
than any other kind of stock. 

A hog is a /to/^ the world over, and with a small amount 
of feed they can be kept tame, and when there is any 
amount of acorns, they will fatten readily without being fed 
anything but swill to keep them gentle. 

At present there are a great many hogs fattened on the 
dairies, also at the creameries on the Eel river and the bot- 
tom around Areata. These dairymen come back into the 
interior and buy up stock hogs, and the price during the 
past season was five cents on foot. They will give them all 
the milk they can drink, and after fattening their hogs, they 

will sell them for the same per pound as they gave, their 
profit being in gain in weight. 

With a fair and assured price for hogs, the porker should 
put farming in the foothills on a paying basis. 

Why would it not pay to buy a " Header" to cut your 
wheat and feed it to them during this winter, and what 
hogs you wanted to fatten before the rains set in? Let the 
hogs into the grain and they make a very good threshing 
machine themselves. 

Hogs do very well on green feed, and it is an open ques- 
tion if it is not as profitable to feed alfalfa to hogs as to any 
other stock. And some have tried to cook the cured alfalfa- 
hay for their hogs during the winter months, and in every 
case that came to my notice they were satisfied with the 

With the attention that the dairymen are giving to hogs, 
and the general disposition of ranchers generally to keep 
more hogs, and as more pastures are being fenced to inclose, 
I think the number of hogs in the county will be largely 
increased the next few years. Ed Robertson. 

Take Care of the Hog. 

Milk makes the mother. 
At farrowing a young sow is best let alone. 
Sprinkling carbolic acid through the bedding will main- 
tain health. 

It is the half-starved pig that is an everlasting creeper 
and climber. 

The pigs partake more of the dispositions of the sow than 
of the boar. 

Keep the boar thrifty by supplying plenty of exercise 
and a variety of food. 

Keep the boar confined from the start if you want to keep 
him under control. 

Animals selected for breeding should be cared for so as 
to keep thrifty. 

The sluggishness caused by the excess of fat in young 
pigs is often the parent of many ills. 

The hog thrives best with a variety in his food, while it 
will also help to maintain better health. 

Never try to increase the coarseness in any herd by using 
a coarse boar; let it come through the dam. 

It is what may be termed shiftless feeding that carries 
a lot of pigs through the winter on one kind of feed. 

The hog